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j. G. A. . 

R. E. A. . 
A. J. A. . 

T. A. A. . 
G. F. R. B. 
T. B. ... 
W. B-E. . , 
G. T. B. . 

A. C. B. . 

B. H. B. . 
W. G. B. . 
G. C. B. . 
G. S. B. . 
E. T. B. . 
A. H. B. . 
G. W. B. . 
J. B-T. . . 
E. C-N. . . 
H. M. C. . 
A. M. C. . 

J. C 

T. C. ... 
W. P. C. . 

C. 0. ... 
M. C. . . . 
L. C, . 
















Miss A. M. CLERKE. 







R. W. D. . . 

R. D 

C. H. F. 

J. G 

W. G 

R. G 

J. T. G. 

E. C. K. G. 

G. G 

A. G 

R. E. G.. . . 
G. J. G. 

J. M. G. . . 
W. A. G. . . 
T. G 

F. H. G. . . 
C. J. G. . . 
J. A. H. . . 
T. H. . 

W. J. H. . 
T. F. H. . 
W. H. 

B. D. J. . 
R. J. J. . . 

C. L. K. . 
J. K. 





G. J. GRAY. 

J. M. GRAY. 














List of Writers. 


S. L. L. . . SIDNEY LEE. 

H. K. L. . . THE KEV. H. E. LUAED, D.D. 



E. H. M. . . E. H. MARSHALL. 

L. M. M. . . MlSS MlDDLETON. 


W. E. M.. . W. E. MORFILL. 






N. D. F. P. N. D. F. PEARCE. 




B. P. . . Miss PORTER. 

E. J. E. 
J. M. E. 
G. C. E. 
L. C. S. 
J. M. S. 
W. F. W. 
G. B. S. 
L. S. . . 
C. W. S. 
H. E. T. 
T. F. T. 
E. V. . . 

E. H. V. 
A. V. . . 
M. G. W. 

F. W-T. 
C. W-H. 
W. W. 

. E. J. EAPSON. 

. . J. M. EIGG. 



. . J. M. SCOTT. 




. . C. W. SUTTON. 

. . H. E. TEDDER. 













GRAY. [See also GKET.] 

(1380 P-1469), was the only son of Sir An- 
drew Gray of Fowlis, Perthshire, by his first 
wife, Janet, daughter of Sir Roger de Morti- 
mer, whom he married in 1377. He is usually 
styled second Lord Gray, and the creation of 
the title is said to have taken place in 1437 in 
the person of his father. But this is now re- 
| cognised as a mistake (BunKE, Peerage, voce 
\ 'Moray'). The title was not created until 
i 1445. Sir Andrew Gray, who died before 
1 1 17 July 1445, is referred to by his son An- 
' drew in a charter of that date, as well as in a 
I 'later deed, dated 16 Jan. 1449-50, as deceased, 
' | and under the designation merely of Sir An- 
i drew Gray, knight, the rank he held at the 
I ! time of his death (Registrum Magni Sigilli, 
ii. Xo. 767 ; Peerage of Scotland, "Wood's edit., 
|i. 666). 

Andrew Gray the younger of Fowlis was 
accepted in 1424 by the English government 
as one of the hostages for the payment of the 
ransom of James I of Scotland, apparently in 
place of his father, whose estate is estimated 
at the time as being worth six hundred merks 
yearly. His father presented a letter to the 
English government, in which the hostage is 
I said to be his only son and heir, promising 
' fidelity on behalf of his son, and also that he 
would not disinherit him on account of his 
| acting as a hostage (Fcedera, Hague ed. iv. 
pt. iv. 112). Young Gray was then sent to 
' the castle of Pontefract, and was afterwards 
committed to the custody of the constable of 
the Tower of London, with whom he remained 
until 1427, when he was exchanged for Mal- 
colm Fleming,son of the laird of Cumbernauld. 
In 1436 he accompanied Princess Margaret 
of Scotland to France, on the occasion of her 
marriage to the dauphin. On 1 July 1445 
occurs the first reference to him as Lord Gray 


of Fowlis (Acts of the Parliaments of Scot- 
land, ii. 60 ; cf. Exchequer Rolls, v. 198). In 
June 1444 he is mentioned in the customs 
accounts as simply Sir Andrew Gray of Fow- 
lis. As the title of Lord Gray occurs on the 
union roll of the Scottish peers immediately 
after that of Lord Saltoun, which was created 
on 28 June 1445, it may be presumed that 
Sir Andrew Gray was created a peer by the 
title of Lord Gray of Fowlis on the same oc- 

In 1449 Lord Gray was appointed one of a 
parliamentary committee to examine previous 
acts of parliament and general councils, and 
report to next parliament their existing 
validity. On various occasions between that 
year and 1460 he was employed as one of the 
Scottish ambassadors to negotiate treaties of 
peace and truce with England, and of these 
treaties he was generally appointed a conser- 
vator. He acted too in the capacity of warden 
of the marches. In 1451, along with the abbot 
of Melrose and others, he received a safe-con- 
duct to enable him to make a pilgrimage to 
Canterbury, and in the following year he 
became master of the household to James II. 
On 26 Aug. 1452 the king granted him a 
license to build a castle on any part of his 
lands, and he built Castle Huntly on his estate 
of Longforgan in the carse of Gowrie. This 
castle was long the residence of the family. 
On being sold to the Earl of Strathmore in 
1G15, its name was changed to Castle Lyon. 
It was, however, repurchased in 1777 by 
George Paterson, who married Anne, daugh- 
ter of John, eleventh baron Gray, and restored 
the original name to the castle. 

Gray in 1455 was one of the nobles who 
sealed the process of forfeiture against the 
Earl of Douglas. In the following year the 
abbot of Scone sued him for paying the dues 
of Inchmartin in bad grain. He took an 
active part in parliamentary work, and in 




1464 was appointed one of the lords auditors 
for hearing and determining civil causes. He 
accompanied James III to Berwick, by ap- 
pointment of parliament, 5 March 1464-5, 
where he with others had the plenary autho- 
rity of parliament to ratify the truce which 
was being negotiated between the Scottish 
and English ambassadors at Newcastle. He 
died in 1469, probably towards the end of 
that year, being mentioned as deceased in 
the precept of dare constat granted by David, 
earl of Crawford, to his grandson and suc- 
cessor, on 20 Jan. 1469-70. 

He married, by contract dated 31 Aug.1418, 
Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Sir John We- 
myss of Wemyss and Reres, with whom it 
was stipulated he should receive as dowry a 
20/. land in Strathardle, Perthshire. Failure 
in observing this condition gave rise to liti- 
gation between the two families at a later 
date (Memorials of the Family of Wemyss of 
Wemyss, by Sir William Fraser, i. 66, 67, 
75).. Elizabeth Wemyss survived Lord Gray. 
They had issue two sons and two daughters : 

(1) Sir Patrick Gray of Kinneff, who mar- 
ried Annabella, daughter of Alexander, lord 
Forbes, and obtained from his father certain 
lands in Kincardineshire ; he predeceased his 
father, but left a son, Andrew, who suc- 
ceeded his grandfather as second Lord Gray; 

(2) Andrew, ancestor of the families of Gray 
of SchivesandPittendrum ; (3) Margaret,who 
married Robert, lord Lyle ; and (4) Christian, 
who married James Crichton of Strathurd. 

[Acts of the Parliaments of Scotland, ii. 36- 
195, xii. 30 ; Acta Auditorum, pp. 3, 6 ; Eegis- 
trum Magni Sigilli, vol. ii. passim ; Exchequer 
Rolls of Scotland, vols. iv-viii. ; Rotuli Scotiae, 
ii. 245-458 ; Rymer's Foedera, Hague ed., iv. 
pt. iv. 102-30, v. pt. ii. 11-89.] H. P. 

GRAY, ANDREW (1633-1656), Scot- 
tish divine, was born in a house still stand- 
ing on the north side of the Lawnmarket, 
Edinburgh, in August 1633 (bap. reg. 23). 
He was fourth son and eleventh child in a 
family of twenty-one, his father being Sir 
William Gray,bart.,of Pittendrum (d. 1648), 
an eminent merchant and royalist, descended 
from Andrew, first lord Gray [q.v.] His mo- 
ther was Geils or Egidia Smyth, sister to Sir 
John Smyth of Grothill, at one time provost 
of Edinburgh. Andrew in his childhood was 
playful and fond of pleasure ; but while he 
was quite young his thoughts were suddenly 
given a serious turn by reflecting on the piety 
of a beggar whom he met near Leith. Re- 
solved to enter the ministry, he studied at the 
universities both of St. Andrews and Edin- 
burgh. He graduated at the former in 1651. 
Gray was one of that band of youthful 


preachers who were powerfully influenced 
by the venerable Leighton. His talents and 
learning favourably impressed Principal Gil- 
lespie. He was licensed to preach in 1653, 
and was ordained to the collegiate charge of 
the Outer High Church of Glasgow on 3 Nov. 
1653, although only in his twentieth year, 
notwithstanding some remonstrance. One of 
the remonstrants, Robert Baillie, refers in his 
' Letters and Journals ' to the ' high flown, rhe- 
torical style ' of the youthful preacher, and de- 
scribes his ordination astakingplace ' over the 
belly of the town's protestation.' His ministry 
proved eminently successful, and although 
only of three years' duration, in the profound 
impression produced during his lifetime, and 
the sustained popularity of his published 
works, Gray had few rivals in the Scottish 
church. He died on 8 Feb. 1656, after a brief 
illness, of a ' purple ' fever, and was interred in 
Blackadder's or St. Fergus's Aisle, Glasgow 
Cathedral. On the walls of the aisle his 
initials and date of death may be seen deeply 
incised. Gray married Rachael, daughter of 
Robert Baillie of Jerviswood, and had a son, 
William, born at Glasgow in March 1655, who 
probably died young. He had also a daughter, 
Rachael, who was served heir to her father on 
26 June 1669. His widow remarried George 
Hutcheson, minister at Irvine. 

Many of Gray's sermons and communion 
addresses were taken down at the time of de- 
livery, chiefly in shorthand by his wife, and 
were published posthumously. Some yet 
remain in unpublished manuscripts. Pre- 
Restoration editions are extremely rare, but 
a few are still extant. The following are the 
chief editions known: 1. 'The Mystery of 
Faith opened up : the Great Salvation and 
sermons on Death,' edited by the Revs. R. 
Trail and J. Stirling, Glasgow, 1659 (in pos- 
session of the writer), and London, 1660, 12mo 
(Brit. Mus.), both with a dedication to Sir 
Archibald Johnston, lord Warriston, after- 
wards suppressed ; Glasgow, 1668, 12mo ; 
Edinburgh, 1669, 1671, 1678, 1697, 12mo; ten 
editions in 12mo ; Glasgow, between 1714 and 
1766. The sermons on ' The Great Salvation' 
and on ' Death' appeared separately, the former 
edited by the Rev. Robert Trail, London, 1694, 
16mo, the latter at Edinburgh, 1814, 12mo. 
2. ' Great and Precious Promises,' edited by the 
Revs. Robert Trail and John Stirling, Edin- 
burgh, 1669, 12mo (Brit. Mus.) ; Glasgow, 
1669, 12mo ; Edinburgh, 1671 and 1678 ; and 
six editions, Glasgow, in 12mo, between 1715 
and 1764. 3. ' Directions and Instigations 
to the Duty of Prayer,' Glasgow, 1669, 12mo 
(Mitchell Library, Glasgow); Edinburgh, 
1670, 1671, 1678 ; eight editions, Glasgow, 
between 1715 and 1771. 4. ' The Spiritual 


Warfare,' Edinburgh, 1671, 12mo (in posses- 
sion of the writer); London, 1673, 8vo, with 
preface by Thomas Manton ; Edinburgh, 1678, 
12mo; London, 1679, 12mo ; Edinburgh, 1693, 
1697; seven editions, Glasgow, in 12mo, be- 
tween 1715 and 1704; Aberdeen, 1832, 12mo. 
5. ' Eleven Communion Sermons,' with letter 
written by Gray on his deathbed to Lord 
Warriston, Edinburgh, 1716, 8vo (dedicated 
to John Clerk of Penicuik) ; five editions; 
12mo, Glasgow, between 1730 and 1771. 

The works here numbered 1 to 5 were re- 
issued as ' The Whole Works of the Reverend 
and Pious Mr. Andrew Gray,' Glasgow, 1762, 
1789, 1803, 1813, 8vo ; Paisley, 1762, 1769, 
8vo; Falkirk,1789,8vo; Aberdeen, 1839, 8vo 
(with preface by the Rev. W. King Tweedie). 

From a manuscript collection of sixty-one 
other sermons, eleven were published as vol. i. 
of an intended series, with preface by the 
Rev. John Willison of Dundee, in 1746. The 
fifty remaining sermons appeared later in 
another volume as ' Select Sermons by ... 
Mr. Andrew Gray,' Edinburgh, 1765, 8vo ; 
Falkirk, 1792, 8vo. From the 1746 volume 
was reissued separately, with a Gaelic trans- 
lation by J. Gillies (Glasgow, 1851, 12mo), the 
sermon on Canticles iii. 11. Two single ser- 
mons, not apparently published elsewhere, 
one on Exod. xxxiv. 6, the other on Job xxiii. 
3, appeared respectively at Edinburgh in 1774 
and at Glasgow in 1782. 

[Parish Eegisters, Edinb. and Glasgow; Ma- 
tricul. Reg., St. Andrews ; "Wodrow's Analecta, 
Retours, &c. ; Hew Scott's Fasti Eccles. Scotic. 
pt. iii. p. 22 ; Baillie's Letters and Journals. A 
large collection of Gray's works is in the posses- 
sion of the present writer.] "W. G. 

(d. 1663), was the eldest son of Patrick, sixth 
lord Gray [q. v.], better known as Master 
of Gray, and his second wife, Lady Mary 
Stewart. He succeeded as Lord Gray in 16 12, 
and on 22 Feb. 1614 received a crown charter 
of the lands of Fowlis and others to himself 
and his wife, Margaret Ogilvie, daughter of 
Walter, lord Deskford, and relict of James, 
earl of Buchan. On the re-formation of the 
company of Scots gens d'armes in France in 
1 624, under the captaincy of Lord Gordon, earl 
of Enzie, Gray was appointed lieutenant, and 
rendered considerable service in the French 
wars of that period. On the outbreak of hos- 
tilities between England and France in 1627 
he came to England, and there married Mary, 
lady Sydenham, widow of Sir John Syden- 
ham, ' she being fourscore, and he four-and- 
twenty,' writes a correspondent to Edmund 
Parr (State Papers, Dom. 1628, p. 58). But 
the writer must have been mistaken, at least 
about the age of Gray. In the following year 


both Lord and Lady Gray were convicted of 
being popish recusants, and the lady's estates 
in Kent and Somersetshire were seized by the 
king, who decided to accept two- thirds thereof 
in payment of all forfeitures (ib. 1629, pp. 447, 

In 1628 Gray subscribed, with several other 
Scottish barons, a submission in reference to 
bis teinds in favour of Charles I at White- 
ball. He was also prevailed upon by the 
king to resign his hereditary sheriffship of 
Forfarshire for fifty thousand merks (about 
2,900/. sterling), and obtained the king's 
bond for that sum, but the money was never 
paid. In 1628, also, Charles ordered the 
Scottish council of war to admit Gray as one 
of their number, whose affection to Jiis ser- 
vice he attests ; and in 1630 Gray sat as one 
of the Scottish parliamentary commissioners 
on the Fisheries Treaty. When Charles took 
arms against the Scots in 1639 he employed 
Gray, then on leave of absence from service 
in France, to obtain information about the 
progress of his opponents in Scotland. Gray 
met the king at York on his return, and re- 
ported the advance of the covenanters upon 
Berwick and their strength. On 29 May he 
received a passport ' to repair to his charge 
under the French king,' in whose service at 
that time he commanded a regiment of a 
thousand foot (W. FORBES LEITH, The Scots 
Men-at-Arms and Life Guards in France, ii. 
211). In the following August, however, he 
was again in England (State Papers, Dom. 
1639, pp. 58, 67, 139, 247, 449). 

Gray was a strong royalist, and was impli- 
cated with Montrose in some proceedings 
against the covenanters. He was excom- 
municated as an obdurate papist by the 
general assembly in 1649 (LAMONT, Diary, 
p. 12). Under the Commonwealth he was 
fined 1,500/. sterling, by Cromwell's act of 
grace and pardon, in 1654. The fine was re- 
duced in the following year to 500/., for pay- 
ment of which, probably, he borrowed from his 
brother-in-law, David, second earl of Wemyss, 
the sum of ten thousand merks (about 5561. 
sterling) ; the earl wrote off that amount in 
1677 as a ' desperate debt ' (SiR WILLIAM FRA- 
SER, Memorials of the Family of Wemyss of 
Wemyss, i. 287). At the request of Charles II 
and his brother James, duke of York, while 
they were in exile in France, Gray resigned 
his lieutenancy of the Scots gens d'armes in 
favour of Marshal Schomberg, to the great 
regret of many of the Scots, as the office had 
always formerly been held by a Scotchman, 
and was never recovered. He lived in Scot- 
land after the Restoration, and was in 1663 
appointed a justice of the peace for the county 
of Perth. He died in the course of that year. 



By his first marriage Gray had issue one 
son, Patrick, who was killed, between 1630 
and 1639, at the siege of a town in France, 
and one daughter, Anna, who was styled 
Mistress of Gray. On his visit to Scotland 
in 1639 Gray married his daughter to William 
Gray, the son and heir of his kinsman, Sir 
"William Gray of Pittendrum, and, resigning 
his honours and estates into the king's hands, 
obtained a new patent in favour of himself 
in life-rent and the heirs male of his daugh- 
ter and her husband in fee ; this arrange- 
ment was ratified by parliament in 1641. 
Gray, however, married again, his third wife 
being Catherine Cadell, and by her he had a 
daughter, Frances, who in 1661 was seized in 
London, on her way to France, at the insti- 
gation of Chancellor Glencairn, and sent to 
Newgate until she found bail, which she 
pleaded she could not do, being a stranger 
and destitute of friends (State Papers, Dom. 
1661). She afterwards married Captain Mac- 
kenzie, son of Murdoch Mackenzie, bishop of 
Moray and Orkney. Gray was succeeded by 
his grandson, Patrick, the son of his daughter 

"* [Acts of Parl. Scotl. vols. vi. vii. ; Earl of Stir- 
ling's Keg. of Royal Letters, pp. 169, 253, 675 ; 
State Papers, Dom. 1628-61.] H. P. 

GRAY, ANDREW (d. 1728), divine, of 
Scottish family, was the first minister of a 
congregation of protestant dissenters at Tint- 
wistle in the parish of Mottram-in-Longden- 
dale, Cheshire. He subsequently joined the 
church of England, and was appointed vicar 
of Mottram, and while there published a vo- 
lume entitled * A Door opening into Everlast- 
ing Life,' 1706, which was reprinted in 1810, 
with an introductory i recommendation ' by 
the Rev. M. Olerenshaw. Another book, 
* The Mystery of Grace,' is also ascribed to 
him. He left Mottram about 1716, and died 
at Anglezark, near Rivington, Lancashire. 
His will was proved by his widow, Dorothy 
Gray, on 19 Feb. 1727-8, so that he died 
shortly before that date. 

[Earwaker's East Cheshire, ii. 131 ; Noncon- 
formity in Cheshire, ed. Urwick, 1864, p. 355.1 

c. w. s. 

GRAY, ANDREW (1805-1861), Scottish 

fresbyterian divine, born at Aberdeen, 2 Nov. 
805, went first to a school kept by Gilbert, 
father of Forbes Falconer [q. v.], and after- 
wards to Marischal College, where he gra- 
duated A.M. in 1824, and passed through the 
theological course (1824-8). He was licensed 
to preach by the Aberdeen presbytery 25 June 
1829, and became minister of a chapel-of- 
ease at Woodside, near Aberdeen, 1 Sept. 


1831. Gray was from the first an orthodox 
evangelical, a vigorous supporter of reform 
in the church of Scotland, and a pronounced 
enemy to all that savoured of Romish doc- 
trine. He publicly defended the Anti-Pa- 
tronage Society as early as 1825, and agi- 
tated for the Chapels Act, by which ministers 
of chapels-of-ease became members of presby- 
teries. In 1834 he was admitted under this 
act a member of the Aberdeen presbytery. On 
14 July 1836 he was appointed minister of 
the West Church, Perth, where he remained 
till his death. Gray was a very energetic 
leader in the controversies which resulted in 
the disruption of 1843 and the foundation of 
the Free church. A pamphlet by him, ' The 
present Conflict between Civil and Ecclesias- 
tical Courts examined/ Edinburgh, 1839, 8vo, 
had a wide circulation and great influence. 
On his secession from the church of Scotland 
nearly all his congregation followed him. 
His new church was opened 28 Oct. 1843. 

In 1845 he drew up at the request of the 
Free church leaders l A Catechism of the 
Principles of the Free Church ' (1845 and 
1848), which involved him in a controversy 
with the Duke of Argyll. In December 1841 
Gray was commissioned to visit Switzerland 
to express the sympathy of the Free church 
with the suspended ministers of the Canton 
de Vaud ; he extended his tour to Constan- 
tinople. In 1855 he was appointed convener 
of the Glasgow evangelisation committee, 
and he was always active in home missions 
and in spreading education. Failing health 
made another long continental tour necessary 
in 1859. He died at Perth 10 March 1861. He 
married, 23 July 1834, Barbara, daughter of 
Alexander Cooper. Robert Smith Candlish 
[q. v.] collected nineteen of Gray's sermons, 
with memoir and portrait, under the title 
' Gospel Contrasts and Parallels,' Edinburgh, 

[Dr. Candlish's Memoir, 1862; Brit. Mus. Cat.; 
Hew Scott's Fasti, pt. iv. p. 618.] 

GRAY, CHARLES (1782-1851), captain 
in the royal navy and song- writer, was born 
at Anstruther, Fifeshire, on 10 March 1782. 
His education and early training fitted him 
for the sea, and in 1805, through the influ- 
ence of a maternal uncle, he received a com- 
mission in the Woolwich division of the 
royal marines. He was thirty-six years in 
the service, and retired on a captain's full 
pay in 1841. He spent the remainder of his 
days in Edinburgh, devoting himself zealously 
to the production and the criticism of Scot- 
tish song. He had published in 181 1 a volume 
entitled 'Poems and Songs/ which went inter 
a second edition at the end of three years. 

Gray < 

In 1813, on a visit to Anstruther, he had | 
joined in the formation of a ' Musomanik So- 
ciety,' a medium through which, in the four 
years of its existence, the members made 
original contributions to Scottish song. 

All through his naval career, Gray had 
practised lyric composition, and when he re- 
tired his friends induced him in 1841 to pub- 
lish his second volume, ' Lays and Lyrics.' 
Several of these were set to music by Peter 
M'Leod, and it is in one of them ' When 
Autumn has laid her sickle by ' which Gray 
himself liked to sing, that he makes almost 
the only pointed allusion to his life at sea. 
He contributed to Wood's ' Book of Scottish 
Song,' and he is one of the numerous lyrists 
in ' Whistle-Binkie.' He was a genial, hu- 
morous man, greatly beloved by many lite- 
rary friends, and his best songs are social and 
sentimental. Besides his original verse Gray 
wrote some noteworthy criticism. About 
1845 he contributed to the 'Glasgow Citi- 
zen' 'Notes on Scottish Song,' which include 
appreciative and discriminating passages on 
Burns. These papers have been largely uti- 
lised in illustrative notes to collections of 
Scottish lyrics. Gray married early, his wife, 
Jessie Carstairs, being sister of the Rev. Dr. 
Carstairs of Anstruther. She and one of her 
two sons predeceased Gray, at whose death, 
on 13 April 1851, the remaining son was a 
lieutenant in the royal marines. 

[Conolly's Eminent Men of Fife ; Anderson's 
Scottish Nation ; Whistle-Binkie; Wilson's Poets 
and Poetry of Scotland.] T. B. 

GRAY, DAVID (1838-1861), Scotch 
poet, was born on 29 Jan. 1838 at Merkland, 
Kirkintilloch, Dumbartonshire. He was the 
eldest of eight, his father being a hand-loom 
weaver. After leaving the parish school, he 
became a pupil-teacher in Glasgow, and ma- 
naged to give himself a university career. 
His parents wished him to be a Free church 
minister, but he became a contributor to the 
poet's corner of the * Glasgow Citizen,' and 
resolved to devote himself to literature. He 
made various metrical experiments some of 
them in the manner of Keats, and one after 
the dramatic method of Shakespeare and 
then settled to the composition of his idyllic 
poem, ' The Luggie,' named after the stream 
flowing past his birthplace. An expression 
of friendly interest in his work by Monckton 
Milnes (afterwards Lord Houghton) induced 
Gray to go to London in May 1860. Milnes 
strongly urged his return to Scotland and 
his profession, but, finding Gray resolved on 
staying, gave him some light literary work. 
Soon his health became troublesome, and a 
severe cold (probably contracted in Hyde 
Park, where he spent his first London night) 


gradually settled on his lungs. After re- 
visiting Scotland, he went south again for 
the milder climate, sojourning first at Rich- 
mond, and then (through the intervention of 
Milnes) in the hospital at Torquay. Finding 
his health no better, and becoming hysteri- 
cally nervous, he determined on going home 
at all hazards, and he returned finally to 
Merkland, January 1861. Lingering through 
that year, he wrote a series of sonnets, with 
the general title ' In the Shadows.' He died 
on 3 Dec. 1861, having the previous day 
been gladdened through seeing a proof of a 
page of ' The Luggie,' which was at length 
being printed. His friend, Mr. Robert Bu- 
chanan, who shared in his London hardships, 
tells his brief, pathetic story in 'David Gray 
and other Essays,' and worthily embalms 
their friendship in 'Poet Andrew' and 'To 
David in Heaven.' Another friend with 
whom Gray corresponded much, and whose 
exertions led to the publication of his poems, 
was Sydney Dobell. Lord Houghton's in- 
terest in Gray was generous and practical to 
the last, and he wrote the epitaph for his 
monument erected by friends in 1865 over 
his grave in Kirkintilloch churchyard. 

' The Luggie,' with its sense of natural 
beauty, and its promise of didactic and de- 
scriptive power, constitutes Gray's chief claim 
as a poet, but his sonnets are remarkable in 
substance, and several of them are felicitous 
in structure and expression. 'The Luggie 
and other Poems ' by Gray first appeared in 
1862, with a memoir by Dr. Hedderwick of 
the ' Glasgow Citizen,' and a valuable prefa- 
tory notice by Lord Houghton. An enlarged 
edition was published in 1874, but unfortu- 
nately the editor, Henry Glassford Bell [q.v.]> 
died before writing his projected introduction 
to the volume. An appendix contains the 
speech he delivered at the unveiling of Gray's 

[Gray's Works, as above ; R. Buchanan's David 
Gray and other Essays; Wilson's Poets and 
Poetry of Scotland.] T. B. 

1888), journalist, second son of Sir John 
Gray [q. v.], w r as born at Dublin on 29 Dec. 
1845. He was educated with a view to 
journalism, and on the death of his father 
succeeded him in the management of the 
4 Freeman's Journal.' In I860, when only 
twenty years of age, Gray saved the lives of 
five persons in Dublin Bay, by swimming out 
through the dangerous surf to a wreck. Miss 
Chisholm (Caroline Agnes, daughter of Caro- 
line Chisholm, 'the emigrant's friend ' [q-v.]), 
was a witness of the scene ; the two were in- 
troduced and were shortly afterwards mar- 
ried. For his gallant services Gray received 


the Tayleur medal, the highest award in the 
gift of the Royal Humane Society. 

Entering the Dublin municipal council 
about 1875, Gray led a vigorous crusade 
against various abuses then prevalent. He 
devoted special attention to the department 
of public health, and, becoming chairman of 
that committee, speedily revolutionised the 
municipal health system of the city. He 
also secured the passing of many important 
statutes bearing upon the public health. He 
unsuccessfully contested Kilkenny on his 
father's death in 1875. In 1877 he was 
returned to parliament for Tipperary, and 
continued to sit for that place until 1880. 
In the latter year he was unanimously elected 
lord mayor of Dublin. The lord-lieutenant 
(the Duke of Marlborough) declined to attend 
the banquet, to which he had previously ac- 
cepted an invitation, because some resolu- 
tions passed at the City Hall in favour of the 
distressed peasantry of the west appeared to 
him to sanction resistance to the law. Gray 
summoned a meeting of the corporation, when 
it was resolved that no banquet should be 
held, and that the customary expenditure 
about 500/. should be devoted to the relief 
of the distress in the Irish capital. Gray 
also at this time organised a fund at the 
Dublin Mansion House, amounting to 
180,0007., for the relief of the famine dis- 
tricts, whose condition had been described 
by special commissioners in the ' Freeman's 

Gray was returned to the House of Com- 
mons for Carlow in 1880. The year follow- 
ing he retired from the Dublin corporation 
to mark his resentment at the action of a 
portion of that body in refusing to confer the 
distinction of honorary burgesses on Messrs. 
Parnell and Dillon, who were then lying in 
Kilmainharn gaol. But the November elec- 
tions of 1881 gave the nationalists a substan- 
tial majority in the council chamber, where- 
upon the freedom of the city was conferred 
on the nationalist leaders, and Gray re-entered 
the corporation as representative of the Arran 
Quay ward. In 1882 Gray was elected high 
sheriff of Dublin. During that year he was 
condemned by Mr. Justice Lawson to three 
months' imprisonment and a fine of 500J. for 
having allowed some comments upon the 
composition of the jury at the trial of Francis 
Hynes for murder to appear in the ' Free- 
man's Journal.' As he could not arrest him- 
self, the city coroner conducted him to the 
Richmond Penitentiary at Harold's Cross, 
where he spent some six weeks as a prisoner. 
The severity of the sentence excited great 
surprise in Dublin, for the high sheriff ' was 
known as a man of moderate views and care- 


ful expression.' The fine was discharged 
by public subscription in a few days. Resolu- 
tions condemning the sentence and expressing 
sympathy with Gray were adopted by the 
great majority of the public bodies through- 
out the country, and the freedom of most of 
the incorporated cities and boroughs of Ire- 
land was conferred upon the prisoner. In 
1883 Gray's connection with the Dublin cor- 
poration ceased, but he continued to take a 
keen interest in questions specially affecting 
the masses of the people. He was appointed 
a member of the royal commission on the 
housing of the poor in 1884. 

When the Parnell movement first began 
to acquire force, Gray held somewhat aloof, 
but i he soon became a devoted follower of 
Mr ."Parnell. In the House of Commons he 
displayed great judgment, and was esteemed 
by men of all parties. He disapproved of the 
socialistic tendencies of Mr. Davitt, and was 
a warm supporter of that portion of Mr. 
Gladstone's Irish home rule scheme which 
proposed to create in the Irish legislature 
an upper order to protect capital and culture. 

In 1885 Gray contested the St. Stephen's 
Green division of Dublin in opposition to Sir 
Edward Cecil Guinness, and after a severe 
fight was returned. He was also returned 
for Carlow, but elected to sit for Dublin. ' 
He was again returned for the St. Stephen's 
Green division in 1886 against Sir Edward 
Sullivan. It was chiefly owing to Gray's, 
energy, and his powerful representations to ; 
the ministers of the crown, that the scheme i 
for transferring the mail contracts from the ' 
City of Dublin Steam-packet Company to the ' 
London and North-Western Railway Com- \ 
pany was defeated. The ' Freeman's Jour- \ 
nal,' of which Gray had been the controlling \ 
spirit since 1875, was in 1887 converted into j 
a limited liability company, and the capital ' 
of 125,000/. was sub&cribed six times over in 
less than two days. Gray continued to con- 
duct the journal, but his health rapidly failed, 
and he died at Dublin 27 March 1888. His 
funeral at Glasnevin cemetery, on 31 March, 
was attended by an immense concourse of 

Gray had considerable literary gifts and a 
wide knowledge of commercial affairs. He 
not only successfully managed the ' Free- 
man,' but actively promoted the success of 
the 'Belfast Morning News,' a nationalist 
organ, of which he was also proprietor. He 
was generous and hospitable, and he earned 
the respect even of his political enemies. 

[Freeman's Journal, 28 and 29 March and 
2 April 1888 ; Dublin Daily Express, 29 March ; 
Nation, 29 March ; London Daily News, 28 March 
1888.] G. B. S. 



1806), botanist, was the youngest brother of 
Samuel Frederick Gray, the translator oi Lm- 
naeus's ' Philosophia Botanica,' and conse- 
quently uncle of Samuel Frederick Gray [q.y. J, 
author of < The Practical Chemist.' He acted 
as librarian to the College of Physicians pre- 
viously to 1773, in which year he became a 
licentiate. He graduated M.D., and became 
subsequently keeper of the department ot 
natural history and antiquities in the Britisn 
Museum, where he incurred criticism lor ar- 
ranging the natural history collections on 
the Linnsean system. He is stated to have 
been eminent as a botanist, and was mad< 
one of the first associates of the Lmnean 
Society in 1788. In 1789 he contributed 
'Observations on the . . . Amphibia to the 
' Philosophical Transactions ' of the Royal 
Society, of which he was a fellow, and of 
which in 1797 he became secretary. He 
died at the British Museum, 27 Dec. 1806 
in his fifty-ninth year. His portrait by Cal- 
cott is at the Royal Society's apartments. 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. ii. 298; Gent. Mag 
1807, vol. Ixxvii. pt. i. p. 90.] GK 8. B- 


1860), topographer, born about 1787, carried 
on the business of a cheese factor and meal 
man in Bartholomew Street, Newbury, Berk 
shire. At the passing of the Municipal Ac 
in 1835 he was chosen member of the town 
council, served the office of mayor in 1< 4.( 
and was subsequently appointed alderma 
and magistrate. He died at his residence 
Woodspeen, on 19 June 1860, aged 73, an 
was buried on the 26th of that month in th 
family vault in Enborne churchyard, nea 
Newbury. He edited anonymously < Ihe 
History and Antiquities of Newbury and its 
Environs, including twenty-eight Parishes 
situate in the County of Berks ; also a Cata- 
logue of Plants,' 8vo, Speenhamland, 183J, 
an excellent specimen of thorough workman- 
ship. It was his original intention to pub- 
lish the book in numbers, but after the appear- 
ance of the first number in 1831, he aban- 
doned the plan. 

[Reading Mercury, 23 and 30 Jure 1860; 
Pigot's London and Provincial Directory \ lor 
1823-4 ; Notes and Queries, 4th ser. Hi. 554, 
607.] G ' G< 

GRAY, GEORGE (1758-1819), painter, 
born at Newcastle-on-Tyne in 1758, was son 
of Gilbert Gray, a well-known quaker of that 
town. He was educated at the grammar 
school, and was first apprenticed to a fruit- 
painter named Jones, with whom he resided 
some time at York. Besides painting, Gray 

_.._ . 

studied chemistry, mineralogy, and botany. 
In 1787 he went to North America on a 
otanical excursion, and in 1791 he was sent 
n an expedition to report on the geology ot 
Poland. In 1794 Gray settled in Newcastle 
s a portrait, fruit, or signpainter, and was em- 
loved as a drawing-master. He also occupied 
limself with numerous ingenious inventions, 
uch as making bread from roots and weaving 
tockings from nettles. Gray's humour and 
originality made him popular. Late in lit* 
he married the widow of a schoolmaster, Mrs. 
Dobie, whom he survived. He died at his 
house in Pudding Chare on 9 Dec. 1819. A 
crayon portrait of John Bewick, by Gray, is 
n the museum of the Natural History Society 
at Newcastle. 

[Mackenzie's Hist, of Newcastle-on-Tyne, n. 
377; Robinson's Life and Times of Thomas 
Bewick.] L " C> 

1872), zoologist, the youngest son of Samuel 
Frederick Gray [q. v.], was born at Chelsea 
July 1808. and educated at Merchant Taylors 
School. At an early age he assisted John 
George Children [q.v.] in arranging his exten- 
sive collection of insects. In 1831 he became 
an assistant in the zoologi cal department oltne 
British Museum, and subsequently published 
various catalogues of sections of the insects 
and birds. He contributed to the entomo- 

UHU. U1HJ.Q. J-JHj w.* ~ T 

logical portion of the English edition ot 
Cuvier's ' Animal Kingdom,' and to ? the 
' Proceedings of the Zoological Society. In 
1833 appeared his ' Entomology of Australia. 
In 1840 he printed privately a 'List ol the 
Genera of Birds,' containing 1,065 genera, 
noting the type species on which each genus 
was founded; a second edition in 1841 ex- 
tended the list to 1,232 genera; the third edi- 
tion (1855) contained 2,403 genera and sub- 
genera. In 1842 he and Prince C. L. Bona- 
parte assisted Agassiz in the < Nomenclator 
Zoologicus.' Finally, near the end of his 
life his great 'Hand-List of the Genera and 
Species of Birds' (1869-72) enumerated more 
than eleven thousand species, and recorded 
forty thousand specific names given by various 
authors. The utility of this work was marred 
by the want of references, and it rapidly 
passed out of date. His most valuable work 
was the 'Genera of Birds,' in three folio 
volumes, excellently illustrated by D. W. 
Mitchell and J. Wolf (1844-9) ; it brought 
the number of recorded species of birds up to 
date, and was a starting-point for much subse- 
quent progress in ornithology. Hewaselected 
a fellow of the Royal Society in 1*00; and 
was a member of the ' Academia Economico- 
Agraria dei Georgofili ' of Florence. He died 
on 5 May 1872. His work lacked originality, 


and lie was over-sensitive to criticism, espe- 
cially from younger men. 

[Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 
4th ser.ix. 480, 1872 ; Athenaeum, 11 May 1872 ; 
Brit. Mus. Cat.; private information.] G. T. B. 

GRAY, GILBERT (d.1614), second prin- 
cipal of Marischal College, Aberdeen, was ap- 
pointed to that post in 1598. He was a pupil 
of Robert Rollock, the first principal of the 
university of Edinburgh, whose virtues and 
learning he extolled in a curious Latin ora- 
tion which he delivered in 1611, entitled 
' Oratio de Illustribus Scotise Scriptoribus.' 
Several of the authors eulogised in it are 
fictitious. Gray accepted literally ' the fabu- 
lous stories of Fergus the First having written 
on the subject of law 300 years B.C. ; Dor- 
nadilla a century after composing rules for 
sportsmen; Reutha, the 7th king of Scot- 
land, being a great promoter of schools and 
education ; and King Josina, a century and 
a half before the Christian era, writing on 
botany and the practice of medicine.' Gray 
died in 1614. 

[William Anderson's Scottish Nation, ii. 374 ; 
George Mackenzie's Lives and Characters of 
Writers of Scots Nation.] G. G-. 

GRAY, HUGH (d. 1604), Gresham pro- 
fessor of divinity, matriculated as a sizar of 
Trinity College, Cambridge, in May 1574, was 
elected scholar, and in 1578-9 proceeded B. A. 
He was elected a fellow on 2 Oct. 1581, and 
commenced M.A. in 1582. On 8 Jan. 1586-7 
he preached a sermon at Great St. Mary's, 
wherein he asserted that ' the church of Eng- 
land maintained Jewish music, and that to 
play at dice or cards was to crucify Christ ; 
inveighed against dumbs in the church, and 
mercenary ministers ; insinuated that some 
in the university sent news to Rome and 
Rheims ; and asserted that the people cele- 
brated the nativity as ethnics, atheists, and 
epicures.' For this sermon he was convened 
before the vice-chancellor and heads of col- 
leges. He afterwards made a public explana- 
tion, denying the particular application of 
the passages excepted against (COOPER, An- 
nals of Cambr. ii. 429). He proceeded B.D. 
in 1589, was created D.D. in 1595, and was 
in December 1596 an unsuccessful candidate 
for the Lady Margaret professorship of di- 
vinity in his university, receiving twelve 
votes, while twenty-eight were recorded for 
Dr. Playfere (tb. ii. 564). On 9 April 1597 
he was elected a senior fellow of his college. 
On 5 Nov. 1600 he was collated to the pre- 
bend of Milton Manor in the cathedral of 
Lincoln, being installed on 1 2 Dec. follow- 
ing (LE NEVE, Fasti, ed. Hardy, ii. 190). 
He also held the rectory of Meon-Stoke in 

8 Gray 

Hampshire. Gray succeeded Anthony Wotton 
as Gresham professor of divinity, which office 
he resigned before 6 July 1604. His death 
took place in the same month. By his will, 
dated 20 May 1604, he bequeathed to Trinity 
College 13/. 6s. Sd. to build a pulpit, and to 
Gresham College a piece of plate worth 5/., 
to be in common among all the readers. The 
lectures which he had read at Gresham Col- 
lege he left to William Jackson, minister of 
St. Swithin's, London, to be disposed ,of as 
he pleased, but they do not appear to have 
been printed. His manuscript sermon upon 
Matt. xi. 21, 22, is in the library of the univer- 
sity of Cambridge, Dd. 15, 10 (Cat. i. 539). 

[Cooper's Athense Cantabr. ii. 392-3, 554; 
Ward's Gresham Professors, p. 44.] G. G. 

GRAY, JAMES (d. 1830), poet and lin- 
guist, was originally master of the high 
school of Dunlfries, and there became inti- 
mate with Burns. From 1801 till 1822 he 
was master in the high school of Edinburgh 
(Edinburgh Almanack, 1802, p. 106). In 
1822 he became rector of the academy at 
Belfast. He subsequently took holy orders 
in the English church, and in 1826 went 
out to India as chaplain in the East India 
Company's service at Bombay (East India 
Register, 1826, 2nd ed., p. 289). He was 
eventually stationed at Bhuj in Cutch, and 
was entrusted by the British government 
with the education of the young Rao of that 
province, being, it is said, the first Christian 
who was ever honoured with such an ap- 
pointment in the east. Gray died at Bhuj 
on 25 Sept. 1830 (ib. 1831, 2nd ed., p. 104 ; 
Gent. Mag. 1831, pt. i. p. 378). He married 
Mary Phillips of Longbridgemoor, Annan- 
dale, eldest sister of the wife of James Hogg 
[q.v.] His family mostly settled in India. He 
published anonymously * Cona ; or the Vale of 
Clwyd. And other poems,' 12mo, London, 
1814 (2nd ed., with author's name, 1816) ; 
and edited the ' Poems ' of Robert Fergus- 
son, with a life of the poet and remarks on 
his genius and writings, 12mo, Edinburgh, 
1821. He left in manuscript a poem on 
'India.' Another poem, entitled 'A Sabbath 
among the Mountains,' is attributed to him. 
His Cutchee version of the gospel of St. 
Matthew was printed at Bom Day in 1834. 
Hogg introduced Gray into the ' Queen's 
Wake ' as the fifteenth bard who sang the 
ballad of 'King Edward's Dream.' 

[Anderson's Scottish Nation, ii. 374-5.] 

G. G. 

GRAY, JOHN (1807-1875), legal author 
and solicitor to the treasury, born at Aber- 
deen in 1807, was educated at Gordon's 
Hospital in that city. He entered the office 


of Messrs. White & Whitmore, solicitors, 
London, was called to the bar in 1838, and 
joined the Oxford circuit. Appointed queen's 
counsel in 1863, he became solicitor to the 
treasury in 1870, and during his tenure of the 
office conducted the celebrated prosecution of 
Arthur Orton, the claimant to the Tichborne 
title and estates, in 1873. Gray died on 22 Jan. 
1875. lie was author of ' Gray's Country At- 
torney's Practice,' 1836, and 'The Country 
Solicitor's Practice,' 1837, which were at the 
time considered valuable text-books ; each 
passed through several editions. He was also 
the author of ' Gray's Law of Costs,' 1853. 
[Information from G. F. Crowdy, esq.] " 

GRAY, SIR JOHN (1816-1875), jour- 
nalist, was third son of John Gray of Clare- 
morris, co. Mayo, where he was born in 1816. 
He entered the medical profession, obtained 
the degree of M.D., and became connected with 
a hospital in Dublin in 1839. Gray contri- 
buted to periodicals and the newspaper press, 
and in 1841 became joint proprietor of the 
Dublin ' Freeman's Journal,' which was issued 
daily and weekly. He acted as political editor 
of that newspaper, and, as a protestant na- 
tionalist, supported O'Connell's movement 
for the repeal of the union with England. 
In October 1843, Gray was indicted, with 
O'Connell and others, in the court of queen's 
bench, Dublin, on a charge of conspiracy 
against the queen. In the following February 
Gray was condemned to nine months' impri- 
sonment, but early in September the sentence 
was reversed. Gray became sole proprietor of 
the ' Freeman's Journal' in 1850, increased 
its size, reduced its price, and extended its cir- 
culation. He advocated alterations in the Irish 
land laws, and was in 1852 an unsuccessful 
candidate for the representation of Monaghan 
in parliament. In the same year he was elected 
a councillor in the municipal corporation of 
Dublin, and took much interest in the im- 
provement of that city. As chairman of the 
corporation committee for a new supply of 
water to Dublin, Gray actively promoted 
the Vartry scheme, in face of formidable 
opposition. On the occasion of turning the 
Vartry water into the new course in June 
1863, Gray was knighted by the Earl of Car- 
lisle, lord-lieutenant. In 1865 Gray was 
elected M.P. for Kilkenny city. He advo- 
cated the abolition of the Irish protestant 
church establishment, reform of the land laws, 
and free denominational education. Through 
the ' Freeman's Journal' he instituted in- 
quiries, in the form of a commission, as to the 
condition of the protestant church in Ireland. 
The results appeared from time to time in the 
' Freeman.' He published in 1866 a volume 


entitled 'The Church Establishment in Ire- 
land,' which included a detailed statement 
respecting disestablishment made by him in 
the House of Commons on 1 1 April 1 866. In 
1868 he was re-elected member for Kilkenny 
city, and in the same year he declined the office 
of lord mayor of Dublin, to which he had been 
elected. He frequently spoke in the house on 
Irish questions, and in 1869 delivered an ad- 
dress at Man Chester on the land question. Gray 
was a ready and effective speaker. A public 
testimonial of 3,500/. was presented to him in 
acknowledgment of his labours in connection 
with disestablishment. He originated the 
legislation for abolition of obnoxious oaths, 
and promoted the establishment of the fire 
brigade and new cattle market at Dublin. In 
1874 he was elected for the third time as 
member for Kilkenny. Gray died at Bath 
on 9 April 1875. A marble statue of him 
was erected in 1879 in Sackville or O'Connell 
Street, Dublin. His son, Edmund Dwyer 
Gray, is separately noticed. 

[Freeman's Journal, 1 844-1 875 ; Report of Pro- 
ceedings in case of the Queen against O'Connell 
and others, 1844 ; Return to order of House of 
Commons in relation to Water-supply of Dublin, 
1865 ; The Church Establishment in Ireland, 
1868 ; Reports of Municipal Council of Dublin, 
1850-75; Life and Times of O'Connell, by C. M. 
O'Keeffe, 1864; Correspondence of O'Connell, ed. 
W. J. Fitzpatrick, 1888.] J. T. G. 

GRAY, JOHN EDWARD (1800-1875), 
naturalist, born at Walsall, Staffordshire, 
12 Feb. 1800, was the second son of Samuel 
Frederick Gray [q. v.], chemist, then of Wal- 
sall. He was a weakly child, and for some 
years was unable to eat meat. He was in- 
tended for the medical profession. His father 
moved to London, and when he was eighteen 
he entered the laboratory of a chemist in 
Cripplegate. Before this he had been elected 
by his fellow-students to lecture on botany 
at the Borough School of Medicine, the re- 
gular lecturer, apparently Richard Anthony 
Salisbury [q. v.], being incapacitated. Shortly 
afterwards he entered the medical schools of 
St. Bartholomew's and the Middlesex hospi- 
tals, and the classes held by Mr. Taunton in 
Hatton Garden and Maze Pond. He taught 
the principles of Jussieu, in conjunction with 
his father, at the Middlesex Hospital and at 
Sloane Street Botanical Garden, for a few 
years before 1821. In that year the ' Na- 
tural Arrangement of British Plants ' was 
issued under his father's name, though the 
synoptical portion, by far the larger part of 
the work, was due to Gray, with the assist- 
ance of Salisbury, Edward and John Joseph 
Bennett, De Candolle, and Dunal. About 
this time he had been introduced to Dr. 



Leach, keeper of the zoological department 
of the British Museum, and, through him, 
to Sir Joseph Banks, in whose library he 
transcribed many zoological and botanical 
notes for his father's use; but he suggests 
that Robert Brown, then Banks's librarian, 
was rather reluctant to assist him. In 1822 
he was proposed by Haworth, Salisbury, and 
others, for election into the Linnean Society, 
but was blackballed, the alleged reason being 
the disrespect shown to the president, Sir 
J. E. Smith, by his references in the ' Natural 
Arrangement ' to Smith and Sowerby's 
' English Botany ' as ' Sowerby's " English 
Botany." ' It was not until 1857 that Gray 
was elected a fellow of the society. Piqued 
by his rejection, Gray turned his atten- 
tion mainly to zoology. In 1819 he had 
joined the London Philosophical Society, 
and he now became fellow and secretary of 
the Entomological Society, and in 1824 was 
engaged by John George Children [q. v.], 
Dr. Leach's successor, to assist in preparing a 
catalogue of the British Museum collection of 
reptiles. In 1826 he married Maria Emma 
[see GRAY, MARIA EMMA], the widow of a 
cousin. From the date of his entering the 
British Museum began his remarkable acti- 
vity in contributing to scientific literature, 
especially on zoological subjects. Between 
1824 and 1863 he had written no fewer than 
497 papers, the titles of which occupy twenty- 
eight columns of the Royal Society's Cata- 
logue, while a privately printed ' List of 
Books, Memoirs, and Miscellaneous Papers,' 
completed down to the date of his death, 
enumerates 1,162. His interests were not by 
any means confined to zoology, or even to 
natural history ; for he took an active part in 
questions of social, educational, and sanitary 
reform. The establishment of public play- 
grounds, coffee-taverns, and provincial mu- 
ssums engaged his attention ; he was a pro- 
moter of the Blackheath Mechanics' Institu- 
tion, one of the earliest institutions of the 
kind ; he was a strong advocate for the more 
frequent opening of museums free of charge, 
and spent many of his vacations in visiting 
continental museums to inspect their organi- 
sation ; he was a strenuous opponent of the 
decimal system of coinage ; and he claimed 
to have been the first to suggest (in 1834) a 
uniform rate of letter-postage to be prepaic 
by means of stamps. In 1862 he published 
' Hand-catalogue of Postage-stamps/ which 
has since run into several editions. 

Among his earlier zoological publications 
were < Spicilegia Zoologk a,' 1828-40 ; ' Th 
Zoological Miscellany,' edited by him, 1831- 
1845 ; < Illustrations of Indian Zoology,' 1832- 
1834 ; an edition of Turton's ' Land anc 


Fresh-water Shells,' 1840; the zoology of 
he voyages of Captain Beechy, 1839, H.M.S. 
Sulphur, 1843, H.M.S. Erebus and Terror, 
.844, and the vertebrata in that of H.M.S. 
Samarang, 1848 ; and the privately printed 
Gleanings from the Menagerie and Aviary 
at Knowsley,' 1846. In 1832 he was elected 
a fellow of the Royal Society ; he was an 
riginal member of the Zoological, Royal 
jreographical, Royal Microscopical, Entomo- 
ogical, and Palaeontographical Societies ; 
served for many years as vice-president of 
the first named ; and was also president of 
:he Botanical and Entomological Societies. 
In 1840 he succeeded J. G. Children as keeper 
of the zoological department of the British 
Museum, a post which he regained until the 
December preceding his death. Though sub- 
sequently to 1840 he issued several indepen- 
dent zoological works, such as the ' Synopsis 
of British Mollusks,' 1852, the great work of 
his life was the increasing the collection in 
his charge, and the organisation and editing 
of the splendid series of descriptive cata- 
logues of its treasures. Many of these he 
wrote himself, including those of seals and 
whales, monkeys, lemurs, and fruit-eating 
bats, carnivorous, pachydermatous, edentate, 
and ruminant mammals, lizards and shield- 
reptiles ; and in 1852 the university of Mu- 
nich sent him the diploma of doctor of philo- 
sophy, for having formed ' the largest zoolo- 
gical collection in Europe.' Much of his later 
zoological work is said to have been detri- 
mental to the science on account of the need- 
less number of genera and species which he 
introduced. His strenuous endeavours to 
improve the national zoological collection in 
face of great opposition and often at his own 
expense deserve the highest praise. Return- 
ing in later life to the studies of his youth, he 
in 1864 published a ' Handbook of British 
Waterweeds or Algae ; ' and in 1866 issued an 
unpublished fragment by his former teacher, 
R. A. Salisbury, ' The Genera of Plants,' an 
interesting early experiment in natural clas- 
sification. In 1870 Gray was attacked by 
paralysis of the right side, and at the close of 
1874, after fifty years' service, resigned his 
position at the Museum, but had not quitted his 
official residence before his death on 7 March 
following. Though his strongly outspoken 
hatred of all shams made him enemies, his 
generosity, integrity, and industry gained 
him general respect. 

[Athenamm, 13 March 1875 ; List of Books, 
Memoirs . . . with a few Historical Notes, 1872- 
1875; Portraits of Men of Eminence, 1863, with 
photographic portrait ; Journal of Botany, xiii. 
127; Gardener's Chronicle, 1875, i. 335; Trans. 
Bot. Soc. Edinb. xii. 409.] GK S. B. 



GRAY, MARIA EMMA (1787-1876), 
conchologist and algologist, was born in 1787 
at Greenwich Hospital, where her father, 
Lieutenant Henry Smith, K.N., was then 
resident. She married in 1810 Francis Ed- 
ward Gray, who died four years later, and 
had by him two daughters, who survived 
her. In 1826 she married his second cousin, 
John Edward Gray [q. v.] She greatly as- 
sisted her second husband in his scientific 
work, especially by her drawings. Between 
1842 and 1874 she published privately five 
volumes of etchings, entitled * Figures of 
Molluscan Animals for the use of Students,' 
and she mounted and arranged most of the 
Cuming collection of shells in the British 
Museum. She was also much attached to 
the study of algre, arranging many sets for pre- 
sentation to schools throughout the country 
so as to encourage the pursuit of this subject. 
Her own collection was bequeathed to the 
Cambridge University Museum, and her as- 
sistance in this branch of his studies was 
commemorated by her husband in I860 in 
the genus Grayemma. He also had a bronze 
medallion struck in 1863, bearing both their 
portraits, a copy of which is in the possession 
of the Linnean Society. Mrs. Gray survived 
her husband a year, dying 9 Dec. 1876. 

[Athenaeum, 16 Dec. 1876 ; Journal of Botany, 
1876, p. 32; Gardener's Chronicle, 1876, ii. 789.1 

G. S. B. 

GRAY, PATRICK, of Buttergask, fourth 
LOKD GRAY (d. 1582), was connected with 
the English historic family of Grey, the 
earliest settler of the name in Scotland being 
a younger son of Lord Grey of Chillingham, 
Northumberland, who in the reign of Wil- 
liam the Lion received from his lather the 
lands of Broxmouth, Roxburghshire. The 
Scottish branch afterwards had their chief 
seat at Castle Huntly, Forfarshire. Patrick, 
fourth lord Gray, was the eldest son of Gilbert 
Gray of Buttergask, second son of Andrew, 
second lord Gray, lord just ice-general of Scot- 
land [see under ANDREW GRAY, first LORD 
GRAY]. His mother was Egidia, daughter of 
Sir Laurence Mercer of Aldie. He succeeded 
to the peerage on the death of his father's 
half-brother Patrick, third lord Gray, in April 
1541, and he also received the hereditary office 
of sheriff' of Forfar, with an annual rent out 
of the customs of Dundee. On 25 Nov. 1542 
he was taken prisoner at the rout of Solway, 
but, after remaining a short time in the cus- 
tody of the Archbishop of York, was sent 
home, along with other lords, on paying a 
ransom of 500/., it being also understood that 
he would favour the betrothal of the young 
Prince Edward to Mary, daughter of James V. 

Knox represents Gray as at this time fre- 
quenting t the companie of those that pro- 
fessed godlinesse' ( Works, i. Ill), and Sadler 
reports that on 13 Nov. the governor and 
Cardinal Beaton had gone into Fife and For- 
far to gain Gray and others to their party 
either by * force or policy ' (Papers, i. 340). 
With Gray at Castle Huntly were the Earl 
of Rothes and Henry Balnaves [q. v.] Sus- 
pecting Beaton's hostile intentions, they col- 
lected a force to prepare for resistance, but 
were inveigled into a conference at Perth, 
where they were immediately apprehended 
and sent to the castle of Blackness (Kxox, 
Works, i. 114-16, where, however, the oc- 
currence is represented as taking place pre- 
vious, instead of subsequent, to the conflict 
with Ruthven). They remained at Blackness 
till the arrival of the fleet of Henry VIII in 
the following May. A few months after this 
Gray was brought over to the support of the 
cardinal's party through his jealousy of Lord 
Ruthven, the quarrel being promoted by a 
clever stratagem on the part of Beaton. 
Beaton induced John Charteris of Kinfauns 
to accept the provostship of Perth by * dona- 
tion of the governor/ in opposition to the 
wishes of the people. At the time (1544) 
the office was held by Lord Ruthven, whom 
Beaton ' hated ' for ' his knowledge of God's 
word' (ib. i. 111). Ruthven, with the aid of 
the townspeople, resolved to hold the office 
by force, whereupon Charteris obtained the 
aid of Gray, who agreed to undertake the com- 
mand of the hostile force. The conflict for 
the provostship took place on 22 July 1545 
on the narrow bridge over the Tay, when 
Ruthven, without the loss of a man, succeeded 
in holding the bridge, while forty of those 
under Gray were slain, in addition to many 
others taken prisoners or wounded (ib. p. 
115; Diurnal of Occurrents, p. 34). On 
16 Oct. following Gray received from Beaton 
a grant of part of the lands of Rescobie, For- 
farshire, for his ' ready and faithful help and 
assistance in these dangerous times of the 
church.' He was one of those who entered 
the castle of St. Andrews after the murder of 
Cardinal Beat on (May 1546), and on 11 March 
(1546-7) he signed special and separate ar- 
ticles in which he promised to do all he could 
to promote the marriage of Prince Edward 
with the Scottish queen and also to give up 
the castle of Broughty, in consideration that 
the English should assist him to recover the 
town of Perth. He agreed that the English 
king should retain in his hands the principal 
strength of the town, called the Spey or Spy 
Tower (Cal. State Papers, Scott. Ser. i. 61 : 
KEITH, Histoi'y, i. 143). On this account 
Gray was not present at the battle of Pinkie 


on 10 Sept. 1547, and on the 24th of the same 
month Broughty Castle was surrendered to 
the English fleet (Gal State Papers, Scott. 
Ser. i. 66). On 13 Nov. he wrote a letter to 
Somerset advising the capture of Perth and 
St. Andrews for the advancement of the king's 
cause (ib. p. 70). After the surrender of Dun- 
dee he took an oath of allegiance to the Eng- 
lish (ib. p. 72), and displayed great activity in 
preparing for the defence of the town against 
Argyll, whom the English subsequently em- 
ployed him to bribe (ib. p. 78). Ultimately 
the attitude of Gray both towards the 
Reformation and towards England under- 
went a complete change. After various am- 
biguous answers he refused to sign the con- 
tract with England in July 1560 (Cal. State 
Papers, For. Ser. 1560-1, entry 454). He was 
taken prisoner, but on givingsureties of 1,000/. 
was permitted to return to Scotland. On 
21 April 1561 he was called to make his entry 
into ward in England (ib. 1561-2, entry 127). 
Mary Queen of Scots wrote to Elizabeth on 
his behalf, 29 May 1562 (ib. 1562, entry 110), 
and on 7 July he was permit ted again to return 
home under sureties of 1,000/. (ib. entry 286). 
Gray did not take a prominent part in con- 
nection with the Darnley and Bothwell epi- 
sodes of Queen Mary's reign. He attended 
the first parliament of the regent Moray 
after the queen's abdication, and in 1569 he 
voted for the queen's divorce from Bothwell 
(Reg. Privy Council, ii. 8), but afterwards 
joined the queen's lords, and in March 1570 
signed the letter asking help from Elizabeth 
(Letter in CALDERWOOD, ii. 547-50). When 
the estates met for the election of a regent 
after the death of Mar, Atholl and Gray sent 
a letter asking that the election should be 
delayed, but no attention was paid to their 
request. Gray gave in his submission to 
Morton after the pacification of Perth, but 
more than once came into conflict with the 
authorities in connection with the adminis- 
tration of his estates (Reg. Privy Council Scotl. 
ii. 189, 354). When Morton resigned the 
regency in 1577, Gray was one of the council 
extraordinary chosen to assist the king. He 
died in 1582. By his wife, Marion, daughter 
of James, lord Ogilvie of Airlie, he had six 
sons and six daughters. He was succeeded 
in the peerage by his son Patrick, father of 
Patrick, sixth lord, master of Gray [q. v.] 

[Douglas's Scottish Peerage (Wood), i. 670-1 ; 
Diurnal of Occurrents (Bannatyne Club) ; His- 
tories of Knox, Leslie, Calderwood, and Keith ; 
Cal. State Papers, Scott. Ser. ; ib. For. Ser. reign 
of Elizabeth ; Sadler State Papers ; Appendix 
to the Papers of Patrick, Master of Gray (Ban- 
natyne Club) ; Reg. Privy Council of Scotland, 
vols. i. ii. iii.] T. F. H. 



1612), commonly known as the 'Master of 
Gray,' was the eldest son of Patrick, fifth 
Lord Gray, by his wife Barbara, fourth 
daughter of William, lord Ruthven. He 
was educated at the university of St. An- 
drews, where he 'professed the true [pro- 
testant] religion, and communicated with 
the faithful at the table of the Lord' ('Dis- 
course of the Inj uries and Wrongs used against 
the Noblemen distressed' in CALDERWOOD, 
History, iv. 253). Not long after leaving 
the university he married Elizabeth, second 
daughter of Lord Glamis, chancellor of 
Scotland, 'whom he repudiated like as his 
father also cast away his mother ' (ib.) The 
separation took place within a year of his 
marriage, and the Master of Gray then went 
to France, where through Friar Gray, pro- 
bably a relation of his own, he was introduced 
to James Beaton, the exiled archbishop of 
Glasgow, and was received into the inner 
circle of the friends of Mary Queen of Scots. 
For his supposed services to the French 
cause in Scotland he was highly rewarded 
by the Duke of Guise, of whose ambitious 
schemes he was probably one of the chief 
inspirers. The Spanish ambassador resident 
at Paris also presented him with 'a cup- 
board of plate,' to the ' value of five or six 
thousand crowns ' (Davison to Waisingham, 
23 Aug. 1584, in Gray Papers, p. 3). He re- 
turned to Scotland either in the train of 
Esme Stuart, afterwards Duke of Lennox, or 
shortly after the fall of Morton (1581). Being 
reputed a catholic he was dealt with by the 
ministers of the kirk and ' promised to re- 
nounce papistrie and embrace the true Chris- 
tian religion' (CALDERWOOD, iv. 253), but 
before the day appointed to subscribe the 
articles he had returned to France. There 
he remained for about a year, probably re- 
turning to Scotland after the escape of the 
king to the catholic lords at St. Andrews, 
on 27 June 1583. By the king he was sent 
to convey the son of the Duke of Lennox 
to Scotland, and landed at Leith with his 
charge on 13 Nov. (ib. iii. 749 ; Historic of 
James the Sext, p. 192). 

James Stuart, earl of Arran, who had 
been recently reconciled to the king, was 
now the reigning favourite. Gray, who had a 

Erevious acquaintance with Arran, became 
is special confidant. He was, however, too 
able in diplomacy to be the tool of any man, 
and his ability in intrigue was only equalled 
by his utter blindness to honourable obliga- 
tions. He was reputed the handsomest man 
of his time, though his beauty was of a 
rather feminine cast ; he possessed a brilliant 
wit and fascinating manners, and by long 

Gray i 

experience in France had acquired a compre- 
hensive knowledge of men and affairs. He 
had been commissioned by Mary to represent 
her interests at the court of her son, and he 
commended himself to James by betray ing her 
secrets. The king bestOAved on him in 1584 
the commendatorship of the monastery of 
Dunfermline. Gray was acting in concert 
with Arran, Avho deemed it for his OAvn in- 
terest that Mary should remain a prisoner in 
England. With this vieAV negotiations Avere 
entered into for James's reconciliation Avith 
Elizabeth, and a proposal Avas made to send 
'the Master of Gray to London to arrange a 
treaty Avith the king of Scots, from Avhich 
his mother should be excluded. On 20 Aug. 
Elizabeth expressed her consent to receive the 
Master of Gray, although she doubted ' greatly 
of his good meaning ' (Burghley to Hunsdon, 
Cal State Papers, Scott. Ser. p. 484). After 
considerable delay, Gray received his com- 
mission as ambassador, 13 Oct. 1584 (Gray 
Papers, pp. 9-10). He also brought with 
him a letter from the king to Burghley, in- 
timating that he had been commissioned to 
* deell mast specially and secreitly Avith you 
nixt the quene, our dearest sister ' (Cal. State 
Papers, Scott. Ser. p. 489 ; printed in full in 
FROUDE'S History of England, cab. ed. xi. 
521-2). As Elizabeth cherished naturally a 
strong prejudice against Gray, Arran intro- 
duced him in October to Lord Hunsdon at 
Berwick. To Hunsdon, Gray appeared in 
the character of an exemplary protestant. 
' But for his papistrie/ AA r rites Hunsdon, ' I 
wish all ours Avere such ; for yesterday being 
Sunday he Avent to the church with me, haA'ing 
a service-book of mine ; sitting with me in my 
pew he said all the service, and both before 
the sermon and after he sang the psalms 
with me as well as I could do' (Hunsdon 
to Burghley, 19 Oct., Gray Papers, p. 12). 
The aA T OAved purpose of the mission was to 
obtain the extradition or expulsion from Eng- 
land of the banished lords, on Avhich condition 
Gray Avas prepared to reveal to Elizabeth 
the offers made to his master by the ca- 
tholics, and to propose a defensive league 
between the tAvo countries (Instructions from 
the Earl of Arran to the Master of Gray, 
14 Oct. 1584, in Gray Papers, p. 11). The 
instruct ions contained no reference to Queen 
Mary, Avhile the main purpose of the embassy 
was to secure her exclusion from the league 
with Elizabeth. Since Gray had been one 
of Mary's principal agents he could reveal 
to Elizabeth undoubted facts of such a cha- 
racter as irretrievably to damage her cause. 
He now wrote to Mary that to disarm sus- 
picion it was necessary that in the first in- 
stance the young king, her son, should treat 

\ Gray 

solely for himself, and that after he gained 
Elizabeth's confidence he might negotiate 
for her liberty. Mary indignantly replied 
that any one Avho proposed such a separation 
between her interests and those of her son 
must- be her enemy, Avhereupon Gray philo- 
sophically advised her against giving ' Avay 
to violent courses ' (Papers of the Master of 
Gray, pp. 30-7). Gray could not long con- 
ceal the double part he was now acting. On 
5 Jan. 1584-5 Mary Avrote to Fontenay that 
from communications made to her by p]liza- 
beth she suspected Gray had been unfaith- 
ful (LABANOFF, vi. 80). When she finally 
learned that James had expressly repudiated 
her proposed association Avith him in the 
Scottish croAvn, she invoked the malediction 
of heaA-en on the Master of Gray, and her 
' fils denature ' (Mary to Mauvissiere, 12 March 
1585; LABANOFF, vi. 123). 

Gray had also begun to betray his asso- 
ciates. His revelations of Mary's secrets 
helped to bring her to the block; but 
already he Avas mooting a proposal for the 
assassination of Arran. Sir James Melville, 
Avho refers to the Master of Gray as at this 
time his ' great friend,' states that before his 
departure to England Gray had begun to 
suspect that Arran Avas jealous of his influ- 
ence Avith the king (Memoirs, p. 330). Gray 
had determined to supplant Arran. He had 
no preference for the interests of Mary or 
the interests of James, except as they affected 
his OAvn. Arran was the person who noAV 
stood between him and his interests. It 
curiously happened that nothing was more 
fitted to Avin the confidence of Elizabeth 
than an expression of distrust in Arran ; for 
this distrust Avas the reason why she had 
looked coldly upon the proposed negotiations. 
Gray seems to haA'e succeeded in rendering 
her, at least for the time, oblivious to the 
double treachery of which she must have 
known him to be guilty. At all events it 
suited her purpose that Arran should be 
ruined; and when Gray proposed that in 
order to effect this the exiled lords should 
be sent to Scotland to hurl Arran from power, 
she expressed her high pleasure at the pro- 
posal, and Gray, before the league had been 
completed, was permitted to return to Scot- 
land to put the plot into execution. For 
the special purpose of assisting Gray in his 
designs, Sir Edward Wotton was chosen to 
succeed Davison as ambassador in Scotland. 
Wotton affected the character rather of a 
pleasant companion than a grave ambassador. 
Sir James Melville vainly warned the king 
that under his careless manner he hid deep 
and dangerous designs. He and the king 
were soon almost inseparable companions; 



The king and Arran were convinced that 
the mission of Gray had been an entire suc- 
cess. To deepen this impression the banished 
lords had been commanded to remove from 
Newcastle towards Cambridge or Oxford 
(Letter of Colville, 31 Dec. 1584). Wotton 
meanwhile co-operated with Gray in a plot 
against Arran, and in preparing the recall of 
the banished lords. With the approval of 
Elizabeth, Gray contrived a plot for Arran's 
assassination, but when it was about to be 
put into execution, Elizabeth deprecated re- 
course to violence. Gray replied that unless 
his own life was in danger he would do 
nothing violently against his enemies (Gray 
to Walsingham, 31 May 1585, Cal. State 
Papers, Scottish Ser. p. 496). 

Gray and Arran gradually became aware 
that each was conspiring against the other. 
On 22 June Robert Carvell informs Sir John 
Forster that there had been great ' disdaining' 
between Arran and the Master of Gray (ib. 
p. 498). All attempts to ' draw Arran from the 
king ' were, however, vain (several letters of 
Wotton, ib. pp. 498-9), and finally on 30 June 
"Wotton intimated that proceedings against 
him were to be deferred till after the conclusion 
of the league (ib. p. 500). An attempt at a re- 
conciliation between Arran and Gray (ib.) fol- 
lowed, and they were reported to be ' carrying 
a better countenance towards each other' 
(Wotton to Walsingham, 8 July, ib.) Lord 
Russell, son of the Earl of Bedford, was soon 
afterwards killed in a border affray by Kerr 
of Ferniehirst, an intimate friend of Arran. 
Wotton expressed his strong suspicion that 
this ' brave young English nobleman ' owed 
Ms death to Arran's instigation, and the king 
agreed to commit Arran to the castle of St. 
Andrews. But the ruin of his enemy at 
this particular stage of the proceedings did 
not suit the purpose of Gray, and with a 
daring stroke of policy, which amounted to 
genius, he persuaded the king to transfer 
Arran from his close imprisonment in the 
castle of St. Andrews to nominal confine- 
ment in Kinneil House. With an admirable 
pretence of penitence for his folly, Gray ad- 
mitted to Wotton that the large bribes of 
Arran. had been more than his virtue could 
resist ; and Wotton, from the hopes he enter- 
tained of 'recovering him [Gray] thoroughly,' 
represented to Walsingham ' the expedience 
of overlooking his fault ' (Wotton to Wal- 
singham, 6, 7, and 9 Aug. Cal. State Papers, 
Scott. Ser. p. 504). Gray's affected kind- 
ness to Arran was a ruse to influence Eliza- 
beth. To deliver Elizabeth prematurely 
from her fear of Arran was to deprive her 
of one of her chief motives for coming to 
terms with James. He saw that it was only 

by the return of the banished lords that 
he could hope to overthrow the influence 
of Arran with the king. The Duke of Guise, 

:mg. un 2D Aug. 
1585 Wotton informed Walsingham that 
the Master of Gray was of opinion that they 
were running a wrong course in seeking to 
disgrace Arran with the king, and that the 
only method certain of success was to ' let 
slip ' the banished lords, who would be able 
to take Arran and seize on the person of the 
king. The ministers of Elizabeth were unani- 
mous in approving of the proposal, but as 
usual Elizabeth hesitated. At last Gray 
plainly informed Wotton that if another 
fortnight were allowed to elapse 'he would 
shift for himself,' and accept the offers of 
France (Wotton to Walsingham, 22 Sept.) 
The threat decided Elizabeth. The plot was 
now developed by Gray and Wotton with a 
rapidity and skill which completely outwitted 
Arran and the king. The universal hatred 
that prevailed in Scotland against Arran 
assured its complete success. On the move- 
ment of the lords in England becoming 
known, Wotton made his escape to Berwick. 
Arran breaking from Kinneil denounced the 
Master of Gray, then absent in Perthshire 
collecting his followers, as the author of the 
conspiracy. The king sent a summons to 
Gray to appear and answer the charge. 
It was probably part of Gray's plan to be 
present with the king when the lords should 
appear, and with marvellous audacity he 
resolved not to be baulked of his purpose by 
the accusation of Arran. He could plead 
that he had stood Arran's friend against the 
accusations of the English ambassador, and 
when he indignantly denied all knowledge of 
the plot, his denial was at once accepted by 
the king. In despair Arran and his friends 
had determined as their last hope to stab 
Gray to death, even in the king's presence, 
when news arrived that the banished lords 
had already reached St. Ninians, within a 
mile of Stirling (Relation of the Master of 
Gray, p. 59). Thereupon Arran escaped in 
disguise by the water-gate. The king also 
stole down unobserved to a postern gate, but 
Gray had taken care to have it locked. Gray 
was now employed by the king to arrange 
terms with the conspirators, with whom he 
was acting in concert. These he conducted 
in such a manner as at the same time to 
divert any suspicion that he was concerned 
in the conspiracy, and to secure the gratitude 
of the king. He was able to announce to 
Elizabeth that the banished lords were in as 
good favour as ever they enjoyed (Gray to 



Walsingham, 6 Nov. 1585), that the king ! had so modified his representations to Eliza- 
bore no grudge to Elizabeth for what had ; beth, as practically to render his remonstrances 
happened, and that a league might be im- [ against the execution of Mary little more than 
mediately concluded. His assurances were formal. 

completely fulfilled, and at a meeting of the j The general belief in Scotland was that 
estates held at Linlithgow in December, the Gray had privately advised the death of 
league with England was finally ratified , Mary, and from this time, though he retained 
(Acta Parl. Scot. iii. 381). the king's favour, he ceased to have any in- 

In April of the following year Gray inti- j nuence in political affairs. Not long after 
mated to the Earl of Leicester his intention his return he was accused by Sir William 
to raise a body of troops to assist him in the \ Stewart of having confessed that he himself, 
Low Countries (Leicester to Gray, 6 April the secretary Maitland, and others, had been 
1586), and in May communications on this | concerned in the action at Stirling in No- 
subject were opened with Elizabeth (Gray j vember 1585, but he denied on oath that he 
to Walsingham, 5 May ; Archibald Douglas had ever made such a statement (Reg. Privy 
to Walsingham, 6 May ; Randolph to Wai- I Council Scotl. iv. 164). Notwithstanding this 
singham, 9 May, Cal. State Papers,Scott. Ser. he was committed to ward in the castle of 
p. 519). Gray began to levy soldiers for the Edinburgh, and on 15 May 1587 he was for- 
expedition, but after he had proceeded so far, mally accused before the convention(l) of hav- 
Elizabeth and Leicester changed their minds, ing trafficked with Spain and the pope for the 
and, though willing to accept the aid of the j injury of the protestant religion in Scotland ; 
troops, preferred that Gray, if he came to the j (2) of having planned the assassination of 
Low Countries, should do so in a private the vice-chancellor Maitland ; (3) of having 

counterfeited the king's stamp, and made use 
of it to prevent the king's marriage ; and (4) 
of having for rewards in England consented 
to Queen Mary's death (Reg. Privy Council 
Scotl. iv. 166; Gray Papers, pp. 149-51 ; PIT- 
CAIRN, Criminal Trials, i. 157-8; Historic of 
James the Se.vt, p. 227). After his voluntary 
confession of sedition, and of having sought 
to impede the marriage of the king with 
Anne of Denmark, he was pronounced a 

as to the attitude of James towards her pro- | traitor, but at the intercession of the estates, 
posed execution, and was fain to confess that especially of Lord John Hamilton (MoYSiE, 
the king was not disposed to relish the pro- ! Memoirs, p. 63), his life was spared by the king, 
posal (Gray to Walsingham, 6 Nov. 1586, no doubt gladly enough. In several of the 
Cal. State Papers, Scott, Ser. p. 536). He 
did the utmost that was consistent with pru- 
dence to temper the objections of the king, 
and recommended an increase in James's 
pension, and a parliamentary recognition of 
his title. Gray's appointment, along with 
Sir Robert Melville, as the king's commis- 
sioner to London, placed him in a difficult 
dilemma. As he himself expressed it, the 
king, ' if she die, will quarrel with me. Live 
she, I shall have double harm ' (Gray to 
Douglas, 27 Nov.) Before setting out from 

capacity (Walsingham to Gray, 4 June, ib 
p. 523). After various* changes of plan the 
queen on 11 Aug. gave her consent, pro- 
posing to advance to him 2,000/. (ib.ip. 532) ; 
but the matter went no further than the 
sending of troops by Gray to the aid of 
Leicester, 140 of whom were captured on the 
coast of Flanders (Gray Papers, p. 112). 

After the condemnation of Mary Queen 
of Scots, Gray was sounded by Walsingham 

charges on which Gray was condemned the 
king was deeply implicated ; the prevalent sus- 
picion, * that there was some mystery lurking 
' * 

Scotland he endeavoured to find a way out 
of his difficulty by recommending that Mary 
should be put to death by poison (Courcelles 
to Henry III, 31 Dec. 1586), and he also pro- 
posed to Elizabeth that if her life was not to 
be spared he should ' be stayed by the way or 
commanded to retire.' The instructions of 
King James were of a mild kind ( Gray Papers, 

in the matter' (CALDERWooD/iv. 6*13), was 
fully justified. Gray was commanded to leave 
the country within a month under a penalty 
of 40,000/. ; but probably no brdak occurred in 
his friendship with the king. He continued 
in the possession of the rents of his estates, 
only being deprived of the abbacy of Dun- 
fermline, which the king found it convenient 
to bestow on the Earl of Huntly. Gray left 
Scotland on 7 June 1587, and on the 17th the 
cause of his banishment was proclaimed at 
the market cross of Edinburgh (ib. iv. 614). 
He went to Paris, and afterwards to Italy. 
Through the interposition of Walsingham he 
was permitted in 1589 to return (Memorial 
of instructions to intercede for the Master of 
Gray, April 1589), and on the last day of 

pp. 120-5), or, as Gray himself expressed it, his May arrived in Scotland from England, along 
mission was < modest, not menacing.' Indeed, j with Lord Hunsdon (CALDERWOOD, v. 59). 
the representations of Gray had so modified ; On 27 Nov. he took his seat in the privy 
the attitude of James, and Gray's secret wishes | council (Reg. Privy Council Scotl. iv. 441). 




In June 1585 Gray had been appointed master 
of the wardrobe, and not long after his re- 
turn he was again restored to that office. In 
1592, along with Francis Stewart Hepburn, 
fifth earl of Bothwell [q. v.], he tried to cap- 
ture the king at Falkland, but on resistance 
being offered they retired, after having plun- 
dered the king's stables of the best horses 
(Historic of James the Sext, p. 250) . The same 
year he brought an accusation against the 
presbyterian minister, Robert Bruce (1554- 
1631) [q. v.], of having schemed with Both- 
well against the king (CALDERWOOD, v. 190). 
Meantime Gray had promised Bothwell to 
secure for him the king's favour on condition 
t hatBothwell supported his accusation against 
Bruce, but Bothwell, fearing treachery, failed 
to appear at the court. Gray, having there- 
fore no evidence, ' left the court for shame,' 
and afterwards i denied all accusation of Mr. 
Robert Bruce, and offered to fight his honest 
quarrel in that behalf with any man' (ib.^) 
After James ascended the English throne 
Gray acted frequently in a lawless manner, 
and more than once was summoned to answer 
for his conduct before the council or the 
estates. He, however, always retained the 
favour of the king. On 11 July 1606 the 
members of the privy council appointed by 
the king to inquire into the sums due by him 
to the Master of Gray found them to amount 
to 19,983/. 4s. lid. Scots, which was ordered 
to be paid him (Reg. Privy Council Scotland, 
vii. 745). He succeeded his father as sixth 
Lord Gray in 1609, and died in 1612. By his 
first wife, Elizabeth, the daughter of Lord 
Glamis, from whom he soon separated, he had 
no issue. By his second wife, Lady Mary 
Stewart, eldest daughter of Robert, earl of 
Orkney, whom he married in July 1585 (Cal. 
State Papers, Scottish Series, p. 501), he had 
two sons (Andrew, sixth lord Gray, and Wil- 
liam) and six daughters. 

[Eelation of the Master of Gray (Bannatyne 
Club) ; Gray Papers (Bannatyne Club ; not by 
any means exhaustive, and provided neither with 
introduction nor index) ; Calderwood's Hist, of 
the Church of Scotland ; Historie of James the 
Sext (Bannatyne Club) ; Sir James Melville's Me- 
moirs (Bannatyne Club) ; Keith's Hist, of Scot- 
land ; Cal. State Papers, Scott. Ser. ; Register of 
the Privy Council of Scotland, vols. ii-vii.; Pit- 
cairn's Criminal Trials, vol. i. ; Labanoff ' s Cor- 
respondence of Mary Queen of Scots, vols. vi. and 
vii.; Leicester Correspondence (Camden Soc.); 
Teulet's Relations Politiques de la France et de 
1'Espagne avec 1'Ecosse, passim ; Correspondence 
of Elizabeth and James VI (Camden Soc.); Dou- 
glas's Scottish Peerage (Wood), i. 671 ; Histories 
of Tytler, Burton, and Froude ; Mignet's Mary 
Queen of Soots; Hosack's Mary Queen of Scots ; 
Cal. Hat-field MSS. iii. passim.] T. F. H. 

GRAY, PETER (1807 P-1887), writer on 
life contingencies, born at Aberdeen about 
1807, was educated at Gordon's Hospital, now 
Gordon's College, in that city, from which 
he was sent on account of his promise and 
industry for two years to the university. 
Here he developed a taste for mathematics, 
and, with the sole desire to assist the studies 
of a friend, afterwards took a special interest 
in the study of life contingencies. He be- 
came an honorary member of the Insti- 
tute of Actuaries, and his contributions to 
the l Journal' of that society were nume- 
rous and valuable. He undertook, purely as- 
a labour of love, the task of organising and 
preparing for publication the tables deduced 
from the mortality experience issued by the 
institute. Gray specially constructed for 
Part I. of the ' Institute text Book ' an ex- 
tensive table of values of log 10 (1 + i), ap- 
pending thereto an interesting note on the 
calculations. He was a fellow of the Royal As- 
tronomical and Royal Microscopical Societies, 
and was distinguished by his knowledge of 
optics and of applied mechanics. Gray died 
on 17 Jan. 1887, in his eightieth year. 
With Henry Ambrose Smith and William 
Orchard he published ' Assurance and An- 
nuity Tables, according to the Carlisle Rate 
of Mortality, at three per cent.,' 8vo, London, 
1851, and contributed a preliminary notice 
to William Orchard's 'Single and Annual 
Assurance Premiums for every value of An- 
nuity,' 8vo, London, 1856. His separate writ- 
ings are: 1. 'Tables and Formulae for the 
Computation of Life Contingencies ; with 
copious Examples of Annuity, Assurance, 
and Friendly Society Calculations,' 8vo, Lon- 
don, 1849. 2. ' Remarks on a Problem in Life 
Contingencies,' 8vo, London, 1850. 3. 'Table* 
for the Formation of Logarithms and Anti- 
Logarithms to twelve Places ; with explana- 
tory Introduction,' 8vo, London, 1865 ; an- 
other edition, 8vo, London, 1876. 

[Journal of the Institute of Actuaries, xxvi. 
pt. i. 301-2, 406 ; Monthly Notices of the Royal 
Astron. Soc. xlviii. 163.] G. G. 

GRAY, ROBERT (1762-1834), bishop 
of Bristol, born 11 March 1762, was the son 
of Robert Gray, a London silversmith. Hav- 
ing entered St. Mary Hall, Oxford, he gra- 
duated B. A. 1784, M. A, 1787, B.D. 1799, and 
D.D. 1802. His first literary undertaking 
was his ' Key to the Old testament and 
Apocrypha ; or, an Account of their several 
Books, their Contents and Authors, and of 
the Times in which they were respectively 
written ; ' a work compiled on the plan of 
Bishop Percy's ' Key to the New Testament/ 
first published in 1790, and repeatedly re- 



printed. Soon after he was presented to the 
vicarage of Faringdon, Berkshire. In 1793 
he published ' Discourses on various subjects, 
illustrative of the Evidence, Influence, and 
Doctrines of Christianity;' and in 1794, 
* Letters during the course of a Tour through 
Germany, Switzerland, and Italy, in!791 and 
1792.' In 1796 he was appointed Bampton 
lecturer, and his discourses were published 
the same year, under the title of * Sermons on 
the Principles upon which the Keformation 
of the Church of England was established.' 
Through the favour of Shute Barrington[q.v.], 
bishop of Durham, he was promoted, in 
1800, to the rectory of Crayke, Yorkshire, 
when he resigned Faringdon; in 1804 he 
was collated by Barrington to the seventh 
stall in Durham Cathedral, and again, in 
1805, to the rectory of Bishopswearmouth, 
when he resigned Crayke. He held this 
living (in which he had succeeded Paley) until 
his elevation, in 1827, to the bishopric of 

He was an efficient and liberal bishop, 
and distinguished himself by firmness in the 
Bristol riots of 1831. When one of the 
minor canons suggested a postponement of 
divine service, as the rioters were masters of 
the city, Gray replied that it was his duty 
to be at his post. The service was held as 
usual, and he was himself the preacher. 
Before the close of the evening his palace 
was burned to the ground, and the loss which 
he sustained (besides that of his papers) was 
estimated at 10,000/. (SouiHEY, Life and 
Correspondence, vi. 167). His wife was 
Elizabeth, sister of Alderman Camplin of 
Bristol, by whom he had a numerous family. 
One son, Robert [q. v.], became bishop of Cape 
Town and metropolitan of Africa. He died 
at Rodney House, Clifton, 28 Sept. 1834, and 
was buried in the graveyard attached to Bristol 
Cathedral. A half-length portrait of him, in 
his episcopal robes, painted by Wright and 
engraved by Jenkins, was published in 1833. 
A marble monument by Edward H. Bayly, 
R.A., was erected in the cathedral by the 
clergy and laity of Bristol. It has a good 
medallion likeness. And a large memorial 
window, with an inscription, was erected by 
his family in the chancel of Almondsbury 
Church, near Bristol. 

Besides the above works, Gray published 
some separate sermons, and the following : 
1. 'Religious Union,' a sketch of a plan for 
uniting Roman catholics and presbyterians 
with the established church, 1800. 2. 'A 
Dialogue between a Churchman and a Metho- 
dist,' 1802, 5th edit. 1810. 3. 'Theory of 
Dreams,' 2 vols., 1808, anonymous. 4. Dis- 
course at Bishopswearmouth, 1812, upon the 


assassination of Perceval. 5. ' The Connec- 
tion between the Sacred Writings and the 
Literature of the Jewish and Heathen Au- 
thors, particularly that of the Classical Ages,' 
&c., 2 vols., 1816; 2nd edition 1819. 

[Gent. Mag. 1834, new. ser. ii. 645; Annual 
Register, 1834, Ixxvi. Chron. 242; Brit. Mag. 
1834, vi. 583; Cat. of Oxford Graduates, p. 270; 
Gloucestershire Notes and Queries, iv. 4 ; Pryce's 
Hist, of Bristol, pp. 91, 112, 114, 566; Lowndes's 
Bibl. Man., Bonn's ed., ii. 930 ; Life of Robert 
Gray, Bishop of Cape Town, i. 4, 30, 33.] 

B. H. B. 

GRAY, ROBERT (1809-1872), bishop 
of Cape Town, and metropolitan of Africa, 
son of Robert Gray [q. v.], bishop of Bristol, 
was born on 3 Oct. 1809. He entered as a com- 
moner at University College, Oxford, in 1827, 
and took his B.A. degree in 1831, gaining an 
honorary fourth class in classics. Soon after 
taking his degree he visited the continent, and 
travelled in France, Switzerland, Italy, and 
Sicily. In 1833 he was ordained deacon by 
his father, and in the following year priest 
by the Bishop of Bath and Wells. He first 
held the small living of Whitworth, Durham, 
and afterwards that of Stockton, to which he 
was presented in 1845. In the interval he 
had married Miss Myddleton of Grinkle Park, 
Saltburn, Yorkshire, who till death was his 
constant help and companion. Archbishop 
Howley soon afterwards pressed him to accept 
the bishopric of Cape Town, and ne sacri- 
ficed his own inclinations to what he recog- 
nised as a call of duty. He was consecrated 
29 June 1847. He arrived at his diocese at 
the commencement of the following year. 
He found it in a most forlorn condition, other 
denominations of Christians having done more 
for the propagation of their religion than 
churchmen. But his presence was felt im- 
mediately, and in about six years he suc- 
ceeded in dividing his unwieldy diocese into 
three parts, two new bishoprics being erected 
at Graham's Town and Natal. After he had 
been twelve years bishop of Cape Town, the 
island of St. Helena was erected into a sepa- 
rate bishopric (1859). It was chiefly owing to 
his suggestions that the universities mission 
to Central Africa was set on foot, and a bishop 
consecrated to superintend it 1 Jan. 1861. 

Until November 1853 Gray had been simply 
bishop of Cape Town and a suffragan of Can- 
terbury ; but in this month he formally re- 
signed his see, in order to forward its recon- 
stitution as a metropolitical see, with juris- 
diction over Graham's Town and Natal, which 
it was in contemplation to erect into distinct 
bishoprics. On the following 8 Dec. he was 
reappointed bishop of Cape Town by letters 
patent. By his firmness Gray gained the 




respect, and by his gentleness the affections, of 
all classes of people. All things seemed to 
have gone on smoothly till 1856, when, upon 
his resolving to hold a synod of his diocese, 
he issued summonses to the clergy and certain 
delegates of the laity. Mr. Long, one of his 
clergy, refused to attend, and repeated the 
refusal in 1860, when a second synod was 
proposed to be held. It was alleged that Gray 
had no authority either from the crown or 
the local legislature to hold any such synod ; 
and on 8 Jan. 1861 the offending clergyman 
was suspended by Gray from the cure of souls, 
and in March following he was deprived by 
the withdrawal of his license. In an action 
brought by the clergyman and his church- 
wardens before the supreme court of the 
colony, the judges decided in favour of Gray, 
on the ground that though no coercive juris- 
diction could be claimed by virtue of the 
letters patent of 1853, when he was consti- 
tuted metropolitan, because they were issued 
after a constitutional government had been 
established at the Cape, yet the clergyman 
was bound by his own voluntary submission 
to acquiesce in the decision of the bishop. 
From this judgment Mr. Long appealed to 
the judicial committee of the privy council, 
who on 24 June 1863 reversed the sentence 
of the colonial court, the judicial committee 
agreeing with the inferior court that the let- 
ters patent of 1847 and those of 1853 were in- 
effectual to create any jurisdiction, but deny- 
ing that the bishop's synod was in any sense 
a court. The dispute between Gray and Mr. 
Long was therefore to be treated as a suit 
between members of a religious body not 
established fly law, and it was decided that 
Mr. Long had not been guilty of any offence ! 
which by the laws of the church of England 
would have warranted his deprivation. Ac- 
cordingly Mr. Long was restored to his former 
status.- In the same year (1863) Gray was 
engaged in another lawsuit. One of his suf- 
fragans, Dr. Colenso [q. v.], bishop of Natal, 
was presented to him by the dean of Cape 
Town and the archdeacons of George and 
Graham's Town, on the charge of heresy. 
Bishop Colenso protested against the juris- 
diction of his metropolitan, and offered no 
defence of his opinions, but admitted that he 
had published the works from which passages 
had been quoted, and alleged that they were 
no offence against the laws of the established 
church. Accordingly on 16 Dec. 1863 Gray 
pronounced the deposition of the Bishop of 
Natal, to take effect from 16 April following, 
if the bishop should not before that time make 
a full retractation of the charges brought 
against him, in writing. This judgment, how- 
ever, was reversed, on appeal to the judicial 

committee of the privy council, on the ground 
that the crown had exceeded its powers in 
issuing letters patent conveying coercive juris- 
diction on its sole authority. The principal 
point in the judgment is contained in the 
following words : 'No metropolitan or bishop 
in any colony having legislative institutions 
can by virtue of the crown's letters patent 
alone (unless granted under an act of parlia- 
ment or confirmed by a colonial statute) 
exercise any coercive jurisdiction or hold any 
court or tribunal for that purpose.' 

It is a remarkable fact that the judge who 
presided at the pronouncement of this judg- 
ment, Lord-chancellor Westbury, was the 
very person who, as attorney-general, had 
drawn the letters patent which he now pro- 
nounced to be null and void in law. The 
result of the whole litigation was that the 
Bishop of Natal continued to hold religious 
services in his cathedral, while the dean also 
held other services at a different hour, and 
this state of things continued till the death 
of the deprived Bishop of Natal, which oc- 
curred in 1883. Meanwhile Gray made his 
appeal to the bishops of the English church 
to give him their countenance and support, 
as a bishop of a free and independent church. 
His anxious desire was that the church of Eng- 
land, through her bishops and convocations, 
should sanction his proceedings and concur 
with him in appointing a new bishop for the 
see, after passing the sentence of excommu- 
nication on Colenso, 16 Dec. 1863. The debates 
on the subject which ensued in the upper house 
of convocation do not give a very high idea 
of the intellectual power of the bishops, but 
upon the whole the upper as well as the lower 
house of convocation of Canterbury agreed in 
supporting Gray in his project of consecrating- 
a new bishop for the diocese, taking a different 
name and title. In 1867 the matter was also 
brought before the Pan -Anglican Synod,whicli 
had been summoned to meet at Lambeth, and 
which all the bishops in communion with the 
Anglican church had been invited to attend. 
Here, owing to the attitude of the American 
bishops, Gray carried his point, viz. ' that this 
conference accepts and adopts the wise de- 
cision of the convocation of Canterbury as to 
the appointment of another bishop to Natal/ 
This was carried with three dissentients only, 
although only two days before, on 25 Sept., 
the archbishop had refused to put the ques- 
tion : ' That this conference,while pronouncing 
no opinion upon any question as to legal 
rights, acknowledges and accepts the spiri- 
tual sentence pronounced by the metropo- 
litan of South Africa upon the Rt. Rev. J. W. 
Colenso, D.D., Bishop of Natal.' Gray, in 
deference to the Archbishop of Canterbury, 


acquiesced in his decision ; but after the con- 
ference was over fifty-five bishops joined in 
the following declaration : l We the under- 
signed bishops declare our acceptance of the 
sentence pronounced upon Dr. Colenso by the 
metropolitan of South Africa, with his suf- 
fragans, as being spiritually a valid sentence.' 
The debates, though not published, may be 
seen in the archives at Lambeth Library. 

Gray's next step was to find a person willing 
to accept the bishopric, and who would be ac- 
ceptable to all parties concerned. The see to 
which he was to be appointed was designated 
that of Pietermaritzburg. After many re- i 
fusals the Rev. W. K. Macrorie in January 
1868 accepted the post, and the next difficulty 
that arose was as to the place of consecration, 
it being found that there were legal difficulties 
as to a consecration taking place without the 
queen's mandate in any place where the Act 
of Uniformity was in force. The new bishop 
was finally consecrated at Cape Town on 
25 Jan. 1869 by Gray, assisted by the bishops 
of Graham's Town, St. Helena, and the Free 

The incessant work in which Gray had been 
engaged was now beginning to tell upon him, 
and his anxieties were increased by domestic 
afflictions. In 1870 he lost a daughter, and 
in the spring of the following year his wife 
died. He also sensibly felt the loss of the 
Bishop of Graham's Town, who had in the 
same year been induced to accept the bishopric 
of Edinburgh. The bishopric of Graham's 
Town being thus vacant, Gray had the satis- 
faction of consecrating for the see his old and 
tried friend, Archdeacon Merriman. 

Gray died on 1 Sept. 1872, his death being 
supposed to have been accelerated by a fall 
from his horse about three weeks before. Up 
to this time he had been engaged incessantly 
in work in all parts of his large diocese, and 
before he died had been the means of adding 
to the South African church five new bishop- 
rics, to which others have been added since 
his death. Perhaps Gray's most remarkable 
characteristic was his tenacity of purpose in 
carrying to the end what he judged to be his 

Gray published, besides many pamphlets 
and some charges, journals of visitations held 
in 1848 and 1850 (London, 1852), in 1855 
(London, 1856), in 1864 (London, 1864), and 
in 1865 (London, 1866). 

[Life of Bishop Gray, by H. L. Farrer, after- 
wards Lear, edited by the bishop's son ; Chroni- 
cle of Convocation ; Lambeth Archives.] N. P. 

GRAY, ROBERT (1825-1887), ornitho- 
logist, born at Dunbar on 15 Aug. 1825, was 
the son of Archibald Gray, a merchant of the 


place. He was educated at the parish school, 
and at the age of fifteen (information received 
from the late William Sinclair) he became 
an apprentice in the branch of the British 
Linen Company Bank. Five years after- 
wards he went to Glasgow, where he entered 
the head office of the City of Glasgow Bank. 
Here he attained the position of inspector of 
branches, an appointment which had an im- 
portant influence upon his scientific pursuits. 
From early years he had been addicted to 
the study of natural history. He soon adopted 
ornithology as his specialty, and wrote 
largely on the subject. During his frequent 
journeys for the inspection of the branch 
offices of the bank, he diligently availed him- 
self of his extended opportunities for study- 
ing bird4ife and adding to his collection of 
specimens. The note-books, which he filled 
in remote country inns during evening hours, 
after the day's work was ended, and their 
illustrations by his skilful pencil, formed the 
basis of his ' Birds of the West of Scotland,' 
published in 1871, a work, now out of print 
and scarce, which embodies in an eminently 
pleasant and readable form the results of 
years of observation. 

Not less worthy of remembrance are Gray's 
labours in connection with various learned 
societies. In 1851 he was one of the founders 
of the Natural History Society of Glas- 
| gow. He contributed to the ' Proceed- 
! ings' of that body, was its treasurer from 
j 1854 to 1856, and was elected its secretary 
| in 1858, a post which he resigned in 1871, 
when he was appointed agent of the branch 
of the City of Glasgow Bank in St. Vincent 
Street, Glasgow. On 8 April 1856 he had 
married Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas An- 
derson of Girvan, a lady much interested in 
science, who formed an extensive and valu- 
j able geological collection illustrative of the 
; fossils of the silurian rocks of the south of 
j Scotland, and materially aided her husband 
\ in his ornithological pursuits. In March 1874 
i Gray entered the service of the Bank of Scot- 
land as superintendent of branches, Edin- 
burgh, and eight years later he became cashier 
j there, an appointment which he retained 
during the rest of his life. In Edinburgh he 
again devoted himself to the interests of 
I science. In 1882 he was elected vice-president 
' of the Royal Society there ; but it was in con- 
! nection with the Royal Physical Society that 
j he made his influence most distinctly felt. 
! This society, one of the oldest scientific bodies 
i in Edinburgh, had * fallen into one of its 
j periodic fits of depression,' when, in 1877, 
| Gray accepted its secretaryship. He entered 
on his duties with great energy, and, by 
his courtesy and singular charm of manner 


not less than by his power of organisation 
and his excellent business faculty, he was 
successful in introducing needed reforms, in 
attracting new members and inspiriting old 
ones, and, finally, in placing the society upon 
a satisfactory footing as an active scientific 
body, issuing printed ' Proceedings.' At the 
time of his death, which occurred suddenly 
in Edinburgh on 18 Feb. 1887, Gray was 
engaged, in conjunction with Mr. William 
Evans, upon a volume dealing with the 
birds of the east coast of Scotland. 

[Obituary notice by Dr. R. H. Traquair, 
F.R.S., in Proceedings of the Eoyal Soc. Edinb. 
vol. xv. ; Minute Book of Royal Soc. Edinb. ; 
Parochial Register of Dunbar ; obituary notice 
in Proceedings of Natural Hist. Soc. of Glasgow, 
vol. ii., new ser. ; information received from 
Grray's family and personal information.] 

J. M. G. 

1780-1836), naturalist and pharmacologist, 
was the posthumous son of Samuel Frederick 
Gray, the anonymous translator of Linnaeus's 
' Philosophia Botanica' for James Lee's ' In- 
troduction to Botany.' Born after his patri- 
mony had been distributed, he was entirely 
dependent on his own industry, and from 
1800 to his death suffered from disease of 
the lungs. He became a pharmaceutical 
chemist at Walsall in Staffordshire, where 
his second son, John Edward Gray [q. v.], 
was born ; but soon after this removed to 
London, his son George Robert Gray [q. v.] 
having been born at Chelsea. In 1818 he 
^published a ' Supplement to the Pharmaco- 
poeia/ which went through five later edi- 
tions (1821, 1828, 1831, and 1836), and was 
rewritten by Professor Redwood in 1847. 
Having studied Ray's tentative natural sys- 
tem of classification of plants, and never 
'adopted the artificial system of Linnaeus, 
Gray was much fascinated by the method of 
Jussieu, and arranged the plants in his sup- 
plement to the ' Pharmacopoeia ' (London, 
1818) in accordance with it, this being the 
first English work in which it was adopted. 
Having become a contributor to the ' London 
Medical Repository,' he was in 1819 invited 
to become joint editor, and acted as such until 
1821. Besides unsigned articles he contri- 
buted to this journal papers on the meta- 
morphoses of insects, on worms, on indige- 
nous emetic plants, on generation in imper- 
fect plants (cryptogamia), c. About this 
time he gave lectures on botany, upon the 
Jussieuan system, partly in conjunction with 
his son J. E. Gray, at the Sloane Street Bo- 
tanical Garden and at Mr. Taunton's medical 
schools at Hatton Garden and Maze Pond. 
In 1821 he published ' A Natural Arrange- 



ment of British Plants,' in two volumes, the 
introductory portions only being by him, the 
synoptical part being the work of his son 
J. E. Gray, though not bearing his name. 
This valuable work was much decried by Sir 
J. E. Smith, Dr. George Shaw, and other 
extreme votaries of the Linnsean system, the 
alleged reason being that ' English Botany ' 
was quoted as ' Sowerby's ' and not as 
'Smith's.' In Lindley's ' Synopsis,' printed 
in 1829, Gray's work is deliberately ignored, 
so that it has seldom received its due credit 
as our first flora arranged on the natural 
system. In 1823 Gray published ' The Ele- 
ments of Pharmacy,' and in 1828 ' The Ope- 
rative Chemist,' both practical works of a 
high order of merit. 

[Memoirs, by Dr. J. E. Gray, 1872-5; London 
Medical Repository, 1819-21; and other works 
above named.] Gr. S. B. 

GRAY, STEPHEN (d. 1736), electrician, 
was a pensioner of the Charterhouse in London . 
Thomson, the historian of the Royal Society, 
observes that the absence of any further bio- 
graphical details is remarkable ; but Desagu- 
liers intimates that Gray's t character was very 
particular, and by no means amiable.' Priest- 
ley, in his ' History of Electricity,' avers that 
no student of electricity ever l had his heart 
more entirely in the work.' His passionate 
fondness for new discoveries exposed him to 
many self-deceptions ; but his researches led 
to very valuable results bearing upon the 
communication, the conduction, and the in- 
sulation of electricity. He was the first to 
divide all material substances into electrics 
and non-electrics, according as they were or 
were not subject to electric excitation by 
friction. He also discovered that non-electrics 
could be transformed into the electric state 
by contact with disturbed and active electrics. 
Gray's manifold experiments led to the divi- 
sion of substances into conductors and non- 
conductors. Du Fay recognised the value of 
Gray's discoveries, and was one of the earliest 
men of science to apply them. Gray was 
led from experiments made with a glass tube 
and a down-feather tied to the end of a small 
stick to try the effect of drawing the feather 
through his fingers. He found that the small 
downy fibres of the feather were attracted by 
his finger. The success of this experiment 
depended upon principles not then in Gray's 
mind ; but he was encouraged to proceed, 
and found that many other substances were 
electric. He discovered that light was emitted 
in the dark by silk and linen, and in greater 
degree by a piece of white pressing paper. 
He thus gradually mastered the principle of 
the communication of electric power from 




native-electrics to other bodies. In 1729 Gray, 
after many fruitless attempts to make metals 
attractive by heating, rubbing, and hammer- 
ing, recollected an earlier suspicion of his 
own, that as a tube communicated its light 
to various bodies when rubbed in the dark, it 
might possibly at the same time convey an 
electricity to them. lie tried experiments 
witli an ivory ball and a feather, and, by 
studying their attraction, ultimately disco- 
vered that electricity could be carried any 
distance perpendicularly by a thread or other 
communicator, and (in conjunction with Mr. 
Wheeler) that a silken line carried at right 
angles horizontally would continue to con- 
duct the generated electricity to great lengths 
from the perpendicular course. Gray pursued 
his investigations alone and with Wheeler, 
and paved the way for Musschenbroeck's in- 
vention of the Leyden phial, the formation 
of electric batteries, &c. lie was the author 
of several practical papers in the ' Philoso- 
phical Transactions,' having been elected a 
fellow of the Royal Society in 1732. lie 
died on 25 Feb. 1736. 

[Thomson's Hist, of Eoyat Soc. ; Priestley's 
Hist, of Electricity; Phil. Trans.] J. B-Y. 

GRAY, SIB THOMAS (d. 1369?), author 
of the ' Scala-chronica,' was the son of Sir 
Thomas Gray of Ileaton, Norhamshire, North- 
umberland. His mother seems to have been 
Agnes de Beyle (KELLAW, Reg. i. 1170, iv. 
310 ; cf. RAINE, N. Durham, p. 86 ; STEVEN- 
SON, Preface, xxvii). Sir Thomas Gray the 
elder was left for dead upon the field when 
Wallace (May 1294) attacked the English 
sheriff at Lanark (Scala-chron. p. 12-4 ; STE- 
VENSON, Pref. p. xv). He was taken prisoner 
to Bannockburn (Scala-chron. pp. 141-2 ; cf. 
TRIVET, p. 355), was constable of Norham 
Castle (1319), and seems to have died about 
1344, for his son, Sir Thomas, was ordered 
seizin of his father's lands 10 April 1345 
(RAINE, p. 45; KELLAW, iii. 368-71, iv. 
310-11). Sir Thomas Gray the younger 
thus became lord of Heaton Manor and war- 
den of Norham Castle (ib.) He had already 
been ordered to accompany William de Mon- 
tacute, the earl of Salisbury, abroad (10 July 
1338), and in March 1344 the wardenship 
of the manor of Middlemast-Middleton was 
granted to ' Thomas de Grey le Fitz ' for his 
service beyond the sea (RTMEB, ii. 1048 ; 
STEVENSON, proofs, No. 19). He fought at 
Neville's Cross (October 1346), and was 
called to the Westminster council of January 
1347 (STEVENSON, p. xxviii ; cf. RYMER, iii. 
92, 97). When the Scottish truce was over 
he was ordered to see to the defence of the 
borders (30 Oct. 1353). He was taken pri- 

soner during a sally from Norham Castle 
(August 1355), and with his son Thomas (or 
William, according to one Scotch account), 
whom he knighted just before the engage- 
ment, was carried off to Edinburgh. Here he 
' became curious and pensive,' and began ' a 
treter et a translator en plus court sentence 
lescroniclesdelGrauntBretaigne et les gestez 
des Englessez' (Scala-chron. p. 2 ; STEVENSON, 
p. xxix ; cf. WYNTOUN, bk. viii. 11. 6543-82, 
and BOWER, ii. 350-1 ). Before 25 Nov. 1356 
he wrote to Edward III, begging help towards 
paying his ransom ; but he had been released by 
16 Aug. 1357, when he was appointed guardian 
to one of King David's hostages (RYMER, iii. 
343, 366). He probably accompanied the 
Black Prince to France in August 1359 (ib. 
p. 443) ; he \vas made warden of the east 
marches in 41 Edward III (1367), and is said 
to have died in 1369 (STEVENSON, p. xxxii). 
His wife was Margaret, daughter of William 
de Presfen or Presson. By her he left a son, 
Thomas, aged ten, who appears to have died 
about 30 Nov. 1400, seized of Wark, Howick, 
Ileaton, and many other manors. His grand- 
son, John Grey (d. 1421), earl of Tanker- 
ville, is noticed separately. 

The ' Scala-chronica ' opens with an alle- 
gorical prologue, and is divided into five 
parts. Of these part i., which relates the 
fabulous history of Britain, is based on 
' Walter of Exeter's ' Brut (i.e. on Geoffrey 
of Monmouth); part ii., which reaches to 
Egbert's accession, is based upon Bede; part 
iii., extending to William the Conqueror, on 
Higden's ' Polychronicon ; ' and part iv. pro- 
fesses to be founded on ' John le vikeir de Til- 
mouth que escriptleYstoria Aurea.' There are 
several difficulties connected with the pro- 
logue ; the chief are its distinct allusions to 
Thomas Otterburn, w r ho is generally supposed 
to have written early in the next century 
(Scala-chron. pp. 1-4). According to Mr. 
Stevenson many incidents in part iv. are not 
to be found in the current editions of Higden. 
Mr. Stevenson considers the book to assume 
some independent value with the reign of 
John ; but its true importance really begins 
with the reign of Edward I. It is specially 
useful for the Scottish wars, and narrates the 
exploits of the author's father in great detail 
(Scala-chron. pp. 123, 127, 138, &c.) The 
author is tolerably minute as to Edward II's 
reign (pp. 136-53), and the rest of the book 
(pp. 153-203) is devoted to Edward III. The 
detailed account of the French wars from 
1355-61 suggests the presence of the writer 
(pp. 172-200). The history breaks off in 
1362 or 1363. 

The principal manuscript of the ' Scala- 
chronica ' is that in Corpus Christ i College, 




Cambridge. The question of authorship is 
settled by the verse anagram in the prologue 
which forms the words ' Thomas Gray ' (Prol. 
pp. 1, 2). The title < Scala-chronica' and the 
allegory in the prologue with its series of 
ladders point to the scaling 'ladder' in the 
Gray arms (STEVENSON, p. iii, n. b). In the 
sixteenth century Dr. Wotton made extracts 
from the ' Scala-chronica.' The whole work 
has never been printed, but Mr. Stevenson 
edited the latter half (from 1066 A.D.) and the 
prologue for the Maitland Club in 1836. This 
edition is prefaced by an elaborate introduc- 
tion and a series of important documents re- 
lating to the Grays. It also includes the ab- 
stract which Leland made of the ' Scala- 
chronica ' when it was in more perfect state 
than now, and a short analysis of a French 
work which seems to have borne a close re- 
lation to the ' Scala-chronica ' (ib. pp. xxxv, 
xxxvi, 259-315). 

[Scala-chronica, ed. Stevenson (Maitland Club), 
1836 ; Eymer's Fcedera, ed. 1821 ; Kellaw's Re- 
gistrum Palatinum Dunelmense, ed. Hardy (Rolls 
Series); Escheat Rolls; Tanner, p. 338 ; Nasmith's 
Catal. of Manuscripts of Corpus Christi Coll. 
Cambridge, ed. 1777; Raine's Hist, of North 
Durham; Wyntoun,ed. Laing (1872), ii. 485-6; 
Trivet, ed. Hog (Engl. Hist. Soc.) ; Bower's Scoti- 
chronicon, ed. Goodall (1759), ii. 350-1 ; Planta's 
Cat. of Cotton. MSS.] T. A. A. 

GRAY, THOMAS (1716-1771), poet, son 
of Philip Gray, 'money scrivener,' born 
27 July 1676, by his wife Dorothy Antrobus, 
was born in his father's house in Cornhill, 
London, 26 Dec. 1716. The mother belonged 
to a Buckinghamshire family, but at the time 
of her marriage kept a milliner's shop in the 
city with an elder sister, Mary. Another 
sister, Anna, was married to a retired at- 
torney, Jonathan Rogers, who lived in Burn- 
ham parish. She had two brothers, Robert 
and William. Robert, who was at Peter- 
house, Cambridge (B.A. 1702, M.A. 1705), 
and elected a fellow of his college in 1704, 
lived at Burnham, Buckinghamshire, and 
vacated his fellowship, probably by death, 
in January 1730 ; William was at King's Col- 
lege, Cambridge (B.A. 1713, M.A. 1717), 
a master at Eton, and afterwards rector of 
Everton, Northamptonshire, where he died 
in 1742 (HAKWOOD, Alumni, ii. 290). Philip 
Gray was a brutal husband. A curious 
paper, written by Mrs. Gray in 1735, to be 
submitted to a lawyer, was discovered by 
Haslewood, and published by Mitford. She 
states that Gray had ' kicked, punched,' and 
abused his wife, with no excuse but an insane 
iealousy. The shop had been continued by 
the two sisters, in accordance with an ante- 
nuptial agreement, and Mrs. Gray had found 

her own clothes and supported her son at 
school and college. Gray now threatened to 
close the shop. No legal remedy could be 
suggested, and Mrs. Gray continued to live 
with her husband. She had borne twelve chil- 
dren, all of whom, except Thomas, the fifth, 
died in infancy. His life was saved on one oc- 
casion by his mother's bleeding him with her 
own hand. He was sent to his uncle Robert 
Antrobus at Burnham. About 1727 he was 
sent to Eton as an oppidan and a pupil of his 
uncle William. Here he formed a ' quadruple 
alliance ' with Horace Walpole (born 24 Sept. 
1717), Richard West, and Thomas Ashton 
[q. v.] This intimacy was cemented by com- 
mon intellectual tastes. Walpole, West, and 
Gray were all delicate lads, who probably 
preferred books to sport. Less intimate 
friends were Jacob Bryant [q. v.] and Richard 
Stonehewer, who maintained friendly rela- 
tions with Gray till the last, and died in 
1809, ' auditor of the excise.' On 4 July 1734 
Gray was entered as a pensioner at Peter- 
house, and admitted 9 Oct. in the same year. 
Walpole entered King's College in March 
1735 ; while West was sent to Christ Church, 
Oxford. Ashton, who entered Trinity College 
in 1733, was less intimate than the others with 
Gray. Walpole and Gray kept up a corre- 
spondence with West, communicating poems, 
and occasionally writing in French and Latin. 
All three contributed to a volume of ' Hy- 
meneals ' on the marriage of Frederick, prince 
of Wales, in 1736. Gray also wrote at col- 
lege a Latin poem, ' Luna Habitabilis,' pub- 
lished in the ' Musse Etonenses,' ii. 107. The 
regular studies of the place were entirely un- 
congenial to Gray. He cared nothing for 
mathematics, and little for the philosophy, 
such as it was, though he apparently dipped 
into Locke. He was probably despised as a 
fop by the ordinary student of the time. His 
uncle Rogers, whom he visited at Burnham 
in 1737, despised him for reading instead of 
hunting, and preferring walking to riding. 
The * walking ' meant strolls in Burnham 
Beeches, where he managed to discover 
' mountains and precipices.' His opinion of 
Cambridge is indicated by the fragmentary 
' Hymn to Ignorance,' composed on his re- 
turn. He left the university without a de- 
gree in September 1738, and passed some 
months at his father's, probably intending to 
study law. Walpole, who had already been 
appointed to some sinecure office, invited 
Gray to accompany him on the grand tour. 
They crossed from Dover 29 March 1739, 
spent two months in Paris, then went to 
Rheims, where they stayed for three months, 
and in September proceeded to Lyons. At 
the end of the month they made an excur- 



sion to Geneva, and visited the 'Grande 
Chartreuse,' when both travellers were duly 
affected by the romantic scenery, which it 
was then thought proper to compare to Sal- 
vat or Rosa. In the beginning of November 
they crossed and shuddered at Mont Cenis, 
Walpole's lapdog being carried off by a wolf 
on the road. After a short stay at Turin 
they visited Genoa and Bologna, and reached 
Florence in December. In April they started 
for Home, and after a short excursion to 
Naples returned to Florence 1-4 July 1740. 
Here they lived chiefly with Mann, the Eng- 
lish minister, afterwards Walpole's well- 
known correspondent. Gray apparently found 
it dull, and was detained by Walpole's con- 
venience. They left Florence 24 April, in- 
tending to go to Venice. At Keggio a quarrel 
took place, the precise circumstances of which 
are unknown. One story, preserved by Isaac 
Reed, and first published by Mitford (GnAY, 

Works, ii. 174), is that Walpole suspected 
Gray of abusing him, and opened one of his 

letters to England. Walpole's own account, 

fiven to Mason, is a candid confession that 
is own supercilious treatment of a compa- 
nion socially inferior and singularly proud, 
shy and sensitive, was the cause of the dif- 
ference. Walpole had made a will on start- 
ing leaving whatever he possessed to Gray 
(WALPOLE, Letters, v. 443) ; but the tie be- 
tween the fellow-travellers has become irk- 
some to more congenial companions. Gray 
went to Venice alone, and returned through 
Verona, Milan, Turin, and Lyons, which he 
reached on 25 Aug. On his way he again 
visited the ' Grande Chartreuse,' and wrote 
his famous Latin ode. Johnson (Piozzi, 
Anecdotes, p. 108) also wished to leave some 
Latin verses at the ' Grande Chartreuse.' 
Gray was at London in the beginning of 

September. He had been a careful sight- 
seer, made notes in picture-galleries, visited 
churches, and brushed up his classical asso- 
ciations. He observed, and afterwards ad- 
vised, the judicious custom of always record- 
ing his impressions on the spot. 

Gray's father died on 6 Nov. 1741 . Several 
letters addressed to him by his son during 
the foreign tour show no signs of domestic 
alienation. Mrs. Gray retired with her sister, 
Mary Antrobus, to live with the third sister, 
Mrs. Rogers, whose husband died on 31 Oct. 
1742. The three sisters now took a house 
together at W^est End, Stoke Poges. Gray 
had found "West in declining health. They 
renewed their literary intercourse, and Gray 
submitted to his friend the fragment of a 
tragedy, ' Agrippina.' West's criticism ap- 
pears to have put a stop to it. On 1 June 
1742 West died, to the great sorrow of his 

friend, whose constitutional melancholy was 
deepened by his friendlessness and want of 
prospects. He thought himself, it is said, too 
poor to follow the legal profession. Unwil- 
ling to hurt his mother's feelings by openly 
abandoning it, he went to Cambridge to take 
a degree in civil law, and settled in rooms at 
Peterhouse as a fellow-commoner in Octo- 
ber 1742. He never became a fellow of 
any college. He proceeded LL.B. in the 
winter of 1743. He preferred the study of 
Greek literature to that of either civil or 
common law, and during six years went 
through a severe course of study, making 
careful notes upon all the principal Greek 
authors. He always disliked the society of 
Cambridge and ridiculed the system of edu- 
cation. The place was recommended to him 
by its libraries, by the cheapness of living, 
and, perhaps, by an indolence which made 
any change in the plan of his life intoler- 

Cambridge was Gray's headquarters for 
the rest of his life. The university was very 
barren of distinguished men. He felt the 
loss of Conyers Middleton (d. 28 July 1750), 
whose house, he says, was ' the only easy 
place he could find to converse in.' He took 
a contemptuous interest in the petty in- 
trigues of the master and fellows of Pem- 
broke, where were most of his friends ; but 
ic had few acquaintances, though he knew 
something of William Cole, also a friend of 
Walpole, and a few residents, such as Keene, 
master of Peterhouse from 1748 to 1756, and 
James Browne, master of Pembroke from 
1770 to 1784. Among his Cambridge con- 
temporaries was Thomas Wharton (B.A. 
1737, Ml). 1741 ; see also MUNK, Roll,iL 197), 
who was a resident and fellow of Pembroke 
till his marriage in 1747. He afterwards 
lived in London, and in 1758 settled in his 
paternal house at Old Park, Durham, where 
he died, aged 78, 15 Dec. 1794 (GRAY, Works, 
iv. 143). A later friend, William Mason (b. 
1725), was at St. John's College, Cambridge, 
where he attracted Gray's notice by some 
early poems, and partly through Gray's in- 
fluence was elected a fellow of Pembroke in 
1749. He became a warm admirer and a 
humble disciple and imitator. About 1754 
he obtained the living of Aston in Yorkshire. 
Gray occasionally visited Wharton and Mason 
at their homes, and maintained a steady cor- 
respondence with both. In the summer he 
generally spent some time with his mother 
at Stoke Poges. His aunt, Mary Antrobus, 
died there on 6 Nov. 1749. His mother died 
on 11 March 1753, aged 62. He was most 
tenderly attached to her, and placed upon her 
tomb an inscription to the ' careful tender 


mother of many children, one of whom alone 
had the misfortune to survive her.' 

The friendship with Horace Walpole had 
been renewed in 1744, at first with more 
courtesy than cordiality, although they after- 
wards corresponded upon very friendly terms. 
Gray was often at Strawberry Hill, and made 
acquaintance with some of Walpole's friends, 
though impeded by his shyness in society. 
Walpole admired Gray's poetry and did much 
to urge the timid author to publicity. His 
first publication was the ' Ode on a distant 
prospect of Eton College/ written in 1742, 
which, at Walpole's desire, was published 
anonymously by Dodsley in the summer of 
1747. It made no impression. In the fol- 
lowing year he began his poem on the ' Al- 
liance of Education and Government,' but 
was deterred from pursuing it by the ap- 
pearance of Montesquieu's ' Esprit des Lois,' 
containing some of his best thoughts. In 
1748 appeared the first three volumes of Dods- 
ley 's collection, the second of which contained 
Gray's Eton ode, the ' Ode to Spring,' and 
the poem 'On the Death of a Favourite Cat ' 
(sent to Walpole in a letter dated 1 March 
1747). The 'Elegy in a Country Church- 
yard ' had been begun in 1742 ( Works, i. xx), 
and was probably taken up again in the 
winter of 1749, upon the death of his aunt 
Mary (see GOSSE, p. 66). It was certainly 
concluded at Stoke Poges, whence it was 
sent to Walpole in a letter dated 12 June 
1750. Walpole admired it greatly, and showed 
it to various friends, among others to Lady 
Cobham (widow of Sir Richard Temple, after- 
wards Viscount Cobham), who lived at Stoke 
Manor House. She persuaded Miss Speed, 
her niece, and a Mrs. Schaub, who was stay- 
ing with her, to pay a visit to Gray at his 
mother's house. Not finding him at home 
they left a note, and the visit led to an ac- 
quaintance and to Gray's poem of the 'Long 
Story' (written in August 1750, GOSSE, p. 
103). In February 1751 the publisher of 
the ' Magazine of Magazines' wrote to Gray 
that he was about to publish the ' Elegy.' 
Gray instantly wrote to Walpole to get the 
poem published by Dodsley, and it appeared 
accordingly on 16Feb. 1751. It went through 
four editions in two months, and eleven in a 
short time, besides being constantly pirated 
(see Notes and Queries, 5th ser. vii. 142 252 
439, 469, viii. 212 for the first appearance! 
Many parodies are noticed in Notes and 
Queries, 3rd ser. vols. i. and ii.) Gray left 
all the profits to Dodsley, declining on prin- 
ciple to accept payment for his poems. At 


poems, by which Gray himself was delighted. 
In March 1753 appeared 'designs by Mr. 
K. Bentley for six poems by Mr. T. Gray.' 
The poems included those already published, 
' Spring,' on Walpole's cat, the Eton ode, the 
Llegy, and, for the first time, the ' Long- 
Story' and the 'Hymn to Adversity' * 

j. ^, OTV W I, V j/ujr LI nji ins poems 
this time Richard Bentley (1708-1782) fq. v.~] 
was on very intimate terms with Walpole" 
He made drawings or illustrations of Gray's 

., and the w ~~, wmvj . ^ 

portrait of Gray is introduced in the fronti- 
spiece and in the design for the ' Long Story,' 
where are also Miss Speed and Lady Schaub. 
Gray withdrew the ' Long Story ' from later 
editions of his works. 

By the end of 1754 Gray was beginning 
his ' Pindaric Odes.' On 26 Dec. 1754 he 
sent the ' Progress of Poesy ' to Dr. Wharton. 
VV alpole was setting up his printing-press at 
Strawberry Hill, and begged Gray to let him 
begin with the two odes. They were accord- 
ingly printed and were published by Dodsley 
in August 1758, Dodsley paying forty guineas 
to Gray, the only sum he ever made by 
writing. The book contained only the ' Pro- 
gress of Poesy ' and the ' Bard.' The ' Bard ' 
was partly written in the first three months- 
of 1755, and finished in May 1757, when Gray 
was stimulated by some concerts given at 
Cambridge by John Parry, the blind harper. 
The odes were warmly praised and much dis- 
cussed. Goldsmith reviewed them in the 
' Monthly Review,' and Warburton and Gar- 
rick were enthusiastic. Gray was rather 
vexed, however, by the general complaints 
of their obscurity, although he took very 
good-naturedly the parody published in 1760 
by Colman and Lloyd, called ' Two Odes ad- 
dressed to Obscurity and Oblivion.' 'Ob- 
scurity ' was not yet a virtue, and is not very 
perceptible in Gray's ' Bard.' According to 
Mason, Gray meant his bard to declare that 
poets should never be wanting to denounce 
vice in spite of tyrants. He laid the poem 
aside for a year because he could not find 
facts to confirm his theory. Ultimately the 
bard had to content himself with the some- 
what irrelevant consolation that Elizabeth's 
great-grandfather was to be a Welshman. 
The poem is thus so far incoherent, but the 
' obscurity ' meant rather that some fine gen- 
tlemen could not understand the historical 
allusions and confounded Edward I with 
Cromwell and Elizabeth with the witch of 

Gray was now in possession of the small 
fortune left by his father, which was suffi- 
cient for his wants. His health, however,, 
was weakening. After a visit in 1755 to his 
and Walpole's friend, Chute, in Hampshire, 
le was taken ill and remained for many weeks 
aid up at Stoke. In January 1756 he or- 
dered a rope-ladder from London. He was 
Iways morbidly afraid of fire and more than 



once in some risk. His house in Cornliill 
had been burnt in 1748, causing him some 
embarrassment, and his state of health in- 
creased his nervousness. Some noisy young 
gentlemen at Peterhouse placed a tub of 
water under his windows and raised an alarm 
of fire. Gray descended his ladder and found 
himself in the tub. (AECHIBALD CAMPBELL 
(f,. 1767) [q. v.] tells this story in his Sale 
of Authors, 1767, p. 22.) The authorities 
at Peterhouse treated the perpetrators of 
this ingenious practical joke more leniently 
than Gray desired. He thereupon moved to 
Pembroke, where he occupied rooms l at the 
western end of the Hitcham building.' 

In December 1757 Lord John Cavendish, 
an admirer of the ' Odes/ induced his brother, 
the Duke of Devonshire, who was lord cham- 
berlain, to offer the laureateship, vacated by 
Cibber's death, to Gray. Gray, however, at 
once declined it, though the obligation to 
write birthday odes was to be omitted. In 
September 1758 his aunt, Mrs. llogers, with 
whom his paternal aunt, Mrs. Olliff'e, had 
resided since his mother's death, died, leaving 
Gray and Mrs. Olliff'e executors. Stoke Poges | 
now ceased to be in any sense a home. In 
the beginning of 1759 the British Museum 
first opened. Gray settled in London in 
Southampton Row, Bloomsbury, to study in 
the reading-room. He did not return to 
Cambridge except for flying visits until the 
summer of 1761. His friend Lady Cobham 
died in April 1760, leaving 20/. for a mourn- 
ing-ring to Gray and 30,000/. to Miss Speed. 
Some vague rumours, which, however, Gray 
mentions with indifference, pointed to a match 
between the poet and the heiress. They were 
together at Park Place, Henley (Con way's 
house), in the summer, where Gray's spirits 
were worn by the company of l a pack of 
women.' According to Lady Ailesbury, his 
only words at one party were : ' Yes, my lady, 
I believe so' (WALPOLE, Letters, iii. 324). 
Miss Speed in January 1761 married the Baron 
de la Peyriere, son of the Sardinian minister, 
and went to live with her husband on the 
family estate of Viry in Savoy, on the Lake 
of Geneva. This sole suggestion of a romance 
in Gray's life is of the most shadowy kind. 

After his return to Cambridge Gray be- 
came attached to Norton Nicholls, an under- 
graduate at Trinity Hall. Nicholls after- 
wards became rector of Lound and Bradwell, 
Suffolk, and died in his house at Blundeston, 
near Lowestoft, 22 Nov. 1809, in his sixty- 
eighth year. He was an accomplished youth, 
and attracted Gray's attention by his know- 
ledge of Dante. During Gray's later years 
Nicholls was among his best friends, and left 
some valuable reminiscences of Gray, and an 

interesting correspondence with him. Gray 
resided henceforward at Cambridge, taking 
occasional summer tours. In July 1764 he 
underwent a surgical operation, and in August 
was able to visit Glasgow and make a tour 
in the Scottish lowlands. In October he 
travelled in the south of England. In 1765 
he made a tour in Scotland, visiting Killie- 
crankie and Blair Athol. He stayed for some 
time at Glamis, where Beattie came to pay 
him homage, and was very kindly received. 
He declined the degree of doctor of laws 
from Aberdeen, on the ground that he had 
not taken it at Cambridge. In 1769 he paid 
a visit to the Lakes. His journal was fully 
published by Mason, and contains remarkable 
descriptions of the scenery, then beginning 
to be visited by painters and men of taste, 
but not yet generally appreciated. In other 
summers he visited Hampshire and Wilt- 
shire (1764), Kent (1766), and Worcester- 
shire and Gloucestershire (1770). 

His enthusiasm had been roused by the 
fragments of Gaelic poetry published by 
Macpherson in 1760. He did his best to 
believe in their authenticity ( Works,\\\. 264) 
and found himself in rather uncongenial al- 
liance with Hume, whose scepticism was for 
once quenched by his patriotism. Gray's in- 
terest probably led him to his imitations 
from the Norse ( Walpole's Letters, iii. 399, 
written in 1761) and Welsh. The 'Speci- 
mens of Welsh Poetry,' published by Evans 
in 1764, suggested the later fragments. He 
states also (t&.) that he intended these imita- 
tions to be introduced in his projected ' His- 
tory of English Poetry.' In 1767 Dodsley 
proposed to republish his poems in a cheap 
form. Foulis, a Glasgow publisher, made a 
similar proposal through Beattie at the same 
time. Dodsley's edition appeared in July 
1768, and Foulis's in the following Septem- 
ber. Both contained the same poems, includ- 
ing the < Fatal Sisters,' the < Descent of Odin/ 
and the 'Triumphs of Owen/ then first pub- 
lished. Gray took no money, but accepted 
a present of books from Foulis. 

In 1762 Gray had applied to Lord Bute 
for the professorship of history and modern 
languages at Cambridge, founded by George I 
in 1724, and now vacant by the death of 
Hallett Turner. An unpublished letter to 
Mr. Chute (communicated by Mr. Gosse) re- 
fers to this application. Laurence Brockett, 
however, was appointed in November. Broc- 
kett was killed 24 July 1768 by a fall from 
his horse, when returning drunk from a din- 
ner with Lord Sandwich at Hinchinbroke. 
Gray wasimmediately appointed to the vacant 
post by the Duke of Graft on, his warrant being 
signed 28 July. His salary was 37 II. , out 

Gray 2 

of which he had to provide a French and an 
Italian teacher. The Italian was Agostino 
Isola, grandfather of Emma Isola, adopted 
by Charles and Mary Lamb. Gray behaved 
liberally to them ; but the habits of the time 
made lecturing unnecessary. Gray's appoint- 
ment was suggested by his old college friend 
Stonehewer, who was at this time secretary 
to the Duke of Grafton. 

In January 1768 Gray had a narrow escape 
from a fire which destroyed part of Pembroke. 
In April 1769 he had to show his gratitude 
to Grafton, who had been elected chancellor 
of the university, by composing the installa- 
tion ode. It was set to music by J. Randall, 
the professor of music at the university, and 
performed 1 July 1769. 

Gray lived in great retirement at Cam- 
bridge ; he did not dine in the college hall, 
and sightseers had to watch for his appear- 
ance at the Rainbow coffee-house, where he 
went to order books from the circulating li- 
brary. His ill-health and nervous shyness 
made him a bad companion in general society, 
though he could expand among his intimates. 
His last acquisition was Charles Victor de 
Bonstetten, an enthusiastic young Swiss, who 
had met Norton Nicholls at Bath at the end 
of 1769, and was by him introduced to Gray. 
Gray was fascinated by Bonstetten, directed 
his studies for several weeks, saw him daily, 
and received his confidences, though declin- 
ing to reciprocate them. Bonstetten left 
England at the end of March 1770. Gray 
accompanied him to London, pointed out the 
1 great Bear ' Johnson in the street, and saw 
him into the Dover coach. He promised to 
pay Bonstetten a visit in Switzerland (for Bon- 
stetten see STE.-BEUVE, Can-series du Lundi, 
xiv. 417-79, reviewing a study by M. Aim6 
Steinlen). Nicholls proposed to go there with 
Gray in 1771, but Gray was no longer equal 
to the exertion, and sent off Nicholls in J une 
with an injunction not to visit Voltaire. 
Gray was then in London, but soon returned 
to Cambridge, feeling very ill. He had an 
attack of gout in the stomach, and his con- 
dition soon became alarming. He was af- 
fectionately attended by his friend, James 
Browne, the master of Pembroke, and his 
friend Stonehewer came from London to take 
leave of him. He died 30 July 1771, his last 
words being addressed to his niece Mary An- 
trobus, f Molly, I shall die.' He was buried 
at Stoke Poges on 6 Aug., in the same vault 
with his mother. 

His aunt, Mrs. Olliffe, had died early in 
the same year, leaving what she had to Gray. 
Gray divided his property, amounting to about 
3,500/., besides his house in Cornhill, rented 
at 65/. a year, among his cousins by his father's 


and mother's side, having apparently no nearer 
relatives ; leaving also 500/. apiece to Whar- 
ton and Stonehewer, and 501. to an old ser- 
vant. He left his papers to Mason, Mason 
and Browne being his residuary legatees. 

Portraits of Gray are (1) a full-length in 
oil by Jonathan Richardson at the age of 
thirteen, now in the Fitzwilliam Museum 
at Cambridge ; (2) a half-length by J. G. 
Eckhardt, painted for Walpole in 1747. An 
engraving of this was intended to be prefixed 
to Gray's poems in 1753, but the plate was 
destroyed in deference to his vehement ob- 
jection. It is engraved in Walpole's ' Let- 
ters ' (Cunningham), vol. iv. ; (3) a posthu- 
mous drawing by Benjamin Wilson, from his 
own and Mason's recollections, now in Pem- 
broke, from Stonehewer's bequest. It was 
engraved for the ' Life ' (4to) by Mason. Wal- 
pole (Correspondence, vi. 67, 207) says that 
it is very like but painful ; (4) a drawing by 
Mason himself, now at Pembroke, was etched 

| by W. Doughty for the 8vo edition of the 
life. From it were taken two portraits by 
Sharpe of Cambridge and Henshaw, a pupil 
of Bartolozzi. This was also the original of 
the medallion by Bacon upon the monument 
in Westminster Abbey, erected at Mason's 
expense in 1778. A bust by Behnes in the 
upper school at Eton is founded on the Eck- 
hardt portrait. Walpole says that he was *a 
little man, of a very ungainly appearance' 
( Walpoliana, i. 95). 

In 1776 Brown and Mason gave 50. apiece 
to start a building fund in honour of Gray. 
It accumulated to a large sum, and the col- 
lege was in great part rebuilt between 1870 
and 1879 by Mr. Waterhouse. In 1870 a 
stained glass window, designed by Mr. Madox 
Brown, and executed by Mr. William Morris, 
was presented to the college hall by Mr. A. H. 
Hunt. In 1885 a subscription was promoted 
by Lord Houghton and Mr. E. Gosse, and a 

I bust by Mr. Hamo Thornycroft, A.R.A., was 
placed in the hall, and unveiled on 20 May, 
when addresses were delivered by Mr. Lowell, 
Sir F. Leighton, Lord Houghton, and others. 
A character of Gray, written by W. J. 
Temple, friend of Gray in his later years 
and also an intimate friend of James Boswell, 
appeared in the ' London Magazine ' (March 
1772), of which Boswell was part proprietor. 
Temple says that Gray was perhaps ( the 
most learned man in Europe.' Mason says that 
he was a competent student in all branches of 
human knowledge except mathematics, and 
in some a consummate master. He had a 
very extensive knowledge of the classical 
writers, reading them less as a critic than as 
a student of thought and manners. He made 
elaborate notes upon Plato, upon Strabo, a 



selection from the l Anthologia Graeca/with 
critical notes and translations ; and at Christ- 
mas 174(3 compiled elaborate chronological 
tables which suggested Clinton's ' Fasti.' 
About 1745 he helped Ross in a controversy 
about the epistles of Cicero, begun by Middle- 
ton and Muckland. Gray's Latin poems, 
except the college exercises, were not pre- 
pared for publication by himself. The most 
important was the ' De Principiis Captandi,' 
written at Florence in the winter of 1740-1. 
They were admired even by Johnson, though 
not faultless in their latinity, especially the 
noble ode at the Grande Chartreuse. Gray 
was also a careful student of modern litera- 
ture. He was familiar with the great Ita- 
lian writers, and had even learnt Icelandic 
(see GOSSE, pp. 160-3). He was a painstak- 
ing antiquary, gave notes to Pennant for his 
* History of London,' and surprised Cole by his 
knowledge of heraldry and genealogy. He 
had learnt botany from his uncle Antrobus, 
made experiments on the growth of flowers, 
was learned in entomology, and studied the 
first appearance of birds like White of Sel- 
borne. A copy of his l Linnaeus,' in five 
volumes, with copious notes and water-colour 
drawings by Gray, belonging to Mr. Ruskin, 
was exhibited at Pembroke on the memorial 
meeting in 1885. This brought 42/. at the 
sale of Gray's library, 27 Nov. 1845. (For 
an account of the books sold see Gent. Mag. 
1846, i. 29, 33.) He was a good musician, 
played on the harpsichord, and was especially 
fond of Pergolesi and Palestrina. He was a 
connoisseur in painting, contributed to Wai- 
pole's ' Anecdotes,' and made a list of early 
painters published in Malone's edition of Rey- 
nolds's works. Architecture was a favourite 
study. He contributed notes to James Bent- 
ham [q. v.] for his ' History of Ely' (1771), 
which gave rise to the report that he was the 
author of the treatise then published. They 
were first printed in the l Gentleman's Maga- 
zine,' April 1784, to disprove this rumour. 

These multifarious studies are illustrated 
in the interesting commonplace books, in 
3 vols. fol., preserved at Pembroke. Besides 
his collections on a great variety of subjects, 
they contain original copies of many of his 
poems. Some fragments were published by 
Mathias in his edition of Gray's works. Gray 
had formed a plan for a history of English 
poetry, to be executed in conjunction with 
Mason, to whom Warburton had communi- 
cated a scheme drawn up by Pope. Gray made 
some preparations, and a careful study of the 
metres of early English poetry. He tired, how- 
ever, and gave his plan to Warton, who was 
already engaged on a simlar scheme. The 
extent of Gray's studies shows the versatility 

and keenness of his intellectual tastes. The 
smallness of his actual achievements is suffi- 
ciently explained by his ill-health, his ex- 
treme fastidiousness, his want of energy and 
personal ambition, and the depressing influ- 
ences of the small circle of dons in which he 
lived. The unfortunate eighteenth century 
: has been blamed for his barrenness ; but pro- 
bably he would have found any century un- 
congenial. The most learned of all our poets, 
he was naturally an eclectic. He almost wor- 
shipped Dryden, and loved Racine as heartily 
as Shakespeare. He valued polish and sym- 
metry as highly as the school of Pope, and 
shared their taste for didactic reflection and for 
pompous personification. Yet he also shared 
: the tastes which found expression in the ro- 
! manticism of the following period. Mr. Gosse 
j has pointed out with great force his appre- 
ciation of Gothic architecture, of mountain 
scenery, and of old Gaelic and Scandinavian 
! poetry. His unproductiveness left the pro- 
I pagation of such tastes to men much inferior 
' in intellect, but less timid in utterance, such 
as Walpole and the Wartons. He succeeded 
i only in secreting a few poems which have more 
solid bullion in proportion to the alloy than 
' almost any in the language, which are admired 
by critics, while the one in which he has con- 
! descended to utter himself with least reserve 
' and the greatest simplicity, has been pro- 
nounced by the vox populi to be the most 
perfect in the language. 

His letters are all but the best in the best 
age of letter-writing. They are fascinating 
not only for the tender and affectionate nature 
shown through a mask of reserve, but for 
gleams of the genuine humour which Wal- 
pole pronounced to be his most natural vein. 
It appears with rather startling coarseness in 
some of his Cambridge lampoons. One of 
these, ' A Satire upon the Heads, or never a 
barrel the better herring,' was printed by 
Mr. Gosse in 1884, from a manuscript in the 
possession of Lord Houghton. Walpole said 
( Walpoliana, i. 95) that Gray was ' a deist, 
but a violent enemy of atheists.' If his opi- 
nions were heterodox, he kept them gene- 
rally to himself, was clearly a conservative 
by temperament, and hated or feared the in- 
novators of the time. 

The publication of the poems in Gray's 
lifetime has been noticed above. Collected 
editions of the poems, with Mason's ' Memoir,' 
appeared in 1775, 1776, 1778, &c. ; an edition 
with notes by Gilbert Wakefield in 1786; 
works by T. J. Mathias (in which some of 
the Pembroke MSS. were first used) in 1814 ; 
* English and Latin Poems,' by John Mit- 
ford, in 1814, who also edited the works in 
the Aldine edition (1835-43), and the Eton 



edition (1845). The completest edition is that 
in four vols. by Mr. Edmund Gosse in 1882. 

[Mason's Life and Letters of Gray (1774), in 
which the letters were connected on a plan said 
to have been suggested by Middleton's Cicero, 
was the first authority. Mason took astonishing 
liberties in altering and rearranging the letters. 
Johnson's Life, founded entirely on this, is the 
poorest in his series. The life by the Rev. John 
Mitford was first prefixed to the 1814 edition of 
the poems. Mitford's edition of Gray's works, 
published by Pickering, 1835-40, gave newletters 
and the correct text of those printed by Mason. 
In 1843 a fifth volume was added, containing the 
reminiscences of Nicholls, Gray's correspondence 
with Nicholls, and some other documents. In 
1853 Mitford published the correspondence of 
Gray and Mason, with other new letters. Mr. 
Gosse's Life of Gray, giving the results of a full 
investigation of these and other materials, pre- 
served at Pembroke, the British Museum, and 
elsewhere, is by far the best account of his life. 
See also Walpole's Correspondence ; Walpoliana, 
i. 27, 29, 46, 95 ; and Bonstetten's Souvenirs, 
1832. A part of a previously unpublished diary 
for 1755-6 of little interest is in Gent. Mag. for 
1845, ii. 229-33. The masters of Peterhouse and 
Pembroke have kindly given information.] 

L. S. 

GRAY, THOMAS (1787-1848), the rail- 
way pioneer, son of Robert Gray, engineer, 
was born at Leeds in 1787, and afterwards 
lived at Nottingham. As a boy he had seen 
Blenkinsopp's famous locomotive at work on 
the Middleton cogged railroad. He was 
staying in Brussels in 1816, when the project 
of a canal from Charleroi for the purpose of 
connecting Holland with the mining districts 
of Belgium was under discussion. In connec- 
tion with John, son of William Cockerill [q. v.], 
he advocated the superior advantages of a rail- 
way. Gray shut himself up in his room to 
write a pamphlet, secluded from his wife and 
friends, declining to give them any informa- 
tion about his studies except that they would 
revolutionise the world. In 1820 Gray pub- 
lished the result of his labours as ' Observa- 
tions on a General Railway, with Plates and 
Map illustrative of the plan ; showing its great 
superiority . . . over all the present methods 
of conveyance. . . .' He suggested the pro- 
priety of making a railway between Liver- 
pool and Manchester. The treatise went 
through four editions in two years. In 1822 
Gray added a diagram, showing a number of 
suggested lines of railway connecting the 
principal towns of England, and another in 
like manner bringing together the leading 
Irish centres. Gray pressed his pet scheme, 
' a general iron road,' upon the attention of 
public men of every position. He sent me- 
morials to Lord Sidmouth in 1820, and to the 

lord mayor and corporation of London a year 
later. In 1822 he addressed the Earl of 
Liverpool and Sir Robert Peel, and petitioned 
government in 1823. His Nottingham neigh- 
bours declared him ' cracked.' "William 
Howitt, who frequently came in contact with 
Gray, says : ' With Thomas Gray, begin where 
you would, on whatever subject, it would not 
be many minutes before you would be en- 
veloped in steam, and listening to a harangue 
on the practicability and the advantages to 
the nation of a general iron railway.' In 
1829, when public discussion was proceeding 
hotly in Britain as to the kinds of power to be 
permanently employed on the then accepted 
railway system, Gray advocated his crude plan 
of a greased road with cog rails. He ultimately 
fell into poverty, and sold glass on com- 
mission. He died, broken-hearted it is said, 
15 Oct. 1848, at Exeter. 

[Great Inventors, 1864 ; Smiles's Lives of the 
Engineers, iii. 181, 256; Gent. Mag. 1848, ii. 
662.] J. B-Y. 

GRAY, WILLIAM (1802 P-1835), mis- 
cellaneous writer, born about 1802, was the 
only son of James Gray of Kircudbright, 
Scotland (FOSTER, A lumni Oxon. 1715-1886, 
ii. 554). He matriculated at Oxford on 
30 Oct. 1824 as a gentleman commoner of 
St. Alban Hall, but on the death of the 
principal, Peter Elmsley, to whom he was 
much attached, he removed in 1825 to Mag- 
dalen College, where he graduated B.A. on 
25 June 1829, and MA. on 2 June 1831. 
While at Oxford he occasionally contributed 
to the ' Oxford Herald.' His account of Elms- 
ley in that journal was transferred to the 
' Gentleman's Magazine ' for April 1825. He 
edited the ' Miscellaneous Works of Sir 
Philip Sidney, with a Life of the Author and 
Illustrative Notes,' 8 vo,0xford, 1829 (another 
edition, 8vo, Boston, U.S.A., 1860). In 1829 
he projected an ' Oxford Literary Gazette,' 
of which six numbers only appeared. Gray 
was called to the bar by the Society of the 
Inner Temple on 10 June 1831 ; but ill-health 
prevented him from practising. His last 
work was an ' Historical Sketch of the Origin 
of English Prose Literature, and of its Pro- 
gress till the Reign of James I,' 8vo, Oxford, 
1835. He died at Dumfries on 29 Nov. 1835 
(Gent. Mag. 1836, i. 326-7). 

[Authorities as above.] G. G. 

GRAYDON, JOHN (d. 1726), vice-ad- 
miral, in a memorial dated 12 April 1700 
described himself as having served in his 
majesty's navy for twenty years and upwards. 
In June 1686 he was appointed lieutenant of 
the Charles galley ; in May 1688 first lieu- 



tenant of the Mary, and in October was ad- 
i r anced to the command of the Soldado. In 
her he took part in the action of Bantry Bay 
on 1 May 1689, and was shortly afterwards 
promoted to the Defiance, which he com- 
manded in the battle oft'Beachy Head, 30 June 
1690. In 1692 he commanded the Hampton 
Court in the battle oft' Cape Barfleur, and 
with the grand fleet through 1693. From 
1695 to 1697 he commanded the Vanguard, 
also with the grand fleet. In April 1701 in 
the Assistance he convoyed the trade to New- 
foundland, and seeing the trade thence into 
the Mediterranean was back in England by 
the spring of 1702. In June, wliile in com- 
mand of the Triumph at Portsmouth, he was 
promoted to be rear-admiral of the blue, and 
ordered out to join Sir George liooke on the 
coast of Spain. He was with him in the at- 
tempt on Cadiz, and in the destruction of the 
enemy's ships at Vigo ; and having his flag 
in the Lancaster returned home in company 
with Sir Clowdisley Shovell in charge of the j 
prizes. The following January he was pro- I 
nioted to be vice-admiral of the white, and j 
appointed commander-in-chief of a squadron ! 
sent out to the West Indies. He sailed with 
special orders to make the best of his way 
out, to collect such force, both of ships and 
troops, as might be available, and going north 
to reduce the French settlement of Placentia. 
A few days after he sailed, on 18 March, he 
fell in with a squadron of four French ships 
of force clearly inferior to the five with him. 
Graydon, however, considered that he was 
bound by his instructions to avoid all chances 
of delay ; he allowed them to pass him unhin- 
dered, and did not pursue. He arrived at Bar- 
badoes on 12 May, and at Jamaica on 4 June ; 
but the necessity of refitting, the crazy con- 
dition of several of the ships, some of which 
had been long on the station, the utter want 
of stores, and the ill feeling which sprang up 
between Graydon and ' some of the chief per- 
sons of Jamaica,' all combined to delay the 
expedition, so that it did not reach New- 
foundland till the beginning of August. From 
that time ('or thirty days it was enveloped in 
a dense fog ; it was 3 Sept. before the fleet 
was again assembled, and then a council of 
war, considering the lateness of the season, 
the bad condition of the ships, the sickly 
state of the men, the want of provisions, and 
the strength of the enemy at Placentia, de- 
cided that the attack ought not to be made. 
On 24 Sept. the fleet accordingly sailed for 
England ; the weather was very bad, the 
ships were scattered, and singly and in much 
distress reached home in the course of Octo- 
ber. The expedition had been such an evi- 
dent failure, and the neglect to engage the 

French squadron passed on the outward voy- 
age appeared so culpable, that a committee of 
the House of Lords, with little or no exami- 
nation, reported that Graydon by his conduct 
' had been a prejudice to the queen's service 
and a great dishonour to the nation/ and re- 
commended that he should ' be employed no 
more in her majesty's service,' all which was 
agreed to. He was not tried, but was con- 
demned on hearsay by an irregular process 
which might almost be compared to a bill of 
attainder; but Burchett, who was secretary 
of the admiralty at the time, is of opinion 
that, so far as the French squadron offUshant 
was concerned, Graydon's conduct was fully 
warranted by his instructions and the press- 
ing necessities before him ; and the very crazy 
condition in which the ships returned to Eng- 
land seems to warrant the decision of the coun- 
cil of war at Newfoundland. Graydon, how- 
ever, was virtually cashiered, his pension was 
stopped, and he was not reinstated. He 
died on 12 March 1725-6. His portrait, a 
half-length by Sir Godfrey Kneller, is in the 
Painted Hall at Greenwich, to which it was 
presented by George IV. 

[Charnock's Biog. Nav. ii. 158; Burchett's 
Transactions at Sea, p. 600 ; Lediard's Naval 
History, p. 763 ; Campbell's Lives of the Ad- 
mirals, iii. 52 ; Official Correspondence in the 
Public Eecord Office.] J. K. L. 


1654), puritan minister, was the son of John 
Grayle, priest, of Stone, Gloucestershire, 
where he was born in 1614. At the age of 
eighteen he entered Magdalen Hall, Oxford, 
as a batler, and proceeded B.A. in 1634 and 
M.A. on 15 June 1637. Wood states that in 
1645 he succeeded George Holmes as master 
of the free school, Guildford, but this is erro- 
neous. The John Grayle who then became 
master held the post until his death, at the age 
of eighty-eight, in January 1697-8, and was 
buried in Guildford Church ( AUBREY, Hist. 
of Surrey, iii. 302). Brook (Lives of the 
Puritans, iii. 229) states that Grayle, having 
married, in the end of 1645, a daughter of 
one Mr. Henry Scudder, went in the next 
year, probably as minister, to live at Colling- 
bourne-Ducis, Wiltshire. He subsequently 
became rector of Tidworth in the same county, 
' where,' says Wood, ' he was much followed 
by the precise and godly party.' He was a 
man of much erudition, and a ' pious, faith- 
ful, and laborious minister,' much beloved by 
his parishioners. While a strict presby terian 
Grayle was apparently charged with Armi- 
nianism, and defended his principles in a 
work, which was published after his death 
with a preface by Constant ine Jessop, minister 




at Wimborne, Dorsetshire, entitled ' A Mo- 
dest Vindication of the Doctrine of Conditions 
in the Covenant of Grace and the Defenders 
thereof from the Aspersions of Arminianism 
and Popery which Mr. W. Eyre cast on 
them,' London, 1655. The preface (dated 
15 Sept, 1654) says that the book had been 
delivered to Eyre in the author's lifetime. 
Grayle died, aged 40, early in 1654, after a 
lingering illness. He was buried in Tidworth 
Church, and a neighbouring minister, Dr. 
Humphry Chambers, preached his funeral 
sermon ' before the brethren, who were pre- 
sent in great numbers.' It is published with 
the ' Modest Vindication.' 

A son of the same names, educated at 
Exeter College, Oxford, was rector of Blick- 
ling, Norfolk, and published many sermons. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), iii. 362, iv. 
501.] E. T. B. 

a fourteenth-century chronicler of the church 
of Durham, describes himself as 'Doctor 
Theologicus.' He had been sub-prior of St. 
Mary's for twenty-six years or more when 
Louis de Beaumont, bishop of Durham [q. v.], 
died, 24 Sept. 1333 (Hist. Dun. pp. 119-20; 
WHARTON, i. Pref. p. xlix). On 15 Oct. he 
was elected to the vacant see, after the king's 
permission had been obtained. William Mel- 
ton, the archbishop of York, promised to 
confirm the election ; but in the meanwhile 
(31 Oct.) Robert, who had visited Edward III 
at ' Lutogersale ' (Ludgershall in Wiltshire 
or Buckinghamshire ?), had been told that 
the pope had given the see ' by provision ' to 
Richard de Bury, ' the king's clerk ' [q. v.] 
The archbishop, however, after consulting 
his canons and lawyers, consecrated Robert 
(Sunday, 14 Nov.), with the assistance of 
the bishops of Carlisle and Armagh. The 
new bishop was installed at Durham on 
18 Nov., and then, returning to the king to 
claim the temporalities of his see, was refused 
an audience and referred to the next parlia- 
ment for an answer. Meanwhile (14 Oct.) 
the temporalities had been granted to Richard 
de Bury, who, having the archbishop now on 
his side, received the oath of the Durham 
clergy (10 Jan. 1334). Robert, knowing that 
his convent was too poor to oppose the king 
and the pope (Hist. Dun. pp. 120-3), refused 
to continue the struggle. He seems to have 
resumed his old office, and to have died about 
1336 (WHARTON, Pref. p. xlix ; TANNER, p. 
340 ; Hist. Dun. p. 121). Surtees says that 
he * survived his resignation scarcely a year ' 
(Hist, of Durh. p. 46), and died of disap- 
pointment (ib. ; cf. WHARTON, p. xlix). 
Richard de Bury, upon hearing of his death, 

apologised for the grief he showed by de- 
! claring that Graystanes was better fitted to 
be pope than he was to hold the least office 
in the church (CHAMBRE, p. 129). Gray- 
stanes was buried in the chapter-house. 
Hutchinson has preserved his epitaph : 

De Graystanes natus jacet hie Robertas humatus, 
Legibus armatus, rogo sit Sanctis sociatus. 

His birthplace was perhaps Greystanes three 
miles south-west of Sheffield. 

Graystanes continued the history of the 
church of Durham, which had been begun by 
Simeon of Durham, an anonymous continua- 
tor, and Geoffrey de Coldingham [q. v.] He 
takes up Coldingham's narrative with the elec- 
tion of King John's brother Morgan (1213), 
and carries it down to his own resignation. 
According to Wharton, however, he has 
copied his history as far as 1285 (1283 ?) 
A.D. from the manuscript now called Cotton 
Julius, D. 4 (WHARTON, p. xlix ; cf. PLANTA, 
p. 15). His work is of considerable value, 
especially as it nears the writer's own time. 
The ' Histories Dunelmensis Scriptores Tres r 
including Galford, Graystanes, and Wil- 
liam de Chambre was first printed with ex- 
cisions by Wharton in 1691. The best edi- 
tion is that of Raine for the Surtees Society 
(1839). The chief manuscripts are (1) that 
in the York Cathedral Library (xvi. 1-12), 
which belongs to the fourteenth century; 
(2) the Bodleian MS. (Laud 700, which 
Hardy assigns to the same century), and the 
Cotton. MS. (Titus A. ii.) Leland had seen 
another manuscript in the Carmelite Library 
at Oxford (Collectanea, iii. 57). Wharton 
followed the Cotton and Laud MSS. 

[Robert de Graystanes and Wi 1 li am de Chambre, 
ed. Raine, with preface ; Wharton's Anglia 
Sacra, i. 732-67, and Pref. pp. xlix-1 ; Surtees's 
Hist, of Durham, i. xli v-v ; Hutchinson's Durham, 
i. 287 ; Le Neve's Fasti, ed. Hardy, iii. 289-90 ; 
Hardy's Manuscript Materials for English His- 
tory, iii. 33 ; Planta's Cat. of Cotton. MSS. 
p. 511 ; Leland's Collectanea, iv. 59 ; Tanner.] 

T. A. A. 

GREATHEAD, HENRY (1757-1816), 
lifeboat inventor, was a twin child, born at 
Richmond, Yorkshire, on 27 Jan. 1757. His 
father, who was in the civil service, removed 
to Shields in 1763. Greathead was at first ap- 
prenticed to a boatbuilder, and subsequently 
went to sea as a ship's carpenter. In 1785 
he returned to South Shields, and set up in 
business on his own account as a boatbuilder, 
marrying in the following year. The ship Ad- 
venture of Newcastle stranded in 1789 on the 
Herd Sands, a shoal off Tynemouth Haven, 
not far from Greathead's home. The crew 
were all lost in sight of many spectators, and 



Greatliead resolved to construct a lifeboat. 
Luken had written a pamphlet upon 'insub- 
merglble boats,' and took out a patent in 
1785. Wouldhave, parish clerk of South 
Shields, had also studied the subject. A public 
subscription was now got up to offer a re- 
ward for the best lifeboat. Greathead won 
it against the competition of Wouldhave and 
many others. Dr. Hayes in a letter to the 
Royal Humane Society described Greathead's 
boat, in minute detail. It was 30 feet long , 
by 10 feet in width, and 3 feet 4 inches deep. 
The whole construction much resembled a ' 
Greenland boat, except that it was consider- 
ably flatter, and lined inside and out with 
cork. Greathead's was a ten-oared boat, and ; 
although of very light draft, it could carry 
twenty people. It succeeded admirably. 
Greathead made his first lifeboat for the | 
Duke of Northumberland, who presented it 
to North Shields. Numerous learned so- 
cieties awarded honours to Greathead, and 
voted him money grants. The Trinity House 
gave him handsome recognition, as did also 
the Society of Arts, and eventually govern- 
ment paid him 1,200/. in consideration of 
the value of his invention to the nation. Dr. 
Trotter, physician to the fleet, wrote an 
adulatory ode. Greathead published 'The 
Report of Evidence and other Proceedings in 
Parliament respecting the Invention of the 
Lifeboat. Also other Documents illustrating 
the Origin of the Lifeboat, with Practical 
Direct ions for the Management of Lifeboats,' 
London, 180-4. lie died in 1816. There is 
an inscription to his memory in the parish 
church of St. Hilda, South Shields. 

[Tyno Mercury, 29 Nov. 1803; European Mag. 
(which gives a fine portrait of Greathead ), vols. 
xliii. xlvi.; Public Characters of 1806 (upon 
information from Greathead); Romance of Life 
Preservation.] J. B-Y. 

FORCE HARRIS (1826-1878), major-gene- 
ral, C.B., royal engineers, the youngest of the 
five sons of Edward Greathed of Uddens, Dor- 
setshire, was born at Paris 21 Dec. 182(3. He 
entered the military college of the East India 
Company at Addiscombe in February 1843, 
and received a commission in the Bengal engi- 
neers on 9 Dec. 1844. In 1846 he went to 
India, and was attached to the Bengal sappers 
and miners at Meerut. The following year he 
was appointed to the irrigation department of 
the north-west provinces, but on the outbreak 
of the second Sikh war in 1848 he joined the 
field force before Mooltan." He took part in 
the siege, and at the assault of the town, on 
2 Jan. 1849, he was the first officer through 
the breach. After the capture of Mooltan 
he joined Lord Gough, and was present at 

the battle of Guzerat, 21 Feb. 1849. This 
concluded the campaign, and he at once re- 
sumed his work in the irrigation department, 
taking a furlough in 1852 to England for 
two years. On his return to India he was 
appointed executive engineer in the public 
works department at Barrackpore, and in 
1855 he was sent to Allahabad as govern- 
ment consulting engineer in connection with 
the extension of the East India railway to 
the upper provinces. He was here when the 
mutiny broke out at Meerut, followed by the 
seizure of Delhi in May 1857. As soon as the 
catastrophe at Delhi was known, John Russell 
Col vin [q.v. j, lieutenant-governor of the north- 
west provinces, who had formed a very high 
opinion of Greathed's character and capacity, 
summoned him to Agra, attached him to his 
staff, and employed him to carry despatches 
to the general at Meerut, and to civil officers 
on the way. In spite of the disorder of the 
country and the roaming bands of mutineers, 
Greathed succeeded not only in reaching 
Meerut, but in returning to Agra. He was 
then despatched in command of a body of 
English volunteer cavalry to release some 
beleaguered Englishmen in the Doab, and a 
month later was again sent off with despatches 
from Colvin and Lord Canning to the gene- 
ral commanding the force which was moving 
against Delhi. A second time he ran the 
gauntlet and reached Meerut in safety. On 
his first visit he was the first traveller who 
had reached Meerut from ' down country ' 
since the mutiny broke out; on this occasion 
he remained the last European who passed 
between Al vgurh and Meerut for four months. 
From Meerut he made his way across country 
and joined Sir II. Barnard beyond the Jumna. 
Appointed to Sir II. Barnard's staff, Greathed 
took part in the action of Badlee-ka-Serai 
J (8 June), which gave the Delhi field force 
i the famous position on the ridge it held so 
long. When the siege was systematically 
begun, Greathed was appointed director of 
the left attack. He greatly distinguished 
j himself in a severe engagement on 9 July on 
' the occasion of a sortie in force from Delhi. 
Towards the end of the day he and Burn- 
! side of the 8th regiment were with their party 
in a ' serai ' surrounded by Pandees. They 
resolved on a sudden rush, and, killing 
| the men immediately in front with their 
! swords, led the way out, saved their little 
party, and put the enemy to flight. Greathed 
i had two brothers with him at Delhi, Hervey 
! Greathed, the civil commissioner attached to 
| the force, and Edward (now Sir Edward), 
colonel of the 8th regiment. When the 
morning of the assault of 14 Sept. came, he 
found himself senior engineer of the column 



commanded by his brother Edward. As they 
approached the edge of the ditch he fell se- 
verely wounded through the arm and lower 
part of the chest. On recovering from his 
wounds he joined in December, as field en- 
gineer, the column under Colonel Sexton, 
which marched down the Doab, and betook 
part in the engagements of Gungeree, Patti- 
alee, and Mynpoory. His next services were 
rendered as directing engineer of the attack 
on Lucknow, under Colonel R. Napier (after- 
wards first Lord Napier of Magdala), where 
he again distinguished himself. On the cap- 
ture of Lucknow he returned to his railway 
duties. His services in the mutiny were re- 
warded by a brevet majority and a C.B. In 

1860 he accompanied Sir Robert Napier as 
extra aide-de-camp to China, was present at 
the battle of Senho, at the capture of the 
Taku forts on the Peiho, and took part in the 
campaign until the capture of Pekin, when 
he was made the bearer of despatches home. 
He arrived in England at the end of 1860, was 
made a brevet lieutenant-colonel on 15 Feb. 

1861 for his services in China, and in March 
was appointed to succeed his friend lieu- 
tenant-colonel (now Sir Henry) Norman as 
assistant military secretary at the Horse 
Guards. That post he held for four years. In 
1863 he married Alice, daughter of the Rev. 
Archer Clive of Whitfield, near Hereford. 
In 1867, after serving for a short time at 
Plymouth and on the Severn defences, he 
returned to India, and was appointed head 
of the irrigation department in the north- 
west provinces. In 1872, when at home on 
furlough, he read a paper before the Institute 
of Civil Engineers on ' The Irrigation Works 
of the North- West Provinces,' for which the 
council awarded him the Telford medal and 
premium of books. On his return to India 
he continued his irrigation duties, and two 
great works, the Agra canal from the Jumna, 
and the Lower Ganges canal, are monuments 
of his labours. He commanded the royal 
engineers assembled at the camp of Delhi at 
the reception of the Prince of Wales in De- 
cember 1875 and January 1876, and this was 
the last active duty he performed. In 1875 
he had been ill from overwork, and his 
malady increasing he left India in July 1876. 
He lived as an invalid over two years longer, 
during which he was promoted major-gene- 
ral. He died on 29 Dec. 1878. He had a 
good service pension assigned to him in 1876. 
lie had been honourably mentioned in eigh- 
teen despatches, in ten general orders, in a 
memorandum by the lieutenant-governor of 
the north-west provinces, and in a minute 
by Lord Canning, viceroy of India. He re- 
ceived a medal and three clasps for the Punjab 

campaign, a medal and three clasps for the 

mutiny, and a medal and two clasps for China. 

[Corps Records; Private Memoir.] R. H. V. 

GREATHEED, BERTIE (1759-1826), 
dramatist, born on 19 Oct. 1759 (Gent. Mag. 
1759, p. 497), was the son of Samuel Greatheed 
(1710-1765) of Guy's Cliffe, near Warwick, 
by his wife Lady Mary Bertie, daughter of 
Peregrine, second duke of Ancaster. When 
residing in Florence he became a member of 
the society called ' Gli Oziosi ' and a con- 
tributor to their privately printed collection 
of fugitive pieces entitled ' The Arno Mis- 
cellany,' 8vo, Florence, 1784. The follow- 
ing year he contributed to 'The Florence Mis- 
cellany,' 8vo, Florence, 1785, a collection of 
poems by the 'Della-Cruscans,' for which he 
was termed by Gifford the Reuben of that 
school in the ' Baviad ' and ' Mseviad.' A blank- 
verse tragedy by him called ' The Regent ' was 
brought out at Drury Lane Theatre on 1 April 
1788, but, though supported by John Kemble 
and Mrs. Siddons, was withdrawn after try- 
ing the public patience for some nine nights 
(GENEST, Hist, of the Stage, vi. 477-8). The 
epilogue was furnished by Mrs. Piozzi. The 
author afterwards published it with a dedi- 
cation to Mrs. Siddons, who had once been 
an attendant upon his mother, and was his 
frequent guest at Guy's Cliffe. The play is 
less foolish than might be supposed ; though 
Manuel, the hero, requests Gomez to ' go to 
the puddled market-place, and there dissect 
his heart upon the public shambles.' Great- 
heed died at Guy's Cliffe on 16 Jan. 1826, 
aged 66 (Gent. Mag. 1826, pt. i. pp. 367-8). 
His only son, Bertie, who died at Vicenza 
in Italy on 8 Oct. 1804, aged 23 (ib. 1804, 
pt. ii. pp. 1073, 1236), was an amateur 
artist of some talent. The younger Great- 
heed had married in France, and his only 
daughter became, on 20 March 1823, the 
wife of Lord Charles Percy, son of the Earl 
of Beverley. 

[Baker's Biographia Dramatica, 1812, i. 295, 
iii- 197.] G. G. 

GREATOREX, RALPH (d. 1712?), 
mathematical instrument maker, is mentioned 
in Aubrey's 'Lives' (ii. 473) as a great friend 
of Oughtred the mathematician. He is also 
briefly referred to in Aubrey's 'Natural His- 
tory of Wilts' (ed. Britton, p. 41), and in 
the ' Macclesfield Correspondence' (i. 82). 
Evelyn met Greatorex on 8 May 1656 (Diary, 
i. 314), and saw his ' excellent invention to 
quench fire.' His name appears in Pepys's 
'Diary.' On 11 Oct. 1660, when several en- 
gines were shown at work in St. James's Park, 
'above all the rest,' says Pepys, 'I liked that 




which Mr. Greatorex brought, which do carry 
up the water with a great deal of ease.' On 
24Oct.Pepys bought of Greatorex a drawing- 
pen, ' and he did show me the manner of the 
lamp-glasses which carry the light a great 
way, good to read in bed by, and I intend 
to have one of them. And we looked at his 
wooden jack in his chimney, that goes with 
the srnoake, which indeed is very pretty.' On 
9 June and 20 Sept, 1662 and 23 March 1663 
('this day Greatorex brought me a very pretty 
weather-glasse for heat and cold ') Pepys met 
the inventor ; the last entry, 23 May 1663, 
refers to his varnish, ' which appears every 
whit as good upon a stick which he hath 
done, as the Indian.' Among the wills of the 
commissary court of London is that of one 
Ralph Greatorex, gentleman, of the parish 
of St. Martin-in-the-Fields, signed 1710, 
and proved 1713. It supplies, however, no 
direct evidence of the testator's identity with 
the mathematical instrument maker. Twenty 
pounds is left to Elizabeth Caron, widow, 
of the same parish (probably his landlady), 
and the residue to his * loving friend, Sarah 
Fenton/ parish of St. Giles-in-the-Fields. 

[Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. viii. 284."] 

L. M. M. 

GREATOREX, THOMAS (1758-1831), 
organist and conductor of music, was born 
at North Wingfield, near Chesterfield, Derby- 
shire, 5 Oct. 1758 : the pedigree compiled by 
Hay man in the ( Reliquary ' (iv. 220 et seq.) 
shows his descent from Anthony Greatrakes 
of Callow, of a family that has nourished for 
upwards of five centuries in the neighbour- 
hood of Wirksworth, Derbysh ire. Greatorex's 
father Anthony, by trade a nailer, was a self- 
taught musician, and became an organist. 
The doubtful story that the elder Greatorex 
constructed an organ with his own hands 
after he was seventy may refer to that built 
by John Strong, the blind weaver, and be- 
queathed to the elder Greatorex. Martha, 
the eldest daughter, was thirteen when chosen 
the first organist of St. Martin's, Leicester. 
She pursued her calling with so much success 
that her earnings bought her a little estate 
at Burton-on-Trent. 

The family moved to Leicester when 
Thomas was eight years old. He was re- 
markably grave and studious, with a 'strong 
bias to mathematical pursuits, but, living in 
a musical family, his ear was imperceptibly 
drawn to the study of musical sounds ' (GAR- 
DINER). Greatorex studied music under Dr. 
Benjamin Cooke in 1772; two years later, 
after meeting the Earl of Sandwich and Joah 
Bates [q. v.], he was enabled to increase his 
knowledge of church music by attending the 


oratorio performances at Hinchinbrook. Af- 
terwards he became an inmate of Lord Sand- 
wich's household in town and country, and for 
a short time succeeded Bates as Sandwich's 
musical director. Greatorex sang in the Con- 
certs of Ancient Music, established in 1776, 
but his health obliged him to seek a northern 
climate, and he accepted the post of organist 
of Carlisle Cathedral in 1780. Here in his 
leisure hours he studied science and music, 
and two evenings in each week enjoyed philo- 
sophical discussions with the dean of Carlisle 
(Dr. Percy), Dr. C. Law, Archdeacon Paley, 
and others. Greatorex left Carlisle for New- 
castle in 1784. In 1786 he travelled abroad, 
provided with introductions, and was kindly 
received by English residents ; among them 
Prince Charles Edward, who bequeathed to 
him his manuscript volume of music. While 
in Rome Greatorex had singing lessons from 
Santarelli. At Strasburg Pleyel was his 

At the end of 1788 Greatorex settled in 
London, and, once launched as a professor, 
made large sums (* in one week he had given 
eighty-four singing lessons at a guinea '). 
Much of this lucrative business had to be re- 
nounced when, in 1793, he accepted the con- 
ductorship of the Ancient Concerts, in suc- 
cession to Bates. His appointment as or- 
ganist of Westminster Abbey, after the death 
of Williams in 1819, crowned his honourable 
career as a musician. 

Accounted the head of the English school, 
Greatorex in 1801 revived the Vocal Concerts. 
He was a professional member of the Madrigal 
Society, the Catch Club (from 1789 to 1798), 
and of the Royal Society of Musicians (from 
1791). He was also one of the board at the 
Royal Academy of Music on its establish- 
ment (1822), and was its chief professor of 
the organ and pianoforte. No important 
oratorio performance in town or country 
was thought complete without his co-opera- 
tion as conductor or organist. Pohl records 
his accompanying on the Glockenspiel a 
chorus from ' Saul ' as early as 1 792 at the 
Little Haymarket. The fatigues of the pro- 
vincial musical festivals in his latter years, 
when gout had attacked him, hastened his 
end. A cold caught while fishing was the 
immediate cause of his death at Hampton on 
18 July 1831, in his seventy-fourth year. 
His body was laid near that of Dr. Cooke in 
Westminster Abbey; Croft's Burial Service 
and Greene's ' Lord let me know mine end ' 
were sung during the ceremony, which was 
attended by a vast concourse of people. 
Greatorex was survived by his widow, six 
sons, and one daughter, 

Greatorex's organ-playing was masterly. 




' His style was massive/ writes Gardiner ; 
' he was like Briareus with a hundred hands, 
grasping so many keys at once that surges of 
sound rolled from his instrument in awful 
grandeur.' In another place the same writer 
remarks: 'Although Mr. Greatorex was a 
sound musician and a great performer, he 
never appeared to me to have a musical mind ; 
he was more a matter-of-fact man than one 
endowed with imagination.' As a teacher 
he was admirable, and when conducting, his 
thorough knowledge of his art, his cool head 
and sound judgment secured careful per- 
formances. During the thirty-nine years 
that Greatorex held the post of conductor of 
the Ancient Concerts, it is said that he never 
once was absent from his duty, or five 
minutes after his time at any rehearsal, per- 
formance, or meeting of the directors. Little 
but Handel's music was heard at these 
concerts, in accordance with the taste of 
George III and other patrons. Greatorex, 
too, had conservative ideas in artistic matters. 
He remarked that 'the style of Haydn's 
" Creation " was too theatrical for England,' 
and pretended that he could not play it ' be- 
cause it was so unlike anything he had seen.' 
Although he could harmonise and adapt with 
great ease, he did not attempt original work. 
A few songs and ballads were converted by 
him into glees, and were popular at the Vocal 
Concerts; 'Faithless Emma' was one of these 
pieces. At various meetings his orchestral 
parts to Marcello's psalm, * With songs I'll 
celebrate/ and to Croft's ' Cry Aloud/ were 
used. Of his published works, f Parochial 
Psalmody/ containing a number of old psalm 
tunes newly harmonised for congregational 
singing, appeared in 1825 ; his ' Twelve Glees 
from English, Irish, and Scotch Melodies ' 
were not printed until about 1833, after his 
death. In science he discovered a new method 
of measuring the altitude of mountains, which 
gained him the fellowship of the Eoyal So- 
ciety ; he was also a fellow of the Linnean 
Society. He was keenly interested in che- 
mistry, astronomy, and mathematics ; and was 
a connoisseur of paintings and of architecture. 
After his death his library, telescopes, &c., 
were sold; the Handel bookcase and contents 
(the works of the master in the handwriting 
of J. C. Smith) fetched 115 guineas. War- 
ren's manuscript collection of glees, which 
fetched 20/., included a manuscript note in 
Greatorex's hand, commenting on the man- 
ners of earlier times, illustrated by the gross- 
ness of the poetry then habitually chosen for 
musical setting. Greatorex's town house was 
70 Upper Norton (nowBolsover) Street, Port- 
land Place ; in the country he had a beau- 
tifully situated house on the banks of the Trent. 

[Cradock's Memoirs, i. H7 ; Gardiner's Music 
and Friends, i. 8 et seq. ; Harmonicon, 1831, pp. 
192, 231; Quarterly Musical Eeview, vi. 12; 
Oliphant's Madrigal Society; Polil's Haydn in 
London, p. 23 ; Harleian Society's Eegisters, x. 
504 : British Museum Catalogues of Music.] 

L. M. M. 

1683), whose name is also written GREAT- 
&c., 'the stroker/ belonged to the old Eng- 
lish family of Greatorex, but his father, Wil- 
liam, was settled in Ireland on his estate at 
Affane in the county of Waterford. Here 
Valentine was born 14 Feb. 1628-9 ; the day 
suggested his Christian name. His mother 
was Mary, third daughter of Sir Edward 
Harris, knt., chief justice of Munster. He 
was educated, first at the free school of Lis- 
more till he was about thirteen, and was then 
intending to continue his studies at Dublin, 
when the death of his father and the breaking 
out of the Irish rebellion in 1641 led his 
mother to bring him to England. Here he 
remained about six years, for a time in the 
house of his mother's brother, Edmund Harris, 
and on his uncle's death with John Daniel 
Getsius [q. v.] at Stoke Gabriel, Devonshire, 
who directed his reading. He returned to 
Ireland about 1647, and for a year led a re- 
tired and contemplative life at the castle of 
Cappoquin ; but when Cromwell opened his 
campaign in Ireland he joined the parliamen- 
tary forces, and served in the regiment of 
Colonel Robert Phaire, the regicide, under 
Roger Boyle, lord Broghill [q. v.], after- 
wards first earl of Orrery. He married, and 
when the army was disbanded in 1656 be- 
came a county magistrate, registrar for trans- 
portations, and clerk of the peace for county 
Cork, through the influence of Phaire, then 
governor of Cork. At the Restoration in 
1660 he was deprived of his offices, and be- 
took himself to a life of contemplation, giving 
' himself up wholly to the study of goodness 
and sincere mortification ' (DR.HENRY MORE). 
In 1662 the idea seized him that he had the 
power of curing the king's evil (or scrofula). 
He kept the matter a secret for some time, 
but at last communicated it to his wife, who 
' conceived it to be a strange imagination/ 
and jokingly told him that he had an oppor- 
tunity of testing his power at once on a boy 
in the neighbourhood, William Maher or 
Meagher of Salterbridge in the parish of 
Lismore. Greatrakes laid his hands on the 
affected parts with prayer, and within a month 
the boy was healed. Several similar cases 
of scrofula were partially or entirely cured 
in the same way, and Greatrakes was en- 
couraged to undertake the treatment of ague 




and other diseases with the like success. The 
reports of these extraordinary cures brought 
him a vast number of patients during the 
next three years from various parts of Ireland 
and also from England. He set apart three 
days each week for the exercise of his cure. 
The dean and bishop of Lismore remonstrated 
with him in vain for practising medicine 
without a license from his ordinary. On 
6 April 1665 he visited his old friend Phaire 
at Cahirmore, co. Cork, and cured him of 
acute ague. To this there is independent 
testimony in unpublished letters by Phaire's 
son, Alexander Herbert. Among his patients 
in Ireland in 1665 was Flamsteed the astro- 
nomer [q. v.], then a young man suffering 
from chronic rheumatism and other ailments. 
Flamsteed derived little or no benefit from 
the stroking. Greatrakes spent July 1665 in 
Dublin (cf. Newes, 5 July 1665). There he 
received an invitation through Sir George 
Rawdon from Viscount Conway to come to 
Ragley to cure his wife [see CONWAY, ANNE] 
of perpetual headaches. Henry More, the 
Cambridge platonist, and George Rust, dean 
of Connor, had recommended the application 
to Greatrakes. Greatrakes hesitated at first, 
but at last consented. He embarked for 
Bristol in January 1666, and after exercising 
his skill on many patients by the way arrived 
at Ragley, near Alcester, in Warwickshire, 
24 Jan. He stayed at Ragley about three 
weeks, and though he did not relieve Lady 
Conway many persons in the neighbourhood 
benefited by his treatment. From Ragley he 
was invited to Worcester (13 Feb.), and in 
the accounts of that city there is an item of 
10/. 14s. for ' the charge of entertainment of 
Mr. Gratrix ' (Notes and Queries, June 1864, 
p. 489). By direction of Lord Arlington, 
secretary of state, and by persuasion of Sir 
Edmund Bury Godfrey [q. v.], he almost im- 
mediately moved on to London. There he 
stayed for several months in Lincoln's Inn 
Fields, and treated a great number of patients 
gratuitously with varied success. He failed 
at Whitehall before the king and his cour- 
tiers. At the end of February 1665-6 Henry 
Stubbe, a physician of Strat ford-on- A von, 
published at Oxford the 'Miraculous Con- 
formist/ an account of Greatrakes's treatment, 
attributing his success to miraculous agency. 
David Lloyd (1625-1691) [q. v.] replied in 
' Wonders no Miracles,' by attacking Great- 
rakes's private character. Greatrakes there- 
upon vindicated himself in an autobiographi- 
cal letter addressed to Robert Boyle [q. v.], 
accompanied by fifty-three testimonials from 
Boyle, Andrew Marvell, Ralph Cudworth, 
John Wilkins (afterwards bishop of Chester), 
Benjamin Whichcote, D.D., one of Great- 

rakes's patients, and other persons of known 
honesty and intelligence. His procedure, 
according to More and Rust, both of whom 
he met at Ragley, always resembled a reli- 
gious ceremony. ' The form of words he 
used were, "God Almighty heal thee for his 
mercy's sake ; " and if the patients professed 
to receive any benefit he bade them give God 
the praise.' By the application of his hand 
1 at last he would drive (the morbific matter) 
into some extreme part, suppose the fingers, 
and especially the toes, or the nose or tongue ; 
into which parts when he had forced it, it 
would make them so cold and insensible that 
the patient could not feel the deepest prick 
of a pin; but as soon as his hand should 
touch those parts, or gently rub them, the 
whole distemper vanished, and life and sense 
immediately returned to those parts.' His 
failure in some cases, not apparently more 
hopeless than others in which he had been 
successful, could not be explained satisfacto- 
rily. He deprecated the description of his 
cure as miraculous, but admitted that 'he 
had reason to believe that there was some- 
thing in it of an extraordinary gift of God ' 
(A Brief Account, &c. p. 34). More quoted 
Greatrakes's cures as a confirmatory illustra- 
tion of his own ingenious speculation ' that 
there may be very well a sanative and heal- 
ing contagion, as well as a morbid and vene- 
mous' (Enthusiasmus Triumphatus, Scholia 
on Sect, 58). In modern times the cures 
have been reasonably attributed by Deleuze 
and others to animal magnetism (Histoire 
Critique du Magn. An. ii. 249). Greatrakes's 
treatment was gratuitous, except in the case 
of Lady Conway, when he demanded and 
received 155/. for the expenses of the journey 
and on account of the hazards of the enraged 
seas.' Greatrakes rejected cases which were 
manifestly incurable. 

On his return to Ireland at the end of May 
1666 Greatrakes assumed the life of a country 
gentleman, having an income of 1,000/., and 
only occasionally practised his cure. He died 
at Affane 28 Nov. 1683. In his will (dated 
20 Nov. 1683, and proved at Dublin 26 April 
1684) he directed that he should be buried 
in Lismore Cathedral; but this direction was 
not complied with, and lie was buried beside 
his father at Affane. He was twice married ; 
by his first wife, Ruth (d. 1675), daughter 
of Sir William Godolphin, knt. (1611-1696) 
[q. v.], he had two sons, William and Ed- 
mund, and one daughter, Mary; by his second 
wife, Alice (Tilson), widow of Rotherham, 
esq., of Camolin, co. Wexford, he left no 

Greatrakes published 'A Brief Account of 
Mr. Valentine Greatrak's [*&], and divers of 




the strange cures by him lately performed. 
Written by himself in a letter addressed to 
the Hon we Robert Boyle, esq. Whereunto 
are annexed the testimonials of several emi- 
nent and worthy persons of the chief matters 
of fact therein related/ small 8vo, London, 
1666. Prefixed is an engraving by William 
Faithorne the elder [q. v.] representing 
Greatrakes stroking with both hands the head 
of a youth ; this has been several times re- 

[G-reatrakes's Brief Account (as above) ; 
Stubbe's Miraculous Conformist, 1666, 4tp ; 
Lloyd's Wonders no Miracles, p. 166 ; Pechlim 
Observationes Physico-Medicse, Hamburg, 1691, 
pp. 474 sq. ; Thoresby in Philos. Trans. No. 256, 
1699 ; Deleuze, Hist. Grit. duMagnetisme Animal, 
Paris, 1819, ii. 247 sq. ; Glanvil's Saducismus 
Triumphatus, 1681, i. 90 sq., ii. 247 ; Douglas's 
Criterion, or Miracles Examined, pp. 205 sq. ; 
Kawdon Papers, ed. Berwick, 1819, pp. 205 sq. ; 
Kev. Sam. Hayman (who was descended from 
G-reatrakes's only sister) in Jewitt's Keliquary, 
1863-4, iv. 86 sq., 236 ; Notes and Queries, 2nd 
ser. iii., 3rd ser. v. vi., 6th ser. ix. ; manuscript 
communication from the Kev. Alex. Gordon, with 
extracts from Phaire Papers.] W. A. G. 

1781), barrister, born in Waterford about 
1723, was the eldest son of Alan Greatrakes 
of Mount Lahan, near Killeagh, co. Cork, by 
his wife Frances Supple, of the neighbouring 
village of Aghadoe. He was entered at 
Trinity College, Dublin, as a pensioner 9 July 
1740, and became a scholar in 1744, but did 
not take a degree. It is not improbable that 
he served for a few years in the army. On 
19 March 1750-1 he was admitted as a student 
at the Middle Temple, and was called to the 
Irish bar in Easter term 1761. He does not 
appear to have practised very much, nor to 
have had a residence in Dublin ; and he had 
formally retired from the bar before 1776 
(WILSON, Dublin Directory, 1766, 1776). He 
died at the Bear Inn, Hungerford, Berkshire, 
on 2 Aug. 1781, when on his way from Bris- 
tol to London, and was buried in Hunger- 
ford churchyard. On his tombstone was 
inscribed ' stat nominis umbra ; ' he was 
wrongly stated to have died in the fifty- 
second year of his age. In the letters of ad- 
ministration P. C. C., granted on 25 May 1782 
to his sister, Elizabeth Courtenay , widow, who 
was sworn by commission, he is described as 
' late of Castlemartyr in the county of Cork, 
a bachelor.' Greatrakes acquired some pos- 
thumous importance from his supposed con- 
nection with the authorship of the letters of 
Junius. The materials of the letters were 
said to have been furnished by Lord Shel- 
burne, and worked up by Greatrakes as his 

private secretary. It was pointed out that 
Greatrakes probably gained his introduction 
to Lord Shelburne through Colonel Isaac 
Barre, his fellow-student at Trinity College, 
Dublin ; that he died at Hungerford, not far 
from Lord Shelburne's seat, Bowood, and that 
his tombstone bore the Latin motto prefixed 
to Junius's letters. Such was the story 
which Wraxall says was 'confidently cir- 
culated' in his time (Historical Memoirs, 
ed. Wheatley, i. 341-2). The family, espe- 
cially the lady members, obligingly supplied 
many curious ' proofs ' in further support of 
the case. The first public mention of Great- 
rakes's claim was probably in the 'Anti- 
Jacobin Review,' in an extremely inaccurate 
letter, dated July 1799, from Charles Butler. 
The next published reference appeared in the 
< Cork Mercantile Chronicle ' for 7 Sept. 1804, 
in a communication from D. J. Murphy of 
Cork, who reports at third hand a story from 
James Wigmore that the original manuscripts 
of Junius had been found in Greatrakes's 
trunk. A later family reminiscence asserted 
that a Captain Stopford of the 63rd regiment 
of foot had received Greatrakes's confession 
of the authorship on his deathbed. Before 
any of the family could reach Hungerford 
Stopford had fled to America with all Great- 
rakes's effects, including 1,000/. in money. 
No Captain Stopford is in the army lists. 
A third communication appeared in the 
' Gentleman's Magazine ' for December 1813 
(vol. Ixxxiii. pt. ii. p. 547). The writer, who 
signs himself ' One of the Pack,' states that 
Greatrakes had made the acquaintance of a 
judge by defending a friendless soldier, and 
thus been introduced to Lord Shelburne, ' in 
whose house he was an inmate during the 
publication of the letters of Junius.' The 
writer enclosed an autograph ' Will Great- 
rakes,' cut from a book that had been in his 
possession, of which a facsimile appeared at 
p. 545. In 1848 John Britton reproduced 
all these absurdities as authentic facts in a 
work entitled ' The Authorship of the Letters 
of Junius elucidated.' He held that Barr 
was Junius, probably inspired by Shelburne 
and Dunning, and that Greatrakes was the 
amanuensis employed. There is no evidence 
that he was ever in Shelburne's family (cf. 
DILKE, Papers of a Critic, ii. 2, 3-4). Brit- 
ton based his opinion on the facsimile of 
Greatrakes's signature in the ' Gentleman's 
Magazine.' Chabot the expert has speci- 
fied several points of difference between the 
handwriting of Greatrakes and Junius, and 
the whole story is inconsistent and absurd 
(CHABOT and TWISLETON, The Handwriting 
of Junius professionally investiqated, pp. 1-li. 




[Reliquary, iv. 95, v. 103-4; Britton's Junius ' 
Elucidated, pp. 8-9, 62-5 ; Sir David Brewster 
in North British Review, x. 108.] G. G. 

1680), physician, son of John Greaves, rector 
of Colemore, Hampshire, was born at Croy don, 
Surrey, in 1608. He studied at Oxford, and 
was elected a fellow of All Souls' College in 
1634. After this he studied medicine at 
Padua, where in 1636 he wrote some com- 
plimentary Latin verses to Sir George Ent 
[q. v.l on his graduation, and returning to 
Oxford graduated M.B. 18 July 1640, M.D. 
8 July 1641. In 1642 he continued his medi- 
cal studies at the university of Leyden, and 
on his return practised physic at Oxford, 
where, 14 Nov. 1643, he was appointed Linacre 
superior reader of physic. In the same year 
he published l Morbus epidemicus Anni 1643, 
or the New Disease with the Signes, Causes, 
Remedies,' c., an account of a mild form of 
typhus fever, which was an epidemic at Ox- 
ford in that year, especially in the houses 
where sick and wounded soldiers were quar- 
tered. Charles I is supposed to have created 
him a baronet 4 May 1645. Of this creation, 
the first of a physician to that rank, no record 
exists, but the accurate Le Neve [q. v.] did 
not doubt the fact, and explained the absence 
of enrolment (Letter of Le Neve in SMITH, 
Life of John Graves}. With his friend Walter 
Charleton [q. v.] Greaves became travelling 
physician to Charles II, but settled in London 
in 1653, and was admitted a fellow of the 
College of Physicians 18 Oct. 1657. He de- 
livered the Harveian oration at the College 
of Physicians 25 July 1661 (London, 1667, 
4to), of which the original manuscript is in 
the British Museum (Sloane 279). It contains 
few facts and many conceits, but some of these 
are happy. He says that before Harvey the 
source of the circulation was as unknown 
as that of the Nile, and compares England to 
a heart, whence the knowledge of the cir- 
culation was driven forth to other lands. He 
became physician in ordinary to Charles II, 
lived in Covent Garden, there died 11 Nov. 
1680, and was buried in the church of St. 
Paul's, Covent Garden. 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. i. 277 ; Sloane MSS. in 
Brit, Mus. 225 and 279, i. 18 ; Nash's Worcester- 
shire : Wood's Athenae Oxon. (Bliss), iii. 1256.] 

X. M. 

(1777-1842), mystic, born 1 Feb. 1777, was 
in early life engaged in business in London. 
According to one account the firm in which 
he was a partner became bankrupt in 1806 
owing to the French war; another autho- 
rity says that ' after getting rich in com- 

merce he lost his fortune by imprudent specu- 
lations.' He surrendered all his property to 
his creditors, and lived for some time on the 
income allowed him for winding up the affairs 
of his establishment. In 1817 he joined Pes- 
talozzij the Swiss educational reformer, then 
established at Yverdun. Returning to Eng- 
land in 1825 he became secretary of the Lon- 
don Infant School Society. In 1832 he was 
settled in the village of Randwick, Glouces- 
tershire, and engaged in an industrial scheme 
for the benefit of agricultural labourers. 
Resuming his residence in London, he drew 
around him many friends. A philosophical 
society founded by him, and known as the 
^Esthetic Society, met for some time at his 
house in Burton Crescent. His educational 
experiences gradually led him to peculiar 
convictions. * As Being is before knowing 
and doing, I affirm that education can never 
repair the defects of Birth.' Hence the ne- 
cessity of ' the divine existence being deve- 
loped and associated with man and woman 
prior to marriage.' He was a follower of 
Jacob Boehme and saturated with German 
transcendentalism. A. F. Barham [q. v.] says 
that his followers mainly congregated at Ham 
in Surrey ; here also a school was organised 
to give effect to his educational views. Bar- 
ham adds that he considered him as essen- 
tially a superior man to Coleridge, and with 
much higher spiritual attainments and expe- 
rience. ' His numerous acquaintances re- 
garded him as a moral phenomenon, as a 
unique specimen of human character, as a 
study, as a curiosity, and an absolute unde- 
finable.' The earning of a livelihood was natu- 
rally a subordinate matter with him ; * that he 
was often in great distress for means,' writes 
a member of a family in which he was a fre- 
quent guest, ' was proved by his once coming 
to us without socks under his boots.' Latterly 
he was a vegetarian, a water-drinker, and an 
advocate of hydropathy. A portrait prefixed 
to his works gives an impression of thought- 
; fulness, serenity, and benevolence. He pub- 
lished none of his writings separately, but 
Printed a few of them in obscure periodicals. 
lis last years were spent at Alcott House, 
Ham, so named after Amos Bronson Alcott, 
the American transcendentalist, with whom 
' he had a long correspondence. Here he died 
I on 11 March 1842, aged 65. Two volumes 
were afterwards published from his manu- 
! scripts (vol. i. ' Concordium,' Ham Common, 
i Surrey, 1843; vol. ii. Chapman, 1845). Some 
minor publications, also posthumous, appear 
in the Brit. Mus. Cat. 

[An Odd Medley of Literary Curiosities, by 
A. F. Barham, pt. ii. 1845 ; Letters and Extracts 
from the manuscript writings of J. P. Greaves 



(memoir prefixed to); article ' A. B. Alcott' in 
Appleton's Cyclopaedia, 1858 ; private informs 
tion.] J. M. S. 

GREAVES, JOHN (1602-1652), mathe- 
matician, eldest son of the Rev. John Greaves, 
rector of Colemore, near Alresford in Hamp- 
shire, was born at Colemore in 1602, and was 
sent to Balliol College, Oxford, in 1617. He 
graduated BA. in 1621; was elected to a 
fellowship at Merton College in 1624: and 
proceeded MA. in 1628. His taste for natural 
philosophy and mathematics led him to form 
an intimate acquaintance with Henry Briggs 
[q. v.], Dr. John Bainbridge [q. v.], and Peter 
Turner, senior fellow of Merton. He learned 
the oriental languages, and studied the ancient 
Greek, Arabian, and Persian writers on as- 
tronomy, besides Copernicus, Regiomontanus, 
Purbach, Tycho Brahe, and Kepler. 

In 1630 he was chosen professor of geo- 
metry in Gresham College, London, continu- 
ing to hold his fellowship at Merton, and by 
Peter Turner was introduced to Archbishop 
Laud. In 1635 he appears to have visited 
Paris and Leyden, and to have formed a 
friendship with James Golius, and it is pro- 
bable that he on this occasion extended his 
travels into Italy. In 1637 he went from 
Leghorn to Rome, and took measurements 
of several of the monuments there, particu- 
larly Cestius's Pyramid and the Pantheon. 
From Rome he went to Padua and Florence, 
and afterwards sailed from Leghorn to Con- 
stantinople, where he arrived in 1638. He 
was assured by some of the Greeks that the 
library which formerly belonged to the Chris- 
tian emperors was still preserved in the sul- 
tan's palace, and he procured thence Pto- 
lemy's < Almagest/ < the fairest book he had 
ever seen.' From Constantinople he went 
to Egypt, touching on his way at Rhodes, 
and stayed four months at Alexandria. Hence 
he went twi3e to Cairo, with divers mathe- 
matical instruments, in order to measure the 
pyramids. Having made a collection of 
Greek, Arabic, and Persian manuscripts, be- 
sides a great number of coins, gems, and other 
valuable curiosities, he returned to Leghorn 
in 1639. After visiting Florence and Rome, 
he returned to England in 1640. On the 
death of John Bainbridge he was chosen Sa- 
vilian professor of astronomy at Oxford, but 
was deposed from his professorship at Gres- 
ham College on the ground of his absence. 
In Ib4o he drew up a paper for reforming 
the calendar by omitting the bissextile day 
lor forty years to come ; but his scheme was 
not adopted. 

or a Discourse of the Pyramids in Eoypt/ 
which was sharply criticised by Hooke and 

others. In 1647 he published 'A Discourse 
of the Roman Foot and Denarius,' which is 
highly commended by Edward Bernard [q.v.] 
in his l De Mensuris et Ponderibus Anti- 
quorum,' 1683. Greaves published in 1648 
' Demonstratio Ortus Sirii Heliaci pro paral- 
lelo inferioris ^Egypti,' as a supplement to 
John Bainbridge's ' Canicularia/ which he 
appears to have edited. 

In 1642 Greaves was appointed subwarden 
of Merton; and in 1645 took the lead in 
promoting a petition to the king against Sir 
Nathaniel Brent [q. v.], who was thereupon 
deposed. On 30 Oct. 1648 Greaves was 
ejected by the parliamentary visitors from 
his professorship of astronomy and his fellow- 
ship at Merton on several charges, especially 
that of having made over 400/. from the col- 
lege treasury to the king's agents. He was 
also charged with having misappropriated col- 
lege property, having feasted with the queen's 
confessors, and having displayed favouritism 
and political animus in the appointment of 
subordinate college officers. Dr. Walter Pope 
discusses these charges at considerable length 
in his ' Life of Seth Ward/ 1697. 

Greaves lost a large part of his books and 
manuscripts on this occasion ; some were re- 
covered for him by his friend Selden. He 
then retired to London, where he married. 
In 1649 he published ' Elementa Linguse 
Persicse/ to which he subjoined ' Anonynms 
Persa de Siglis Arabum et Persarum Astro- 
nomicis/ astronomical tables employed by 
these races ; and in 1650 ' Epochs cele- 
briores, astronomis, historicis, chronologicis, 
Chataiorum, Syro-Grsecorum, Arabum, Per- 
sarum, Chorasmiorum usitatae, ex traditione 
Ulug Beigi/ to which is subjoined ' Choras- 
miae et Mawaralnahrae, hoc est, regionum 
extra fluvium Oxum descriptio ex tabulis 
Abulfedis, Ismaelis, Principis, Hamali.' In 
the same year was published his < Description 
of the Grand Seignor's Seraglio/ reprinted, 
along with the * Pyramidographia ' and several 
other works, in 1737. In 1650 he published 

Astrpnomica qusedam ex traditione Shah 
Cholgii Persse, una cum Hypothesibus Pla- 
netarum/ and in 1652 'Binge Tabulae Geo- 
graphicse, una Nessir Eddini Persee, altera 
Ulug Beigi Tatar!/ eminent Persian and In- 
dian mathematicians. Greaves died 8 Oct. 
L652, and was buried in the church of St. 
3enet Sherehog in London. 

The following works were posthumous: 
1. 'Lemmata Archimedis e vetusto codice 
manuscripto Arabico/ 1659. 2. 'Of the Man- 
ner of Hatching of Eggs at Cairo/ 1677. 
3. < Account of some Experiments for trying 
he Force of Guns/ 1685. 4. < Reflections 
>n a Report to the Lords of the Council/ 




1699. 5. 'An Account of the Longitude 
and Latitude of Constantinople and Rhodes/ 
1705. 6. 'Descriptio Peninsulas Arabicoc, 
ex Abulfeda.' 7. ' The Origin of English 
Weights and Measures,' 1706. 8. Miscel- 
laneous works, including, besides reprints, a 
'Dissertation upon the Sacred Cubit ; ' tracts 
upon various subjects, and a 'Letter from 
Constantinople,' 1638 ; and preceded by an 
historical and critical account of his life and 
writings prepared by Thomas Birch, 1737. 

Besides these Greaves edited and prepared 
for the press many geographical and astrono- 
mical commentaries and tables, and various 
mathematical and scientific works. His cor- 
respondence with the learned men of his day 
was very large ; in addition to those men- 
tioned above his correspondents included 
William Schickard, Claudius Hardy, Francis 
Junius, Peter Scanenius, Christian Ravius, 
Archbishop Ussher, Dr. Gerard Langbaine, 
Dr. William Harvey, Sir John Marshain, and 
Sir George Ent. His astronomical instru- 
ments were left by will to the Savilian library 
at Oxford. Many of his manuscripts and 
letters were lost or dispersed after his death. 

[Vita Joannis Gravii, published among Vitse 
Illustrium Virorum, by Thomas Smith, 1707 ; 
Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), iii. 324-9; Wood's 
Fasti Oxon. i. 218, 240 ; John Greaves's Letter 
from Constantinople, 2 Aug. 1638 ; Thomas 
Smith's Miscellanea, 1686 ; Wood's Hist, et Anti- 
quitates Oxon. ii. 42 ; Greaves's Tract on Re- 
formation of the Kalendar ; Marsham's Canon 
Chronicus ; Pope's Life of Seth Ward, iv. 18-21, 
1697; Peck's Desiderata Curiosa, ii. 25, 1735 ; 
Miscellaneous Works of J. Greaves, 2 vols. 1737 
(especially preface), eel. T. Birch ; Savage's Bal- 
liofergus, p. 108, 1668; Biog. Brit. iv. 2267, 
1757 ; Ward's Gresham Professors, p. 135, 1740 ; 
Brodrick's Hist, of Merton College (Oxfordllist. 
Soc. 1885), pp. 84, 88, 96, 98, 102, 282, 353.] 

N. D. F. P. 

GREAVES, THOMAS (fi. 1604), musi- 
cal composer and lutenist, belonging proba- 
bly to the Derbyshire family of Greaves, was 
lutenist to Sir Henry Pierrepont. He pub- 
lished in London in 1604, fol., ' Songes of 
sundrie kinds ; first, aires to be sung to the 
lute and base violl ; next, songes of sadnesse 
for the viols and voyce ; lastly madrigalles 
for five voyces.' Three of the madrigals, 
* Come away, sweet love/ ' Lady, the melting 
crystal of thine eyes/ and ' Sweet nymphs/ 
have been republished (1843 and 1857), with 
pianoforte accompaniment by G. W. Budd. 

[Grove's Diet. i. 624 ; Brown's Diet. p. 288.] 

L. M. M. 

GREAVES, THOMAS, D.I). (1612- 
1676), orientalist, was son of the Rev. John 
Greaves of Colemore, Hampshire, and brother 

of Sir Edward Greaves [q. v.], and of John 
Greaves [q. v.] He was educated at Charter- 
house School, and was admitted scholar of 
Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 1627, be- 
coming fellow in 1636, and deputy-reader of 
Arabic 1637. He proceeded B.D. in 1641 , and 
was appointed rector of Dunsby, near Slea- 
ford, in Lincolnshire. He also held another 
living near London. He made a deposition 
on behalf of his brother, John Greaves, when 
the latter was ejected from his professorship 
at Merton. He proceeded D.D. in 1661, and 
was admitted to a prebend in the cathedral of 
Peterborough 23 Oct. 1666 (LE NEVE, Fasti, 
ii.548), being then rector of Benefield in North- 
amptonshire. He was obliged to resign this 
rectory some years before his death on account 
of an impediment in his speech. The latter 
part of his life was spent at Weldon in North- 
amptonshire, where he had purchased an es- 
tate, and dying there in 1676, he was buried in 
the chancel of Weldon Church. The inscrip- 
tion on his gravestone called him ' Vir summae 
pietatis et eruditionis ; in philosophicis paucis 
secundus ; in philologicis peritissimis par ; in 
linguis Orientalibus plerisque major, quarum 
Persicam notis in appendice ad Biblia Poly- 
glotta doctissime illustravit. Arabicam 
publice in Academia Oxon. professus est, dig- 
nissimus etiam qui et theologiam in eodem 
loco profiteretur ; poeta insuper et orator 
insignis ; atque in mathematicis profunde 
doctus.' His works are : 1. 'De linguje 
Arabicae utilitate et preestantia/ 1637 (see 
' Letters to Thomas Greaves ' by J. Selden 
and A. Wheelock, professor of Arabic at 
Cambridge, in BIRCH'S Preface to the Mis- 
cellaneous Works of John Greaves, 1737, 
p. 67 sq.) 2. ' Observationes qusedam in Per- 
sicam Pentateuchi versionem.' 3. ' Annota- 
tiones qusedam in Persicam Interpretationem 
Evangeliorum/ both printed in vol. vi. of the 
'Polyglot Bible/ 1647. He was probably 
also the author of ' A Sermon at Rotterdam/ 
1763, and 'A brief Summary of Christian 
Religion.' Besides these works he contem- 
plated a ' Treatise against Mahometanism/ as 
appears from a letter to his friend Baxter 
(published in BIRCH'S Preface]. 

[Biog. Brit. 1757, iv. 2279 ; Wood's Fasti 
Oxon. ii. 2, 147; Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), 
iii. 1061 ; Ward's Gresham Professors, 1740, pp. 
145, 152; Macray's Annals of Bodleian.] 

N. D. F. P. 

GREEN, AMOS (1735-1807), painter, 
born in 1735 at Halesowen, near Birmingham, 
where his family owned a small property, was 
apprenticed to Baskerville, the Birmingham 
printer. He was chiefly occupied in painting 
trays and boxes, but soon developed a love 
of painting and drawing. His specialty lay 



in flower and fruit pieces, some of the former 
being imitations of J. B. Monnoyer and J. van 
Huysum. Later in life he took to landscape- 
painting with some success. His residence 
at Halesowen brought him the friendship ol 
Shenstone [q. v.], the poet, and of George, 
lord Lyttelton, both being neighbours. With 
another neighbour at Hagley, Anthony Deane, 
he became so intimate that he was received 
into his family as one of its members, and 
moved with them to Bergholt in Suffolk, and 
eventually to Bath. He was a good land- 
scape-gardener. In 1760 he sent two paint- 
ings of fruit to the first exhibition of the 
Incorporated Society of Artists, and exhi- 
bited again in 1763 and 1765. On 8 Sept. 
1796 he married at Burlington Miss Lister, 
a native of York. He eventually settled at 
Burlington, but thenceforth did little im- 
portant work in painting, spending, however, 
much time in sketching tours with his wife. 
He died at York on 10 June 1807, in his 
seventy-third year. He was buried at Fulford, 
and a monument to his memory was put up 
in Castlegate Church at York. His widow 
published a memoir of him after his death, to 
which a portrait, engraved by W. T. Fry from 
a drawing by R. Hancock, is prefixed. 

There are three water-colour landscapes by 
him in the print room at the British Mu- 
seum, including a view of Sidmouth Bay. 
Some of his works were engraved, notably 
1 Partridges,' in mezzotint by Richard Earlom. 
He is sometimes stated to have been a brother 
of Valentine Green [q. v.], the engraver, but 
this does not appear to be the case. 

Benjamin [q. v.] and JOHN GREEN seem 
to have been his brothers. The latter, pro- 
bably a pupil of the eldest James Basire [q. v.], 
engraved plates from William Borlase's draw- 
ings for the < Natural History of Cornwall' 
(1758), and also views for the 'Oxford Al- 
manack,' besides some portraits, including one 
of Dr. Shaw, principal of St. Edmund Hall, 
Oxford (UPCOTT, Engl. Topography; DODD, 
MS. History of English Engravers, Brit. Mus 
Addit. MSS. 33401) 

[Memoir of Amos Green, Esq., written by his 
late widow; Gent. Mag. 1823, xciii. 16, 124 
290 ; Eedgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Graves's Diet, 
of Artists, 1760-1800.] L. C. 


LJU (1530-1555), protestant martyr, was 
born in the parish of Basinghall, city of Lon- 
don He was of a wealthy catholic family, and 
at the age of sixteen was sent by his parents, 
who favoured learning,' to Oxford, proceeding 
B.A. m 1547 (WooB, Fasti, ed. Bliss, i. 125; 
BOASE, Reg. of Univ. of Oxford, i. 212). At 
the university he was a laborious student, and 

was converted by Peter Martyr's lectures to 
the protestant religion(FoxE, Acts and Monu- 
ments, ed. Townsend, vii. 731-46). On leaving 
Oxford Green entered the Inner Temple, and 
after a period of dissipation his earlier im- 
pressions revived, and he gave up his worldly 
amusements. His family were scandalised 
by his protestantism, and his grandfather, 
Dr. Bartlet, offered him bribes to abandon 
it. At Oxford Green had made friends with 
Christopher Goodman [q. v.], and on Easter 
Sunday 1554 took the sacrament with him 
in London before Goodman went beyond the 
seas (MAITLAND, Essays on the Reformation t 
112). A letter from Green to Goodman 
was intercepted in 1555, in which he told his 
correspondent ' The queen is not dead.' It was 
read before the council, and Green was thrown 
nto the Tower on a charge of treason, which 
3roke down. He was then examined on re- 
igious questions before Bonner in November 
1555. He was again sent back to prison (to 
Newgate), but was re-examined (15 Jan. 
.555-6) before Bonner and Feckenham [q. v.] 
and condemned to be burnt. Foxe gives a 
detailed account of his martyrdom, and of the 
"etters he wrote before his death. His cha- 
racter seems by all accounts to have been 
very amiable. A letter from one Careless to 
him when in prison addresses him as a l meek 
and loving lamb of Christ.' He went cheer- 
fully to the stake at Smithfield at 9 A.M. on 
27 Jan. A priest, three tradesmen, and two 
women, were burnt with him. 

[Foxe's Acts and Monuments, ed. Townsend, 
vii. 659-715, viii. 785 ; Strype's Memorials, vol. 
ii. pt. i. p. 190; Strype's Life of Cranmer, i. 370, 
532 ; Brook's Lives of the Puritans, ii. 124.] 

~T^ T* ~K 

GREEN, BENJAMIN (1736?-1800?) r 
mezzotint engraver, was born at Halesowen 
in Worcestershire about 1736. He was pro- 
bably brother of Amos Green [q.v.], the flower 
painter, and John Green of Oxford, the line 
engraver. He became a member of the Incor- 
porated Society of Artists, and contributed 
to its exhibitions from 1765 to 1774. He 
was a good draughtsman and became draw- 
ing-master at Christ's Hospital. He pub- 
lished many plates of antiquities drawn 
and etched by himself, and also engraved 

in line the views for the Oxford almanacs 
from 1760 to 1766, and the illustrations to 
Morant's 'History and Antiquities of the 
County of Essex,' published in 1768. Some 
of his plates after the works of George Stubbs, 
A.K.A., are good examples of mezzotint en- 


good exampi 
They include 

mezzotint en- 
Phaeton driving 

the Chariot of the Sun,' 'The Horse before 
the Lion's Den/ < The Lion and Stag,' < The 
Horse and the Lioness,' and an equestrian 


41 Green 

portrait of George, lord Pigot. Besides these 
he engraved in mezzotint a few portraits, 
among which are those of Mrs. Baldwin, after 
Tilly Kettle, and Lieutenant-colonel Town- 
shend, a small oval after Hudson. He died 
in London not later than 1800. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists of the English 
School, 1878; John Chaloner Smith's British 
Mezzotinto Portraits, 1878-83, pp. 529-31 ; 
Exhibition Catalogues of the Incorporated Society 
of Artists, 1765-74; Rev. Mark Noble's Con- 
tinuation of Vertue's Catalogue of Engravers, MS. 
dated 1806.] R. E. G-. 


(1808-1876), water-colour painter, born in 
London in 1808, was son of James Green 
[q. v.], the portrait-painter. He studied art 
in the schools of the Royal Academy, and 
painted both figures and landscapes, mostly 
in water-colour. He was elected in 1834 a 
member of the Institute of Painters inWater- 
Colours. Green was very much employed 
as a teacher of drawing and a lecturer. He 
exhibited frequently at the Royal Academy 
and the Suffolk Street exhibitions, beginning 
in 1832, and also at the various exhibitions of 
paintings in water-colours. In 1829 Green 
published a numismatic atlas of ancient his- 
tory, executed in lithography ; a French edi- 
tion of this work was published in the same 
year. Green also published some works on 
perspective, a lecture on ancient coins, and a 
series of heads from the antique. He was for 
many years secretary of the Artists' Annuity 
Fund, and died in London 5 Oct. 1876, aged 68. 
In the South Kensington Museum there is a 
water-colour drawing by him of the 'Interior 
of Stratford-on-Avon Church.' 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Graves's Diet, of 
Artists, 1760-1880 ; Bryan's Diet, of Painters and 
Engravers, ed. Graves ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] L. C. 

GREEN, CHARLES (1785-1870), aero- 
naut, son of Thomas Green, fruiterer, of 
Willow Walk, Goswell Street, London, who 
died in May 1850, aged 88, was born at 
92 Goswell Road, London, on 31 Jan. 1785, 
and on leaving school was taken into his 
father's business. His first ascent was from 
the Green Park, London, on 19 July 1821, 
"by order of the government, at the corona- 
tion of George IV, in a balloon filled Avith 
carburetted hydrogen gas, he being the first 
person who ascended with a balloon so in- 
flated. After that time he made 526 ascents. 
On 16 Aug. 1828 he ascended from the Eagle 
tavern, City Road, on the back of his pony, 
and after being up for half an hour descended 
at Beckenham in Kent. In 1836 he con- 
structed the Great Nassau balloon for Gye 
and Hughes, proprietors of Yauxhall Gar- 

dens, from whom he subsequently purchased 
it for 500/., and on 9 Sept. in that year made 
the first ascent with it from Vauxhall Gar- 
dens, in company with eight persons, and, 
after remaining in the air about one hour 
and a half, descended at Cliffe, near Graves- 
end. On 21 Sept. he made a second ascent, 
accompanied by eleven persons, and descended 
at Beckenham in Kent. He also made four 
other ascents with it from Vauxhall, includ- 
ing the celebrated continental ascent, under- 
taken at the expense of Robert Hollond, 
M.P. for Hastings, who, with Monck Mason, 
accompanied him. They left Vauxhall Gar- 
dens at 1.30 P.M. on 7 ISiov. 1836, and, cross- 
ing the channel from Dover the same even- 
ing, descended the next day, at 7 A.M., at 
Weilburg in Nassau, Germany, having tra- 
velled altogether about five hundred miles 
in eighteen hours. On 19 Dec. 1836 he 
again went up from Paris with six persons, 
and on 9 Jan. 1837 with eight persons. 
The Great Nassau ascended from Vauxhall 
Gardens on 24 July, Green having with 
him Edward Spencer and Robert Cocking. 
At a height of five thousand feet Cocking 
liberated himself from the balloon, and de- 
scending in a parachute of his own construc- 
tion into a field on Burnt Ash Farm, Lee, 
was killed on reaching the ground (Times , 
25, 26, 27, and 29 July 1837). The balloon 
came down the same evening near Town 
Mailing, Kent, and it was not until the next 
day that Green heard of the death of his 

In 1838 Green made two experimental 
ascents from Vauxhall Gardens at the ex- 
pense of George Rush of Elsenham Hall, 
Essex. The first took place on 4 Sept., 
Rush and Edward Spencer accompanying 
the aeronaut. They attained the elevation 
of 19,335 feet, and descended at Thaxted in 
Essex. The second experiment was made 
I on 10 Sept., and was for the purpose of ascer- 
taining the greatest altitude that could be 
attained with the Great Nassau balloon in- 
I flated with carburetted hydrogen gas and 
carrying two persons only. Green ascended 
; with Rush for his companion, and they reached 
! the elevation of 27,146 feet, or about five 
I miles and a quarter, as indicated by the baro- 
meter, which fell from 30'50 to 11, the 
! thermometer falling from 61 to 5, or 27 
j below freezing point. On several occasions 
this balloon was carried by the upper cur- 
rents between eighty and one hundred miles 
in the hour. On "31 March 1841 Green 
ascended from Hastings, accompanied by 
Charles Frederick William, duke of Bruns- 
wick, and in five hours descended at Neufcha- 
tel, about ten miles south-west of Boulogne. 


His last and farewell public ascent took place 
from Vauxhall Gardens on Monday, 13 Sept. 
1852. In 1840 he had propounded his ideas 
about crossing the Atlantic in a balloon, and 
six years later made a proposal for carrying 
out such an undertaking. 

Many of his, ascents were made alone, as 
when he went up from Boston in June 1846, 
and again in July when he made a night 
ascent from Vauxhall. During his career he 
had many dangerous experiences. In 1823, 
when ascending from Cheltenham, accom- 
panied by Mr. Griffiths, some malicious per- 
son partly severed the ropes which attached 
the car to the balloon, so that in starting the 
Car broke away from the balloon, and its oc- 
cupants had to take refuge on the hoop of 
the balloon, in which position they had a 
perilous journey and a most dangerous de- 
scent, when they were both injured. This is 
the only case on record of such a balloon 
voyage. In 1827 Green made his sixty-ninth 
ascent, from Newbury in Berkshire, accom- 
panied by H. Simmons of Reading, a deaf 
and dumb gentleman,when a violent thunder- 
storm threatened the safety of the balloon. 
On 17 Aug. 1841, on going up from Cremorne 
with Mr. Macdonnell, a jerk of the grappling- 
iron upset the car and went near to throwing 
out the aeronaut and his companion. Green 
was the first to demonstrate, in 1821, that 
coal-gas was applicable to the inflation of 
balloons. Before his time pure hydrogen 
gas was used, a substance very expensive, 
the generation of which was so slow that two 
days were required to fill a large balloon, and 
then the gas was excessively volatile. He 
was also the inventor of ' the guide-rope/ a 
rope trailing from the car, which could be 
lowered or raised by means of a windlass 
and used to regulate the ascent and descent 
of the balloon. After living in retirement 
for many years he died suddenly of heart 
disease at his residence, Ariel Villa, 51 Tuf- 
nell Park, Holloway, London, 26 March 1870. 
He married Martha Morrell, who died at 
North Hill, Highgate, London. His son, 
George Green, who had made eighty-three 
ascents with the Nassau balloon, died at Bel- 
grave Villa, Holloway, London, on 10 Feb 
1864, aged 57. 

[Mason's Account of Aeronautical Expedition 
from London to Weilburg, 1836 ; Mason's Aero- 
nautica, 1838, pp. 1-98, with portrait ; Hatton 
Tumor's Astra Castra, 1865, pp. 129 et seq., 520, 
527, 529, with two portraits ; Era, 3 April 1870, 
p. 11 ; Illustrated London News, 16 April 1870, 
pp. 401-2, with portrait ; Times, 30 March 187o' 
p. 10; The Balloon, 1845, i. 11 etseq.; the Rev. 
J. Richardson's Recollections, 1855, ii. 153-5 "1 ' 

0. C. B. 

2 Green 


(1803-1866), poetess, nee Craven, was born 
at Leeds in 1803. Her early years were spent 
in the Isle of Man. Subsequently she lived 
at Manchester, but she returned to Leeds, 
where she resided many years. Her first 
book was ' A Legend of Mona, a Tale, in two 
Cantos/ Douglas, 1825, 8vo, and her second 
and last, ' Sea Weeds and Heath Flowers, 
or Memories of Mona/ Douglas, 1858, 8vo. 
She was a frequent contributor of poetry and 
prose sketches to the periodical press. She 
wrote for the ' Phoenix/ 1828, and the l Fal- 
con/ 1831, both Manchester magazines ; for 
the ' Oddfellows' Magazine/ 1841 and later ; 
for the 'Leeds Intelligencer, <Le Follet/ 
' Hogg's Instructor/ and ' Chambers's Jour- 
nal/ and contributed to a volume of poems 
entitled ' The Festive Wreath/ published at 
Manchester in 1842. A few years before her 
death she received a gift from the queen's 
privy purse. She died at Leeds on 11 March 

[Mayall's Annals of Yorkshire, iii. 17; Proc- 
ter's Byegone Manchester, p. 167; Harrison's 
BibliothecaMonensis(ManxSoc.), 1876, pp. 130, 
195; Stainforth Sale Catalogue, 1867 ; Grainge's 
Poets of Yorkshire, ii. 505.] C. W. S. 

GREEN, GEORGE (1793-1841), mathe- 
matician, was born at Sneinton, near Not- 
tingham, in 1793. His father was a miller 
with private means. While a very young 
child he showed great talent for figures. In 
1828 his ' Essay on the Application of Ma- 
thematical Analysis to the Theories of Elec- 
tricity and Magnetism' was published by 
subscription at Nottingham. In this essay 
he first introduced the term ' potential ' to 
denote the result obtained by adding the 
masses of all the particles of a system, each 
divided by its distance from a given point ; 
and the properties of this function are first 
considered and applied to the theories of mag- 
netism and electricity. This was followed 
by two papers communicated by Sir Edward 
Ffrench Bromhead to the Cambridge Philo- 
sophical Society: (1) 'On the Laws of the 
Equilibrium of Fluids analogous to the Elec- 
tric Fluid ' (12 Nov. 1832) ; (2) < On the De- 
termination of the Attractions of Ellipsoids 
of Variable Densities ' (6 May 1833). Both 
papers display great analytical power, but 
are rather curious than practically interesting. 

In October 1833 he entered Caius College, 
Cambridge, as a pensioner. At the following 
Easter he was head of the freshman's mathe- 
matical list, and was elected a scholar. In 1835 
he was again first in mathematics, and finally 
took his degree as fourth wrangler in January 
1837, the second being Professor Sylvester. 




' Green and Sylvester were the first men of 
the year, but Green's want of familiarity with 
ordinary boys' mathematics prevented him 
from coming to the top in a time race. It 
was a surprise to every one to find Griffin and 
Brumell had beaten him.' He seems not to 
have been connected with any of the eminent 
men who passed with him. No contribu- 
tion of his appears in Gregory and Ellis's 
* Cambridge Mathematical Journal.' The 
few papers he wrote were all read before the 
Cambridge Philosophical Society, where he 
found companionship with men of his own 
age. Bishop Harvey Goodwin writes : 
was twice examined by Green. He set the 
problem paper in two out of three of my col- 
lege examinations ; I am not sure about the 
third. He never assisted as far as I know in 
lectures. This possibly might be owing to his 
habits of life. His manner in the examination 
room was gentle and pleasant.' 

Immediately upon the completion of his 
first term at Cambridge he read (16 Dec. 
1833) before the Edinburgh Royal Society 
a paper ' On the Vibrations of Pendulums 011 
Fluid Media.' The problem here considered 
is that of the motion of an elastic fluid agi- 
tated by the small vibrations of a solid ellip- 
soid moving parallel to itself. After taking 
his degree he again applied himself to origi- 
nal research, and on 15 May 1837 he read a 
paper ' On the Motion of Waves in a variable 
Canal of small depth and width,' and on 
18 Feb. 1839 a supplement to the same. On 
11 Dec. 1837 he read two of his most valu- 
able memoirs (1) l On the Reflection and 
Refraction of Sound,' (2) l On the Reflection 
and Refraction of Light at the common sur- 
face of two non-crystallised Media.' The 
question discussed is that of the propagation 
of normal vibrations through a fluid. From 
the differential equations of motion is de- 
duced an explanation of a phenomenon ana- 
logous to that known in optics as total in- 
ternal reflection, when the angle of incidence 
exceeds the critical angle. By supposing that 
there are propagated, in the second medium, 
vibrations which rapidly diminish in inten- 
sity and become evanescent at sensible dis- 
tances, the change of place which accom- 
panies this phenomenon is clearly brought 
into view. Supplementary to these he read 
on 6 May 1839 another paper ' On the Re- 
flection and Refraction of Light at the com- 
mon surface of two crystalline Media,' doing 
for the theory of light what in the former 
had been done for that of sound. Green here 
for the first time enunciates the principle of 
the conservation of work, which he bases on 
the assumption of the impossibility of a per- 
petual motion. On 20 May 1839 he read his 

last paper, ' On the Propagation of Light in 
Crystalline Media.' This finishes the record 
of one who ' as a mathematician stood head 
and shoulders above all his companions in 
and outside of the university.' 

He was elected to a Perse fellowship at 
Caius College on 31 Oct. 1839, but through 
ill-health returned to his home at Sneinton, 
where he died, aged 47, and was buried on 
4 June 1841. 

[G-reen's Mathematical Papers, with brief Me- 
moir by N. M. Ferrers, 1871 ; information from 
Bishop Harvey Goodwin and private sources.] 

G. J. G. 

author, was an eccentric eighteenth-century 
watchmaker of Oxford, with a turn for lite- 
rary study. I le published under the pseudonym 
of 'A Gentleman of Oxford,' in 1745, 'The 
State of Innocence and Fall of Man, de- 
scribed in Milton's " Paradise Lost." Ren- 
dered into prose, with notes. From the French 
of Raymond [i.e. Nicholas Francois Dupre] 
de St. Maur.' In 1750 Green published in 
his own name a remarkable narrative in two 
vols., < The Life of Mr. J. Van . . . ; being 
a series of many extraordinary events and 
vicissitudes.' He also published the ' Par- 
son's Parlour,' a poem (1756) ; and two un- 
acted plays, ' Oliver Cromwell ' (1752), being 
a ponderous five-act play, and 'A Nice Lady' 
(1762). He died 28 April 1762. 

[Notes and Queries, 3rd ser. x. 47 ; Baker's 
Biog. Dram. ; Disraeli's Curiosities of Litera- 
ture.] J. B-Y. 

GREEN, SIB HENRY (d. 1369), judge, 
was probably advocate to Queen Isabella, 
who granted him the manor of Briggestoke 
in Northamptonshire. He was king's ser- 
jeant in 1345, and knighted and appointed a 
judge of the common pleas on 6 Feb. 1354. 
In 1358, having been cited before the pope for 
pronouncing sentence against the Bishop of 
Ely for harbouring malefactors, he entered 
no appearance and was excommunicated. On 
24 May 1361 he was appointed chief justice 
of the king's bench, but was removed on 
29 Oct. 1365. He is said by Barnes to have 
been removed for peculation, but the warrant 
directing him to transfer the rolls to his suc- 
cessor speaks of him as ' dilectus et fidelis,'and 
be is also called 'a wise justice' in Bellewes's 
Reports,' p. 142. In 1369 he died possessed of 
estates in Northamptonshire, Leicestershire, 
Yorkshire, Bedfordshire, Buckinghamshire, 
and Nottinghamshire, and of a house in Silver 
Street, Cripplegate, London. He married a 
daughter of Sir John de Drayton, by whom 
he had a son, Thomas, who succeeded to his 




[Abb. Rot. Orig. ii. 195; Bridges's Northamp- 
tonshire, ii. 247 ; Cal. Inq. p. m. ii. 206, iii. 
136; Barnes's Edward III, pp. 624, 667; Dug- 
dales Chron. Ser. ; Kot. Parl. ii. 268, 275, 283 ; 
Foss's Lives of the Judges.] J. A. H. 

GREEN, HENRY (1801-1873), author, 
was born near Penshurst, Kent, on 23 June 
1801. His father, a successful paper-maker, 
had intended his son for his own business. 
Literary tastes, however, and the influence of 
the Rev. George Harris, under whose care he 
was placed, induced him to devote himself to 
the ministry. He entered Glasgow University 
in November 1822, and after a distinguished 
career there took his M. A. degree in April 1825. 
In January 1827 he became minister of the 
old presbyterian chapel, Knutsford, Cheshire, 
which office he resigned in June 1872. During 
part of his pastorate he conducted a large 
private school, and published several hand- 
books to Euclid. He died on 9 Aug. 1873 at 
Knutsford, and he was buried in the yard of 
the old chapel. He married Mary, daughter 
of John Brandreth, who died 14 June 1871. 
Five of his six children survived him. His 
only son, Philip Henry, after a distinguished 
career at the bar, was appointed to an Indian 
judgeship. He was killed in the hotel at 
Casamicciola, Ischia, during the earthquake 
on 28 July 1883. 

The following is a list of Green's chief 
writings: 1. 'Sir I. Newton's Views on 
Points of Trinitarian Doctrine ; his Articles 
of Faith, and the general coincidence of his 
Opinions with those of J. Locke, &c.,' Man- 
chester, 1856, 12mo. 2. 'The Cat in Chan- 
cery,' a volume of satirical verse, Manchester, 
1858, published anonymously. 3. ' Knutsford 
and its Traditions and History, with Remi- 
niscences, Anecdotes, and Notices of the 
Neighbourhood,' 1859. This accurate and in- 
teresting work was reprinted in 1887. 4. <A 
Ramble to Ludchurch,' a poem, 1871, 8vo, 
and a number of sermons and contributions 
to antiquarian societies. During the last few 
years of his life he occupied himself much 
with the study of the early emblem writers, 
and published a facsimile reprint of ' Whit- 
ney's Choice of Emblems, with Notes and 
Dissertations,' 1866, 4to ; < Shakespeare and 
the Emblem Writers, with a View of the 
Emblem Literature down to A.D. 1616,' 1870. 
He was one of the founders and a member 
Of the council of the Holbein Society, for 
which he edited six works. He was also the 
author of some pamphlets in defence of the 
church of England (in which he was born 
and brought up till his sixteenth year) against 
the efforts of the Liberation Society. 

[Brit. Mus. Cat. ; Unitarian Herald, 22 Aug. 
1 private information.] A. N. 


BROOKS (1584 P-1642), catholic martyr, born 
about 1584, was the son of a l citizen and 
goldsmith in the parish of St. Giles, London.' 
Both his parents were protestants, and he was 
educated at Peterhouse, Cambridge, where 
he graduated B.A. Subsequently he tra- 
velled on the continent, and became a Roman 
catholic. He was received into the English 
College at Douay in 1609, and on 7 July 1610 
he took the college oath, and was admitted 
an alumnus. He was confirmed at Cambray 
on 25 Sept. 1611, advanced to minor orders, 
and ordained sub-deacon at Arras on the fol- 
lowing 17 Dec., deacon on 18 March, and 
priest on 14 June 1612. He left the college 
on 6 Aug. 1612, with the intention of join- 
ing the order of Capuchins, but ultimately 
proceeded to the English mission. Here for 
nearly thirty years he exercised his functions 
in various places under the name of Ferdi- 
nand Brooks. When Charles I in 1642 issued 
the proclamation commanding all priests to 
depart the realm within a stated time, Green, 
who was then at Chideock Castle, Dorset- 
shire, as chaplain to Lady Arundell, resolved 
to withdraw to the continent. Lady Arun- 
dell besought him to stay at Chideock, point- 
ing out that the day fixed in the proclama- 
tion had already expired. Green, however, 
thinking there was yet time, proceeded to 
Lyme, and was boarding a vessel bound for 
France, when he was seized by a custom- 
house officer, carried before a justice of the 
peace, and by him committed to Dorchester 
gaol. On 17 Aug. 1642, after five months' 
close confinement, he was tried and sentenced 
to death by Chief-justice Foster. Two days 
later he was executed on a hill outside Dor- 
chester under circumstances of the most ter- 
rible cruelty, being then in the fifty-seventh 
year of his age. A pious lady, Mrs. Eliza- 
beth Willoughby, who attended him at the 
scaffold, wrote a minute narrative of his death, 
published in Jean Chifflet's 'Palmge Cleri 
Anglicani,' 12mo, Brussels, 1645, p. 75. 

_ [Gillow's Bibl. Diet, of English Catholics, 
iii. 1 8-24 ; De Marsys, De la Mort glorieuse de 
plusieurs Prestres, 1645, pp. 86-93 ; Challoner's 
Missionary Priests, 1741-2, ii. 215; Dodd's 
Church Hist. 1737, iii. 86.] G. G. 

GREEN, JAMES (Jl. 1743), organist at 
Hull, published in 1724 'A Book of 
Psalmody; containing chanting tunes . . . 
and the Reading Psalms with thirteen An- 
thems and a great variety of Psalm tunes in 
four parts . . . [London], and sold by the 
booksellers at Hull, Lincoln, Lowth, and 
Gainsborough.' The volume opens with in- 
structions. It reached its eleventh edition 




in 1751. A hymn for two voices, ' When 
all Thy Mercies/ published about 1790, and 
four catches in Warren's ' Collection,' are 
ascribed to James Green, who is not to be 
confounded with Henry Green, the blind or- 
ganist (d. 1741). 

[Baptie's Handbook, p. 86 ; Brown's Diet. 

L288 ; Grove's Diet. i. 624 ; Pohl's Mozart in 
ndon, pp. 21, 36-1 L. M. M. 

GREEN, JAMES (1771-1834), portrait- 
painter, born at Leytonstone in Essex, 
13 March 1771, was son of a builder. He was 
apprenticed to Thomas Martyn, a draughts- 
man of natural history, who resided at 10 Great 
Marlborough Street. Here Green remained 
several years, and showed great talent in the 
imitation of shells and insects. Having higher 
aims in art, he made secret efforts to study, 
and at the expiration of his apprenticeship, 
entered the schools of the Royal Academy. 
He attracted the notice of Sir Joshua Rey- 
nolds, P.R.A., and copied many of his pic- 
tures. In 1792 he first exhibited at the 
Royal Academy, sending views of Oxford 
Market and Chapel; in 1793 he exhibited 
several views of Tunbridge Wells, and some 
portraits. He gradually attained a good re- 
putation for his portraits in water-colour, 
the result of industry and careful observa- 
tion rather than of great natural gifts. His 
execution was more elegant than powerful, 
but his portraits are not devoid of dignity. 
Many of them have been engraved, includ- 
ing those of Benjamin West, P.R.A., Sir 
R. Birnie, both engraved in mezzotint by 
W. Say ; George Cook, the actor, as lago, 
engraved in mezzotint by James Ward ; Jo- 
seph Charles Horsley (the stolen child), en- 
graved by R. Cooper. In the National Por- 
trait Gallery there are portraits by him of 
Thomas Stothard, R.A., and Sir John Ross, 
the latter being Green's last work. The por- 
trait of Stothard was sold at S. Rogers's sale 
in May 1856, as by G. H. Harlow, although 
it is signed ' James Green, 1830.' It was ex- 
hibited at the Royal Academy in 1830, and 
was lent to the Manchester Exhibition in 1857 
by its owner, Mr. J. H. Anderdon, who even- 
tually presented it to the National Portrait 
Gallery. It was engraved by E. Scriven for 
< The Library of the Fine Arts,' April 1833. 
Green also painted large subject pictures in 
oil, including 'Zadigand Astarte,' exhibited 
1826, and engraved in the ' Literary Souve- 
nir,' 1828 ; 'Bearnaise Woman and Canary,' 
engraved in the ' Literary Souvenir,' 1827, 
and l Belinda.' His picture of ' The Loves 
conducted by the Graces to the Temple of 
Hymen' was painted in water-colour. Green 
also was a frequent exhibitor at the British 
Institution, and in 1808 was awarded a pre- 

mium of 60/. He was a member of the As- 
sociated Society of Artists in Water-Colours. 
Many of his pictures were commissions, 
notably from Mr. Francis Chaplin of Rise- 
holme, Lincolnshire. He resided for many 
years in South Crescent, Bedford Square, and 
died at Bath on 27 March 1834. He was 
buried in Wolcot Church. 

In 1805 Green married Mary, second daugh- 
ter of William Byrne [q. v.], the landscape-en- 
graver. She was a pupil of Arlaud, and was 
a well-known miniature-painter, exhibiting 
at the Royal Academy from 1795 to 1835. 
On her husband's death she retired from her 
profession, and died 22 Oct. 1845, being buried 
at Kensal Green. Her copies after Reynolds 
and Gainsborough were much valued. By 
her James Green was father of Benjamin 
Richard Green [q. v.] and of one daughter. 

[Arnold's Library of the Fine Arts, May 1834; 
Redgrave's Diet, of Artists ; Graves 's Diet, of 
Artists, 1760-1880 ; exhibition catalogues.] 

L. C. 

GREEN, MRS. JANE (d. 1791), actress. 
[See under HIPPISLET, JOHN.] 

GREEN, JOHN (1706 ?-l 779), bishop of 
Lincoln, was born at or near Hull (perhaps 
at Beverley) about 1706, and received his 
early education at a private school. He was 
then sent as a sizar to St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, where he graduated B. A. with distinc- 
tion, and obtained a fellowship (1730). He 
proceeded M.A. in 1731, B.D. 1739, and D.D. 
1749. On leaving Cambridge he became as- 
sistant-master, under Mr. Hunter, in the Lich- 
field grammar school, where he made the ac- 
quaintance of Johnson and Garrick. His first 
clerical appointment was to the vicarage of 
Hingeston, Cornwall. He then became known 
to Charles, duke of Somerset, the chancellor of 
the university of Cambridge, who appointed 
him his domestic chaplain. In 1747 the duke 
gave him the rectory of Borough Green, near 
Newmarket. Green appears, however, to have 
resided at college, where he filled the office of 
bursar. In 1748, on the death of Dr. Whal- 
ley, he was appointed regtus professor of di- 
vinity, and soon afterwards royal chaplain. 
The favour of the Duke of Somerset seems to 
have recommended Green to the patronage of 
the Duke of Newcastle, who succeeded him 
in the chancellorship of Cambridge. In 1749 
Green, after an action at law, obtained the 
living of Barrow in Suffolk, as senior fellow 
in orders of the college. In 1750, on the 
death of Dean Castle, master of Corpus Christi 
College, the fellows of that society being in 
a difficulty about the election of a master, 
referred the matter to Archbishop Herring. 
Herring, at the request of the Duke of New- 
castle, nominated Green, who was then elected 


4 6 


by the fellows. Green took an active but 
anonymous part in advocating the new re- 
gulations proposed by the chancellor of the 
university. He published his views in a 
pamphlet entitled ' The Academic, or a Dis- 
putation on the State of the University of 
Cambridge.' On 22 March 1751 he preached 
the sermon on the consecration of Dr. Keene 
to the see of Chester, which was afterwards 
printed. In October 1756 Green was pro- 
moted to the deanery of Lincoln, and re- 
signed his professorship of divinity. He thus 
became eligible for the office of vice-chan eel 1 or 
of Cambridge, to which he was chosen in No- 
vember following. Green now became one 
of the numerous writers against the rising 
sect of the methodists. He published two 
letters against the 'Principles and Practice 
of the Methodists ' without his name, the first 
addressed to John Berridge [q. v.], the second 
to George Whitefield (1761). He had pre- 
pared a third letter on the same subject, but 
the publication of this was prevented by Arch- 
bishop Seeker, who probably considered his 
attacks too severe. Being on a visit to the 
primate, Green was desired by the archbishop 
to proceed no further in the controversy, as 
' he looked upon the methodists to be a well- 
meaning set of people.' On the translation 
of Bishop Thomas to the see of Salisbury, 
Green, by the influence of his constant patron, 
the Duke of Newcastle, was promoted to the 
bishopric of Lincoln (1761). This vacated 
his other church preferments, but he still re- 
tained the mastership of his college. In 1762 
Green visited the diocese of Canterbury as 
proxy for Archbishop Seeker. In 1763 he 
preached the 30 Jan. sermon before the House 
of Lords, which, as usual, was printed. In the 
following year he resigned his mastership at 
Cambridge. Lord Hardwicke, son of the 
famous lawyer, was greatly helped in his 
contest for the stewardship of Cambridge by 
Green. The bishop had been associated with 
him as a contributor to the ' Athenian Let- 
ters,' supposed to be written by a Persian re- 
siding at Athens during the Peloponnesian 
war (London, 1781). These were repub- 
lished in a complete form in 1798 (2 vols.) 

Green established a considerable literary 
reputation. The conversaziones of the Eoyal 
Society, which used to be held at the house 
of Lord "Willoughby, were transferred to 
Green's house in Scotland Yard in 1765. 
His interest at court also continued to be 
good, as in 1771, on a representation that the 
revenues of his diocese were too small for his 
wants, he attained a residentiary canonry 
at St. Paul's, to be held in commendam. 
The bishop now removed to his residentiary 
house in Amen Court, and he also had a house 

at Edmonton. He does not appear to have 
resided much in his diocese. In 1772 he dis- 
tinguished himself in the House of Lords by 
being the only bishop to vote in favour of the 
bill for the relief of protestant dissenters, who, 
as the law then stood, were required to sub- 
scribe the doctrinal articles of the church of 
England. The bill was rejected by 102 to 
27, but seven years afterwards was carried. 
Green died suddenly at Bath on 25 April 1779. 
He appears to have enjoyed a high position 
in society, but was not remarkable as a theo- 
logian, nor as an active administrator of his 

[Gent. Mag. 1779 p. 234, 1781 p. 624, and 
1782 pp. 167, 227; Cat. Grad. Cant.; Nichols's 
Lit. Anecd. of Eighteenth Cent. vols. viii. ix. ; 
Parl. Hist. vol. xvii.] G. G. P. 

GREEN", JOHN (J.. 1842-1866). [See 



1883), historian, was the elder son of Richard 
Green, a citizen of Oxford, and was born in 
1837. He was sent to Magdalen College 
school at the age of eight, and both at home 
and at school was trained in the strictest tory 
and high church views. His father died when 
he was twelve, leaving him to the guardianship 
of an uncle, which lasted till he was sixteen. 
The father had by careful exertions left pro- 
vision for his son's education, an act which 
the son never ceased to record with grateful 
affection. From the time when he could read 
he was scarcely ever without a book in his 


hands, though his want of verbal memory 
made school lessons very trying to him. Of 
an emotional and religious temperament, he 
was as a boy a fervent and enthusiastic high 
churchman, and became eagerly interested in 
the old customs which survived in Magdalen 
College. He gathered all the information that 
he could about the meaning of the old-world 
ways which were left in Oxford, and used to 
tell in later days how he was awestruck by the 
venerable look of Dr. Routh, the president of 
Magdalen, who as a boy had seen Dr. Johnson 
at Oxford. At the age of fourteen Green 
wrote an essay on Charles I, in which he in- 
curred the displeasure of his teachers by 
coming to his own conclusion that Charles I 
was in the wrong. A few months later he 
reached the head of the school, and the autho- 
rities advised his removal. He was sent to 
private tutors, first to Dr. Ridgway in Lanca- 
shire, and then to Mr. C. D. Yonge at Lea- 
mington. He had just reached sixteen when 
Mr. Yonge sent him up, as a trial of his power, 
to compete for an open scholarship at Jesus 




College. Green was elected (1854), but was 
too young to come into residence at once. 
At that time Jesus was almost entirely a 
Welsh college, and its undergraduates were 
scarcely known outside its walls. Green had 
gained a scholarship, and his tutor was con- 
tent j his guardian was dead, and he had no 
home, and not a single adviser. He went to 
college friendless, and he continued as an 
undergraduate to live a solitary life. He was 
not understood by the authorities of his col- 
lege, who could not sympat hise with his pre- 
ference for Matthew Paris over the classics. 
The study of modern history had not at that 
time taken root in Oxford, and Green did not 
make much use of such teaching as there was. 
He lived much by himself, wandering about 
among the antiquities of Oxford and its neigh- 
bourhood, recalling for himself the memories 
of the past, and exercising his imagination in 
combining them. He ended his academic 
career in 1859 without distinction, and with- 
out any training save such as had come to 
him from the place itself. Already as an 
undergraduate he had found out his subject, 
and had devised a method. A series of papers 
which he contributed to the ' Oxford Chro- 
nicle' on ' Oxford in the Eighteenth Century' 
showed the same power of historical imagina- 
tion which marked his later work. After 
taking his degree Green left Oxford for a 
clerical life. lie was ordained deacon in 1860, 
and went as a curate to St. Barnabas, King 
Square, Goswell Road, London. In 1863 he 
was put in sole charge of the parish of Holy 
Trinity, Hoxton, and in 1866 was appointed by 
Bishop Tait incumbent of St. Philip's, Stepney. 
As a clergyman Green worked hard and suc- 
cessfully. His quickness, readiness, good 
sense, kindliness, and humour made him per- 
sonally popular. He preached extempore, but 
took the utmost pains with the composition 
of his sermons, which were clear, forcible, and 
thoughtful, yet adapted to those whom he 
addressed. His opinions in politics and theo- 
logy had gradually become those of a pro- 
nounced liberal, and he could speak to his 
people with sympathy and fervour. He threw 
himself ardently into all plans which could 
promote their social well-being, and he was 
unsparing of himself. A paper on Edward 
Denison the younger [q. v.] in his i Stray 
Studies' gives some insight into his clerical 

While he worked hard as a clergyman, he 
also continued to find some time for study. 
Such money as he could possibly spare he spent 
on books, and such time as he could save he 
spent in the British Museum. Whenever he 
needed a holiday he devoted it to archaeolo- 
gical excursions to various parts of England. 

He began to be known to some historical 
students, Mr. E. A. Freeman, Mr. James 
Bryce, and Mr. Stubbs, now (1890) bishop of 
Oxford. In 1862 he began to contribute ar- 
ticles, light sketches of social subjects, admira- 
ble studies of historic towns which he had 
visited, historical reviews, short critical essays 
on historical questions, to the ' Saturday Re- 
view.' But his head was full of plans for a 
book, and the subject which chiefly attracted 
him was the period of the Angevin kings. He 
read the chronicles, and read largely histo- 
rical literature of every kind, working out 
for himself points that interested him. To 
him English towns had an individual life 
which he delighted to trace in its details, and 
his quick eye for local features enabled him 
to read history in every landscape. His in- 
tellectual activity was enormous, and his 
knowledge always had an immediate applica- 
tion to actual life and its political and social 
problems. The strain of these manifold occu- 
pations told upon Green's health, which had 
never been robust. His lungs were affected, 
and he had to abandon clerical work in 1869, 
and confine himself to the congenial duty of 
librarian at Lambeth. Moreover, his views 
on theological questions had become more de- 
cidedly liberal, and he no longer felt that he 
had a calling for clerical life. From this time 
forward he had to be very careful of his health, 
and his winters were generally spent in the Ri- 
viera. The consciousness of uncertain health 
prompted him to gather his knowledge to- 
gether into a clear and popular form. He 
projected his ( Short History of the English 
People,' and worked at it with patient energy. 
It was twice rewritten, and was only published 
at last owing to the urgent advice of his 
friends. This book, which appeared at the end 
of 1874, fused together the materials for Eng- 
lish history, and presented them with a fulness 
and a unity which had never been attempted 
before. Its object was to lay hold of the great 
features of social development, and show the 
progress of popular life. What Macaulay had 
done for a period of English history, Green 
did for it as a whole. From a mass of scat- 
tered details he constructed a series of pic- 
tures which were full of life. Subjects which 
before had been treated independently con- 
stitutional history, social history, literary 
history, economic history, and the like were 
all brought together by his method, and were 
made to contribute their share in filling up 
the record of the progress of the nation ; and 
he was the first to show how important an 
element in history the study of the 'geo- 
graphy ' of towns might be made. The writer's 
profound admiration for the conception of 
i liberty which Englishmen had worked out 


4 8 


for themselves, his full sympathy with the 
objects of popular aspiration, and the lofty 
tone of hopefulness for the future which ran 
through the book, gave it a moral and poli- 
tical value, besides its literary and historical 
merits. The book was immediately popular ; 
its treatment was new, its tone fresh and 
vigorous, its style attractive, its arrangement 
clear ; above all, it never halted, but carried 
on the reader with unabated enthusiasm. 
Green was in fact not only a scholar, but an 
artist ; he had a passion for fine form, and he 
never rested till he found it. The book from 
first to last was the building up of one great 
conception, ordered in all its parts, and in- 
stinct with emotion. 

The ' History ' had a success such as few 
books on a serious subject have had in Eng- 
lish literature. The first edition was ex- 
hausted immediately; five fresh issues were 
called for in 1875, and one or two issues have 
marked every subsequent year. But Green 
did not rest content with his success. While 
none acknowledged more cheerfully the ex- 
cellence of the work of other historians, 
none clung more firmly to his own method, 
or defended it more gently, with an ad- 
mirable and singular mixture of self-confi- 
dence and humility. He knew that there 
were some mistakes in detail in his book, and 
that some subjects had been passed over 
"briefly so as to keep the volume within its 
limits. He set to work to expand his book 
into a fuller form, so that it should contain 
more facts, and give detailed information in 
support of general views. This larger work, 
which appeared in four vols. in 1877-80, did 
not deviate from the point of view already 
taken, and kept the title, ' A History of the 
English People.' Green's health was now de- 
cidedly better, and he could form new plans of 
life and work. In June 1877 he married Alice, 
daughter of Edward A. Stopford, LL.D., arch- 
deacon of Mefth. His wife entered warmly 
into all his pursuits, acted as his amanuensis, 
taught him to husband his resources of health 
and strength, and encouraged him to begin 
his labours on a still larger and completer 
scale. Having written the history of Eng- 
land for the people of England, he resolved 
to write it again for scholars. Beginning 
with Britain as the Romans left it, he pieced 
together the history of the English invasion 
and settlement, infusing life into archaeology, 
and bringing his knowledge of the physical 
features of the country to the explanation of 
the scanty records of early times. While he 
was engaged on this work an unfortunate 
journey to Egypt again upset his health in 
the spring of 1881, and The Making of Eng- 
land' was finished under very adverse con- 

ditions. This book, published in 1882, 
brought down English history to the con- 
solidation of the kingdoms under Egbert, 
and showed Green's qualities as a critical 
historian. His rare power of dealing with 
fragmentary evidence, his quick eye for what 
was essential, his firm hold of the main points, 
his ripe knowledge of all that could illus- 
trate his subject, above all, his feeling for 
reality, and his insight into probabilities, 
enabled him to give life and movement to 
the earliest period of our national life. Apart 
from its other merits this book exercised a 
wide influence, which is still growing, as an 
example of the methods by which archaeology 
can be turned into history. It gave a stimulus 
tothe.pursuit of local archaeology, and showed 
archaeologists the full importance of their 
work. It established Green's title to a high 
place among critical historians, and showed 
in a marked degree all the qualities which 
are required for the best historical work. It 
proved not merely that the merits of the 
' Short History ' were those of literary style 
and brilliancy of presentation, but that the 
whole book was the fruit of patient research 
and thorough knowledge, which only needed 
longer time and a larger scale to establish its 
conclusions. Time, however, was not granted 
to him. His health grew worse, but he eagerly 
used every moment that he could to carry 
on his work. In the autumn of 1882 he had 
to leave England for Mentone, where he 
struggled against increasing weakness of body 
to finish his next volume on ' The Conquest of 
England,' which was to carry down the history 
to the coming of the Normans. He worked 
on steadfastly till a few days before his death 
on 7 March 1883. He left behind him ma- 
terials which enabled Mrs. Green to publish 
the book at the end of the year. 

Besides the books mentioned above Green 
reprinted in 1876 some of his early papers, 
under the title of Stray Studies in England 
and Italy,' a book which contains much that 
illustrates his sympathetic and genial cha- 
racter, as well as his knowledge of men and 
his interest in places and scenes. In 1879 
he issued ' Readings from English History,' 
a series of selections for the use of teachers 
who wished to interest their pupils in points 
of detail. In 1880 he wrote, with Mrs. Green, 
a < Short Geography of the British Isles,' which 
contained the substance of much that he had 
learned in his rambles in England. In 1881 
he edited ' Addison's Select Essays/ 

Green possessed in a very marked degree 
the qualities which make a man attractive in 
society. He was a brilliant talker, with a 
command of epigram, a fertility of illustra- 
tion, a lightness of touch, a ready sympathy, 




a large field of interests, marvellous versa- 
tility, and unfailing geniality and good hu- 
mour. Ill-health, however, cut him off from 
society, in any large sense of the word, and, 
though he had a circle of intimate friends, he 
led a comparatively solitary life for one who 
had a remarkably expansive nature, and was 
dependent on intercourse with others for the 
full expression of his manifold enthusiasms. 
This comparative solitude was a real trial to 
him ; but neither that nor the ill-health which 
caused it ever soured him or preyed upon 
his spirits. However wearied he might be, 
he would always welcome the visit of a 
friend and forget himself in his interest in 
others. A portrait of him, from a pencil 
sketch by Mr. Sandys, is engraved as a fronti- 
spiece to ' The Conquest of England.' 

It is too soon to appreciate Green's influ- 
ence on historical studies in England ; but it 
may be mentioned that since his death two 
projects of his have been realised on the lines 
which he laid down, the ' Oxford Historical 
Society,' and the ' English Historical Review.' 
Both owe their existence to his suggestion, 
and his activity did much to bring them into 

[A revised edition of the Short History was 
issued in 1888 by Mrs. Green, in accordance with 
her husband's wishes. The prefaces to that edition 
and to the Conquest of England give short ac- 
counts of Green's life ; obituary notices in the 
Times, 10Marchl883; Academy, 17 March 1883 ; 
J. Bryce in Macmillan's Mag. xlviii. 59, &c. ; 
P. L. Gell in Fortnightly Review, new ser. 
xxxiii. 734, &c. ; personal knowledge.] M. C. 

GREEN, JONATHAN, M.I). (1788 ?- 
1864), medical writer, born about 1788, be- 
came a member of the Royal College of Sur- 
geons of England on 7 Dec. 1810 (College 
Admission Book}. His degree of M.D. was 
obtained from Heidelberg in 1834. In 1835 
he was elected a fellow of the Royal Medical 
and Chirurgical Society. For some years he 
served as a surgeon in the navy, and acquired 
a reputation as a specialist in skin diseases. 
On retiring from the service he visited Paris 
in order to examine the fumigating baths es- 
tablished by order of the French government. 
On his return to London he opened in 1823 an 
establishment for fumigating and other baths 
at 5 Bury Street, St. James's. He also pa- 
tented a portable vapour bath. In December 
1825 he removed to 40 Great Marlborough 
Street, but was not successful in the end, 
and he became an inmate of the Charter- 
house, where he died on 23 Feb. 1864, aged 
76 (Gent. Mag. 1864, i. 537). 

He is author of: 1. ' The Utility and Im- 
portance of Fumigating Baths illustrated ; or 
a Series of Facts and Remarks, shewing the 

VOL. xxin. 

Origin, Progress, and final Establishment (by 
order of the French Government) of the prac- 
tice of Fumigations for the Cure of various 
Diseases,' &c., 8vo, London, 1823. 2. <A short 
Illustration of the Advantages derived by the 
use of Sulphurous Fumigating, Hot Air, and 
Vapour Baths,' 8vo, London, 1825. 3. 'Some 
Observations on the utility of Fumigating 
and other Baths. . . . With a Summary of ... 
Cases,' &c., 12mo, London, 1831 ; another edi- 
tion, 12mo, London, 1835. 4. ' A Practical 
Compendium of the Diseases of the Skin, with 
Cases, &c.,' 8vo, London, 1835. 5. ' On the 
Utility and Safety of the Fumigating Bath 
as a remedial agent in Complaints of the 
Skin. Joints, Rheumatism,' &c., 24mo, Lon- 
don, 1847. 6. 'An improved Method of em- 
ploying Mercury by Fumigation to the whole 
body,' 8vo, London, 1852. 

[Authorities as above ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] 


1863), surgeon, only son of Joseph Green, a 
prosperous city merchant, was born on 1 Nov. 
1791, at the house over his father's office in 
London Wall. His mother was Frances 
Cline, sister of Henry Cline, the well-known 
surgeon [q.v.] At the age of fifteen he went to 
Germany and studied for three years at various 
places, his mother accompanying him. He was 
then apprenticed at the College of Surgeons to 
his uncle, Henry Cline, and followed the prac- 
tice at St. Thomas's Hospital. While still 
a pupil he married, on 25 May 1813, Anne 
Eliza Hammond, daughter of a surgeon, and 
sister of a class-fellow. On 1 Dec. 1815 he 
received the diploma of the College of Sur- 
geons, and set up in surgical practice in Lin- 
coln's Inn Fields, where he remained until 
his retirement to the country. In 1813 he 
had been appointed demonstrator of anatomy 
(unpaid) at St. Thomas's Hospital, an office 
with various duties wherein he had many 
opportunities of lecturing, teaching in the 
wards, and operating. In the autumn of 
1817 he went to Berlin to take a private 
course of instruction in philosophy with Sol- 
ger, to whom he had been recommended by 
Luidwig Tieck when the latter visited Lon- 
don. He had already made acquaintance 
with Coleridge, who came to meet Tieck 
more than once at Green's house. Previous 
to 1820 he had published anonymously 'Out- 
lines of a Course of Dissections,' and in that 
year he enlarged the book into his ' Dissec- 
tor's Manual,' with plates, said to have been 
the first work of the same kind or scope yet 
published. In 1820 he was elected surgeon 
to St. Thomas's Hospital, on the premature 
death of his cousin, Henry Cline the younger. 




In 1824 he became professor of anatomy at 
the College of Surgeons, in which office he 
delivered four annual courses of twelve lec- 
tures on comparative anatomy. According 
to Owen, these were the first survey of the 
animal kingdom given with sufficient illus- 
trations in lectures in this country, the Ger- 
man text-book of Carus being the acknow- 
ledged basis. In 1825 he was elected into 
the Royal Society (he wrote no original me- 
moirs except an unimportant piece in 'Med.- 
Chir. Trans.' xii. 46). In the same year he 
became professor of anatomy to the Royal 
Academy, then located at Somerset House, 
where he gave six lectures a year (with 
extra instruction) on anatomy in its relation 
to the fine arts; two of his lectures (on 
* Beauty' and on 'Expression') were pub- 
lished in the ' Athenaeum,' 16 and 23 Dec. 
1843. He retired from this office in 1852. 
From 1818 he had shared the lectureship 
first on anatomy and then on surgery at St. 
Thomas's with Sir Astley Cooper, who re- 
tired in 1825, and wished to assign his share 
of the lectures to his two nephews, Bransby 
Cooper and Aston Key. Green, who had 
paid Cooper 1,000/. for his own half share, 
acquiesced, but the hospital authorities did 
not, whereupon Sir Astley started lectures 
in connection with Guy's Hospital, which 
had up to that time sent its pupils to the 
medical school of St. Thomas's. The claims 
made by the Cooper family to one half of 
the museum led to a quarrel. Green's part 
in it was a bulky pamphlet (' Letter to Sir 
Astley Cooper on the Establishment of an 
Anatomical and Surgical School at Guy's 
Hospital,' London, 1825), which stated the 
legal case acutely, while it kept the way 
open for future friendly relations between 
him and Messrs. B. Cooper and Key. On 
the establishment of King's College in 1830, 
Green accepted the chair of surgery. He had 
high repute as an operator, especially in li- 
thotomy, for which he always used Cline's 
gorget. He published, chiefly in the ' Lancet,' 
a large number of lectures, clinical comments, 
and cases. In 1832 he gave the opening address 
(published) of the winter session, taking as 
his subject the functions or duties of the pro- 
fessions of divinity, law, and medicine ac- 
cording to Coleridge. 

^ Green had now for fifteen years been a 
disciple of the Highgate philosopher ; even 
when his time was most occupied with a 
large private practice and his hospital duties 
(from 1824 onwards), he spent with Coleridge 
much time in private talk (SIMON). In his 
'Poetical Works,' Coleridge inserted two in- 
different pieces of verse by Green (Pickering's 
ed. of 1847, vol. ii.), ' being anxious to asso- 

ciate the name of a most dear and honoured 
friend with my own.' It was arranged be- 
tween them that Green was to be his literary 
executor, and he was so named in Coleridge's 
will. He was to dispose of manuscripts and 
books for the benefit of the family ; but as many 
of the books (with annotations) would be ne- 
cessary for the carrying out of another part of 
Green's executory duties, namely the publica- 
tion of a system of Coleridgean philosophy, 
Green was enjoined, in so many words, to 
purchase the books himself, which he did. 
They are now widely dispersed, about a fourth 
of them being in the British Museum, a large 
number in the possession of Coleridge's de- 
scendants, and many others in private hands, 
both here and in the United States [see under 
cused in 1854 by C. M. Ingleby in ' Notes 
and Queries' (1st ser. ix. 497) of withhold- 
ing from publication important treatises 
which Coleridge had left more or less ready 
for the press, Green wrote (ib. 1st ser. ix. 
543) to explain what it was that he held 
in trust from Coleridge. In the same year 
that Coleridge died (1834), Green's father 
also died and left him a large fortune. Ac- 
cepting Coleridge's legacy of his ideas as ' an 
obligation to devote, so far as necessary, the 
whole remaining strength and earnestness of 
his life to the one task of systematising, de- 
veloping, and establishing the doctrines of 
the Coleridgean philosophy ' (SIMON), Green 
in 1836 threw up his private practice in Lin- 
coln's Inn Fields, and lived for the rest of 
his life at The Mount, Hadley, near Barnet. 
He resigned also in 1837 his chair at King's 
College, but retained for seventeen years 
longer (until 1852) the surgeoncy to St. 
Thomas's Hospital, and a share of the lec- 
tures on surgery for part of that time. In 
1835 the council of the College of Surgeons 
had chosen him for life into their body ; he 
was elected a member of the court of exami- 
ners in 1846 (also a life appointment), and 
twice filled the office of president of the col- 
lege (1849-50 and 1858-9). In the college 
councils he advocated reforms on a l paternal' 
basis ; the amended constitution of 1843, pro- 
viding for a new class of fellows and the 
election of the council by the fellows, was 
in accord with his views published in a pam- 
phlet in 1841 (' The Touchstone of Medical 
Reform '). He had already published two 
pamphlets on medical education and reform : 
' Distinction without Separation : a Letter on 
the Present State of the Profession,' 1831, and 
1 Suggestions respecting Medical Reform,' 
1834. As Hunterian orator at the college 
in 1841 he gave before a distinguished audi- 
ence an address, eloquent, but difficult to 





follow, on ' Vital Dynamics,' being an at- 
tempt to connect science with the philosophy 
of Coleridge. He-appointed Ilunterian orator 
in 1847, he supplemented his former Colerid- 
gean exposition with another equally incom- 
prehensible to his hearers, on ' Mental Dy- 
namics ; or, Groundwork of a Professional 
Education.' In 1853 he was made D.C.L. at 
Oxford, on the occasion of Lord Derby's in- 
stallation as chancellor. The General Medical 
Council having been established by the Medi- 
cal Act of 1858, Green became the representa- 
tive on it of the College of Surgeons. Two 
years after he was appointed by the govern- 
ment president in succession to Sir B. Brodie, 
and held that office until his death. During 
the thirty years that he lived after Coleridge's 
death, the bequest of the latter, to arrange 
and publish his ideas, was seldom absent from 
Green's mind. With a view to a great syn- 
thesis, he undertook a vast course of read- 
ing, revived his knowledge of Greek, learned 
Hebrew, and made some progress in Sanscrit. 
An introduction by him to the l Confessions 
of an Inquiring Spirit' is prefixed to the edi- 
tion of 1849. He made slow progress with 
the system ; but before he died he had com- 
piled a work from Coleridge's marginalia, frag- 
ments, and recollected oral teaching, under 
the title l Spiritual Philosophy, founded on the 
teaching of S. T.Coleridge,' which was brought 
out, in two volumes (1865), with a memoir 
of Green, by his friend and former pupil Sir 
John Simon. The first volume, of which the 
first chapter was dictated to Green by Cole- 
ridge himself, is occupied with a ground- 
work of principles; the second volume is 
wholly theological. Having suffered in his 
later years from inherited gout, he had an 
acute seizure on 1 Nov. 1868, and died in his 
house at Hadleyon 13 Dec. His wife survived 
him; he had no issue. He was distinguished 
by a fine presence, oratorical ability, and cool 
judgment as a surgeon. 

[Memoir by Sir J. Simon, prefixed to Spiritual 
Philosophy ; Med. Times and Gaz. 1863, vol. ii. ; 
Lancet, 1863, vol. ii. ; Notes and Queries, 1st ser. 
1854, ix. 543.] C. C. 

+ GREEN, MATTHEW (1696-1737), poet, 
is said to have belonged to a dissenting 
family, whose puritanical strictness disgusted 
him, so that he took up ' some free notions 
on religious subjects.' He held a place in 
the custom-house, where he discharged his 
duty very well ; and died, aged forty-one, in 
1737, at a lodging in Nag's Head Court, 
Gracechurch Street. A few anecdotes are 
recorded to show that he was a witty and 
pleasant companion. When an allowance 
for supplying the custom-house cats with 

milk was threatened by the authorities, he 
wrote a successful petition in their name. 
When a waterman insulted him as he was 
bathing by calling out ' Quaker,' and a friend 
asked how his sect could be detected when 
he had no clothes, he immediately replied, 
' swimming against the stream.' His 
poem on * Barclay's Apology ' implies that 
he admired the quakers, though without 
belonging to them. His wit is shown more 
decisively by the ' Spleen.' The poem ap- 
peared posthumously in 1737, with a preface 
by his friend, Kichard Glover [q.v.] Pope 
praised its originality, and Gray expressed 
a warm admiration for it. A poem called 
'The Grotto' (on Queen Caroline's grotto at 
Richmond) was privately printed in 1732. 
These and three or four previously unpub- 
lished trifles were published in the first 
volume of Dodsley's collection (1748). They 
were afterwards in Johnson's poems and 
have since appeared in Chalmers's and other 
collections. An edition by Aikin in 1796 
has a preface of twaddle without facts. The 
' Spleen,' written in Swift's favourite octo- 
syllabic metre, is one of the best poems of 
its class. The line ' Throw but a stone, the 
giant dies/ is one of the stock quotations. 
The poem was a favourite with Gray and 
manv good judges. 

[European Mag. 1785, ii. 27, and notice in 
Dodsley's Collection are the only authorities.] 

L. S. 

GREEN, RICHARD (1716-1793), anti- 
quary. [See GREENE, RICHARD.] 

GREEN, RICHARD (1803-1863), ship- 
owner and philanthropist, born at Blackwall 
in December 1803, was the son of George 
Green, by his first marriage with Miss Perry, 
daughter of a shipbuilder of repute at Black- 
wall. On the introduction of the elder Green 
into Perry's business, he became a shipowner, 
and fitted out a number of vessels in the 
whaling trade, thus laying the foundation of 
the house which at the time of his son's ad- 
mission to the firm was styled Green, Wig- 
ram, & Green. Increasing their operations 
the partners took advantage of the East India 
Company's charter to build East Indiamen, 
for which they became well known. On the 
death of the head of the firm and the con- 
sequent dissolution of partnership, Richard 
Green continued the business in conjunction 
with his then surviving brother Henry. Green 
increased the number of vessels until the dis- 
covery of gold in Australia, when he and his 
brother launched a large number of ships for 
this voyage also. To this service they were 
about to add another to China, one vessel 




having made the voyage just before Green's 
death, and a second being then near comple- 
tion. Green devoted much care to the im- 
provement of the mercantile marine. The 
establishment of the Sailors' Home was one 
of his earliest efforts. In connection with it 
he provided a course of instruction in navi- 
gation for officers and men. He was the 
principal supporter of schools at Poplar, at 
which two thousand children were taught 
and partly clothed. To the Merchant Sea- 
men^ Orphan Asylum, the Dreadnought Hos- 
pital, the Poplar Hospital, and many other 
charities he was a great benefactor. Green 
was affectionately regarded in East London. 
He warmly interested himself in the naval re- 
serve, and was chairman of the committee and 
a chief mover in the employment of the Thames 
Marine Officers' Training Ship. His favourite 
saying was that l he had no time to hesitate,' 
and he was noteworthy for his unfailing 
promptitude, quick decision, clear judgment, 
and great business acumen. He died near 
Regent's Park on 17 Jan. 1863, and his funeral 
at Trinity Chapel, Poplar (founded by his 
father), was attended by an immense con- 
course. Green left by his will a large num- 
ber of charitable bequests, including a free 
gift of the building and a perpetual endow- 
ment of his Sailors' Home at Poplar. 

[Gent. Mag. 1863, i. 262; Illustrated London 
News memoir ; Great Industries of Great Bri- 
tain.] J. B-Y. 

GREEN, SAMUEL (1740-1796), organ- 
builder, learnt his art under the elder Byfield, 
Bridge, and Jordan, and afterwards entered 
into several years' partnership with the 
younger Byfield. Green built a large number 
of organs for the cathedrals, and for churches 
in London and the country, instruments 
which were famed for their beauty of tone. 
Green died in something like poverty at Isle- 
worth, Middlesex, 14 Sept. 1796, leaving his 
business to his widow. 

[Grove's Diet, of Music, i. 624, where is a list 
of Green's organs.] L. M. M. 

GREEN, THOMAS (d. 1705), captain of 
the Worcester, East Indiaman, on his home- 
ward voyage in 1705, coming north-about to 
avoid the French cruisers, was forced by stress 
of weather to put into the Forth while the 
Scotch public was in a state of wild exaspe- 
ration consequent on the still recent seizure 
of the Scotch East Indiaman Annandale in 
the Thames. The Worcester was arrested by 
way of reprisal, and was secured at Burnt- 
island. It then began to be rumoured that the 
Worcester was not the harmless trader she 
professed to be, but while in the East Indies 

had been engaged in piracy. The drunken- 
talk of one of the seamen seemed to corrobo- 
rate the notion, and a black cook's mate gave 
positive evidence of the capture of a ship and 
the murder of the crew. Other evidence was 
adduced in support of this ; and though it 
was shown that the negro did not join the 
Worcester till long after the time referred 
to, and that the other witnesses were not on 
board, the public feeling ran so strong that 
Green and his officers were found guilty of 
piracy and murder, the charge specially nam- 
ing Captain Robert Drummond and the crew 
of the Speedy Return as having been so robbed 
and murdered. There was not only no clear 
legal evidence of piracy and murder at all, 
but there was none whatever that Drummond 
had been murdered, or that he was even dead. 
But popular fury demanded a victim, and 
Green, the chief mate Madder, and the gun- 
ner Simpson, were accordingly hanged on 
11 April 1705, the government being afraid 
of the riot which threatened to break out 
if the condemned culprits were pardoned. 
And yet before the execution had taken place 
the Raper galley had arrived from the East 
Indies, and on 30 March two of her seamen 
made affidavit before the mayor of Portsmouth 
that they had belonged to the Speedy Return, 
of which Robert Drummond was captain ; 
that while they were lying in Port Maritan 
in Madagascar, Drummond and several of the 
crew being on shore, a large body of pirates- 
came on board, seized the ship, and put to 
sea in her, took her to Rajapore, and there 
burnt her, and that they we're never attacked 
by the Worcester or any other ship. There 
is no reason to doubt the truth of this story, 
delivered on oath ; but it receives additional 
confirmation from the narrative of Robert 
Drury (fl. 1729) [q. v.], in which it is said 
that Drummond's ship was taken by pirates 
at Madagascar ; that Drummond, with three 
or four hands, was permitted to go on shore 
near Fort Dauphin (Madagascar, or Robert 
Drury's Journal,y. 18), and that he was killed 
at Tullea, seven leagues to the northward of 
Augustine Bay, by one Lewes, a Jamaica 
negro' (ib. p. v). Writing more than twenty 
years afterwards, Captain Hamilton (New 
Account of the East Indies (2nd ed.), i. 320) 
expressed his opinion that whether Green was 
innocent of Drummond's murder or not, he 
deserved hanging for other crimes, and that 
substantial justice was done. It must, how- 
ever, be remembered that Hamilton was a 
Scotchman writing in Scotland [see HAMIL- 

[The Tryal of Capt. Thomas Green and his 
Crew ... for Piracy, Robbery, and Murder. Pub- 
lished by authority, Edinburgh, 1705, fol. ; The 




Case of Capt. Thomas Green, Commander of the 
Ship Worcester, and his Crew, tried and con- 
demned for Pyracy and Murther in the High 
Court of Admiralty of Scotland, London, 1705, 
4to ; Remarks upon the Tryal of Capt. Thomas 
Green and his Crew . . . London, 1705, fol. ; Bur- 
ton's Hist, of the Reign of Queen Anne, i. 311 
et seq.] J. K. L. 

GREEN, THOMAS, D.D. (1658-1738), 
successively bishop of Norwich and of Ely, 
bom in the parish of St. Peter Mancroft, 
Norwich, 1658, was son of Thomas Green, a 
citizen of Norwich, and Sarah, his wife. 
He received his early education in the gram- 
mar school of the city, whence he passed to 
Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, of which 
he was admitted pensioner, 28 July 1674, 
and became a fellow in 1680, graduating 
B.A. 1678-9, M.A. 1682, B.D. 1690, D.I). 
1695. Tenison, afterwards bishop of Lincoln 
(1692) and archbishop of Canterbury (1695), 
was of Green's college, and used his power- 
ful influence on his behalf. He introduced 
Green to Sir Stephen Fox [q. v.], made him 
his domestic chaplain, and appointed him to 
the incumbency of Minster in Kent. In 
1698, on the death of Dr. Castle, Tenison's 
recommendation secured his election to the 
mastership of Corpus Christi College. Green's 
administration of his college (1698-1710) 
was successful. He was 'a strict disciplina- 
rian.' So that he might know ' what scholars 
were abroad,' he introduced the practice of 
1 publick prayers in the Chapel immediately 
after locking the gates.' He also made some 
beneficial regulations regarding scholarships, 
but his vain attempts to remove Robert Moss 
(afterwards dean of Ely), one of the fellows, 
who held much preferment, and was rarely 
in residence in Cambridge, involved him in 
an awkward controversy. He himself (Ni- 
CHOLS, Lit. Anecd. iv. 232) is said to have 
' resided as much as he could.' He was twice 
vice-chancellor, in 1699 and again in 1713. 
His second term of office was forced upon 
him at a time peculiarly inconvenient to him, 
but he acquitted himself well, and liberally 
entertained visitors to the university. 

In 1701 he had received from Tenison a 
prebendal stall at Canterbury, in 1708 the rec- 
tory of Adisham, Kent, and in the same year 
the archdeaconry of Canterbury. AfterTeni- 
son's death Green was appointed by the 
archbishop's trustees, February 1716, to 
the important living of St. Martin's-in-the- 
Fields, and thereupon resigned his master- 
ship at Cambridge. Green was a whig, and 
a warm supporter of the protestant succes- 
sion, and, according to Masters (Hist, of 
Corpus Christi College}, i the zeal he shewed 
for the House of Hanover on the death of 

Queen Ann, and his prudent conduct at that 
juncture, laid the foundation of his for- 
tunes.' He was made a domestic chaplain to 
George I. Green was consecrated bishop of 
Norwich 8 Oct. 1721, keeping St. Martin's 
in commendam. In 1723, on the death of 
Bishop Fleetwood [q. v.], he was removed to 
Ely, which at that time seems to have been 
looked on as the natural goal of the bishops 
of Norwich. His episcopate in both sees 
was undistinguished. 

As bishop of Ely, Green had visitatorial 
powers over Trinity College, Cambridge, 
which the quarrel between Richard Bent- 
ley, the master, and his fellows forced him 
to exercise. On 5 May 1729 Green cited 
Bentley to appear before him at Ely House 
in London to answer the fellows' charges. 
Bentley applied to the court of king's bench 
for a prohibition, which was refused. The 
bishop sent Bentley a copy of the articles 
alleged against him, with notice of a day 
when he was prepared to hear any prelimi- 
nary objections to them. Bentley appeared 
; in person at Ely House, 5 June, and made 
; his objections, all of which Green overruled. 
On this Bentley made a second application 
to the king's bench for another writ of pro- 
hibition, which, after sundry legal delays, 
was granted 10 Nov. On 31 March 1730 

the bishop applied to have the prohibition 
removed and the cause sent back to his 

! jurisdiction. Bentley interposed fresh de- 
, lays, and it was Michaelmas term before his 
objections to the bishop's jurisdiction were 
fully argued. They were overruled by the 
king's bench, but in Trinity term 1731 the 
judges, on Bentley's application, reversed 
their judgment, and continued the prohibition 
against the bishop. Green appealed to the 
House of Lords, and, by a majority of twenty- 
eight against sixteen, 6 May 1732, his autho- 
j rity was re-established, much of his success 
i being attributed to the arguments of Bishop 
Sherlock. Green again cited Bentley to ap- 
' pear before him at Ely House, 13 June 1733, 
and after much evidence for the prosecution 
and defence had been heard, Green pro- 
nounced sentence of deprivation on Bentley 
on 27 April 1 734. Bentley declined to yield. 
| His friend Walker, the vice-master, whose 
i duty it was to execute the sentence, refused 

to act. Attempts to obtain a mandamus to 
compel either Walker or the bishop himself 
to executethe sentence failed. Finally Green's 

i death at Ely House on 18 May 1738 < put a 
period to the controversy by the course of 
nature, and not by the determination of law' 
(MONK, Life of Bentley, ii. 385) [see BENTLEY, 

I RICHARD, 1662-1742]. 

Green had the character among his con- 




temporaries of ' a very worthy, good man.' 
Cole speaks of him as ' very nice and some- 
what finical/ ' thinly made/ and with a face 
of almost feminine delicacy, which acquired 
for him the name of ' Miss Green ' from the 
wags of the university, and gave rise to many 
feeble witticisms (CoLE, MSS. xxx. 155)J 
He was something of an artist, drawing por- 
traits in blacklead pencil on vellum after the 
manner of Loggan, from whom it is possible 
that he may have had instruction (ib. xxiii. 
132, 136 ; WALPOLE, Hist, of Painting, p. 147). 
He married Catherine, sister of Bishop Trim- 
nell, who survived him, and by her had 
seven daughters and two sons, Thomas and 
Charles, both of whom were well provided 
for by their father. They added a final e to 
their surname. The elder, THOMAS GREENE, 
who was successively fellow of his father's 
college, Corpus Christi, and of Jesus College, 
Cambridge, received from him the rich rectory 
of Cottenham and a prebendal stall at Ely 
(1737-50). In 1751 he became chancellor 
of Lichfield, which he held with the deanery 
of Salisbury, to which he was appointed in 
1757, till his death in 1780. Cole describes 
him as 'of much the same cast as his father, 
thin and very delicate.' The disuse of in- 
cense on the high festivals in Ely Cathedral 
is attributed to him ' a finical man always 
taking snuff up his nose' on the plea that it 
made his head ache (CoLE, Add. MSS. 5873, 
fol. 82). The younger son, Charles, a lawyer, 
became registrar of Ely and steward of "the 
dean and chapter. 

Green published occasional sermons and 
charges, and some congratulatory Latin verses, 
on the accession of Anne and of George I, 
printed in the 'Academ. Cantab, carmina ' 
1702, 1714. 

[Bentham's Hist, of Ety, pp. 209-10; Cole's 
MSS. vols. xxiii. xxx. &c. ; Monk's Life of Bent- 
ley, vol. ii. passim ; Masters s Hist, of Corpus 
Christi College, by Lamb, pp. 208-11.] E. V. 

GREEN, THOMAS, the elder (1722- 
1794), political writer, the son of Thomas 
Green of Wilby, Suffolk, an ex-soapboiler, by 
his wife Jane Mould, was born in 1722. He 
received a good education, and was possessed 
of considerable literary power, which he made 
use of chiefly in writing political pamphlets. 
f these the most important were: 1. <A 
Prospect of the Consequences of the Present 
Conduct of Great Britain towards America/ 

to Dr. James Butler of Ireland, occasioned 
by his late publication entitled A Justifi- 
cation of the Tenets of the Roman Catholic 

Green, Thomas, D.D. 


r 1 

the hall of Corpus Christi college. 


Religion,"' 1787. 4. ' Strictures on the Letter 
of the R f . Hon. Mr. Burke, and the Revolu- 
tion in France,' 1791. He also conducted a 
periodical, published at Ipswich, where he 
resided, and called ' Euphrasy.' This maga- 
zine, which was commenced in 1769, and ex- 
tended to twelve numbers, was written almost 
entirely by Green himself, and supported the 
church of England as against dissenters. 
Green died on 6 Oct. 1794, and was buried 
at Wilby. He married Frances Martin, by 
whom he left a son, Thomas Green (1769- 
1825) [q. v.] 

[Davy's Athense Suffolc. ii. 425 (Addit, MS. 
19166); Memoir of Thomas Green, Esq., of 
Ipswich, by J. Ford, 1825.] A. V. 

GREEN, THOMAS, the younger (1769- 
1825), miscellaneous writer, son of Thomas 
Green the elder (1722-1794) [q. v.], was born 
at Monmouth on 12 Sept. 1769. He was 
educated partly at the free grammar school in 
Ipswich, and then privately under a Mr. Jervis 
of Ipswich. In 1786 he was admitted of C&ius 
College, Cambridge, but never resided there, 
his going to the university being prevented by 
illness, and the intention being abandoned on 
his recovery. He was called to the bar, and 
for a few years went the Norfolk circuit. On 
coming into his property on his father's death 
in 1794, he gave up his profession, and devoted 
himself to a literary life. He lived at Ipswich, 
visiting the continent and different parts of 
England from time to time. He died on 6 Jan. 
1825, leaving an only son (Thomas) by his 
wife Catharine, daughter of Lieutenant-co- 
lonel (afterwards General) Hartcup. 

His claim to remembrance is his ' Diary of 
a Lover of Literature/ extracts from which 
he published in 1810. In this he discusses 
and criticises the books he read from day to 
day, sometimes giving lengthy arguments 
on the subjects treated of by his authors, 
more especially upon metaphysical points, to 
which he had given considerable attention. 
It is varied by descriptions of scenery in the 
Isle of Wight and Wales, which are very 
vivid and happy, as he had evidently a keen 
eye for the points of a view. The extracts 
are only from the diary for the years 1796 to 
1800 ; but it was continued throughout his 
life, and his friend, J. Mitford of Benhall, 
while editor of the ' Gentleman's Magazine/ 
printed a large additional portion in that 
periodical from January 1834 to June 1843, 
concluding with a sketch of his character. 
Many of the criticisms are clever and de- 
serving of attention ; others, especially those 
on theological subjects, are crude enough. 
But the whole forms very amusing reading. 

Besides the extracts from the diary, he pub- 




lished the following pamphlets : 1. t TheMic- 
thodion, or Poetical Olio/ 1788, a volume of 
poems. 2. l A Vindication of the Shop-tax,' 
1789. 3. ' Slight Observations upon Paine's 
pamphlet ... on the French and English 
Constitutions/ 1791. 4. ' Political Specula- 
tions/ 1791. 5. A short Address to the Pro- 
testant Clergy of every denomination on the 
fundamental corrupt ion of Christianity/ 1792. 
6. f The Two Systems of the Social Compact 
and the Natural Rights of Man examined and 
confuted/ 1793. 7. Gibbon's ' Critical Ob- 
servations on the 6th Book of the yEneid/ 
1794. 8. ' An Examination of the leading 
Principles of the New System of Morals . . . 
in Godwin's enquiry concerning Political 
Justice/ 1798 ; 2nd edition, 1799. 9. Memoir 
of Dr. Pearson, Master of Sidney College, 
Cambridge, prefixed to Pearson's ' Prayers for 
Families/ 1819. 10. Reveley's ' Notices illus- 
trative of the Drawings and Sketches of some 
of the most distinguished Masters in all the 
principal Schools of Design.' This he revised 
for the press in 1820. He contributed also 
to the ' Gentleman's ' and l European' maga- 
zines, and some poems by him are inserted in 
< The Chaplet, Ipswich, 1807, and ' The Suf- 
folk Garland/ Ipswich, 1818. 

[Memoir of Thomas Green of Ipswich, by 
J[ames] F[ord], Ipswich, 1825, privately printed 
(with a portrait prefixed) ; J. Mitford in Gent. 
Mag., January 1834, p. 1, June 1843, p. 582.1 

II. R. L. 

GREEN, THOMAS HILL (1836-1882), 
philosopher, youngest of four children (two 
sons and two daughters) of Valentine Green, 
rector of Birkin, Yorkshire, was born at 
Birkin, 7 April 1830. His mother was the 
eldest daughter of Edward Thomas Vaughan, 
vicar of St. Martin and All Saints, Leicester, 
by a daughter of Daniel Thomas Hill of 
Aylesbury. His mother's uncle, Archdeacon 
Hill of Derby, gave the living of Birkin to 
his father. His mother died when he was a 
year old, and he was educated by his father 
till, at the age of fourteen, he was sent to 
Rugby, then under Dr. Goulburn. He had 
not been a precocious child, and was a shy, 
awkward, and rather indolent schoolboy. He 
showed power, however, on occasion, espe- 
cially by gaining the prize (in 1855) for a 
Latin translation from the ' Areopagitica.' 
He impressed a few intimate friends by his 
thoughtfulness and independence of cha- 
racter. In October 1855 he entered Balliol 
College, Oxford, as a pupil of Mr. Jowett. 
He obtained only a second class in modera- 
tions, but in 1859 was in the first class in 
literce humanioreSj afterwards obtaining a 
third class in the school of law and modern 
history. In 1860 he became a lecturer upon 

ancient and modern history in Balliol during 
the absence of Mr. "W. L. Newman, and in 
November was elected fellow of his college. 
He attributed much of his progress as an 
undergraduate to the influence of his older 
friends, especially Mr. Jowett, John Coning- 
ton [q. v.], and Mr. C. S. Parker. He was not 
widely known except by an occasional for- 
cible speech at the Union, and by a few essays 
read to a society called the Old Mortality. 
His political views coincided with those of 
Bright and Cobden, though he defended them 
upon idealist principles. In 1862 he gained 
the chancellor's prize for an essay upon novels. 
Besides lectures at his college, he took a few 
private pupils, chiefly in philosophy. He 
desired to become independent, but wavered 
for a time between a college life, journalism, 
and an educational appointment. His re- 
ligious views made him unwilling to take 
orders, though after some hesitation he signed 
the Thirty-nine Articles upon taking his M.A. 
degree. He began to translate F. C. Baur's 
' History of the Christian Church/ which 
suggested an essay upon Christian dogma. 
He prepared for, but ultimately abandoned, 
an edition of Aristotle's ' Ethics.' In 1864 
he was an unsuccessful candidate for the chair 
of moral philosophy at the university of St. 
Andrews. In December of that year he ac- 
cepted an appointment as assistant-commis- 
I sioner to the royal commission upon middle- 
class schools. He took a deep interest in 
this work, which occupied him during great 
part of 1865 and in the second quarter of 
1866. He wrote a report (published in 1868 
by the commission), suggesting a better orga- 
nisation of the schools, in general agreement 
with the views adopted by the commissioners. 
He was elected as the teachers' representative 
on the governing body of King Edward's 
Schools in Birmingham (on which he had 
reported in 1868), and took ever afterwards 
an active part in their proceedings. 

He was appointed to a vacancy in the 
teaching staft' of Balliol on the death of 
James Riddell in September 1866. In 3867 
he stood unsuccessfully for the AVaynflete 
professorship of moral and metaphysical phi- 
losophy. In 1870 the Rev. Edwin Palmer 
(now archdeacon of Oxford) resigned his 
tutorship, and Mr. Jowett became master of 
the college. Green, as tutor, had now the 
' whole subordinate management of the col- 
lege.' Although lacking some of the more 
superficial talents for winning popularity, 
his simplicity, power, and earnestness com- 
manded respect. He soon grew to be on 
easier terms w r ith his pupils, and from 1868 
usually took some of them as companions in 
the vacation. He lectured upon Aristotle 


and the early Greek philosophy, and espe- 
cially upon the English thinkers of the seven- 
teenth and eighteenth centuries. At this 
period the writings of J. S. Mill exercised the 
most potent intellectual influence in Oxford. 
Green became the leading exponent of the 
principles of Kant and Hegel, and attracted 
many able followers. His introduction to a 
new edition of Hume's works in 1874-5 first 
made public his criticism of the English em- 
pirical theories. 

On 1 July 1871 he married Charlotte, 
daughter of Dr. Symonds of Clifton, and 
brother of an old friend, Mr. John Addington 
Symonds. He was re-elected to a fellowship 
at Balliol in April 1872, and continued to 
teach with increasing influence. As a house- 
holder he took an active part in local politics. 
In 1867 he had first appeared on a platform 
in behalf of the Reform Bill of that year. In 
1870 he had spoken in favour of Forster's j 
Education Bill, and in 1874 was elected to 
the Oxford school board. He joined the 
United Kingdom (Temperance) Alliance in 
1872, and in 1875 set up a coffee tavern in 
St. Clement's. He was in favour of ' local 
option,' and had a controversy with Sir "Wil- 
liam Harcourt, who seemed to him to treat 
the evil of drink too lightly. He showed 
his interest in the Oxford High School by 
contributing 200/. to the building in 1877, 
and founding a scholarship of 12/. a year for 
boys from the elementary schools. He sup- 
ported the liberal party of the time in other 
questions, though with characteristic modi- 
fications of his own. 

In 1878 he was elected to the Why te pro- 
fessorship of moral philosophy, and gave 
carefully prepared lectures in the summer 
term of 1878, and in following years until 
the Hilary term of 1882. The lectures form 
the substance of his unfinished ' Prolegomena 
to Ethics,' which was published under the 
editorship of Mr. A. C. Bradley in 1883. 
He took part in a translation of Lotze's 
* Logik ' and ' Metaphysik,' in which he had 
engaged some of his friends. It was pub- 
lished in 1884. His health had not for some 
time been robust, and in 1878 symptoms had 
appeared of congenital disease of the heart. 
He was about to move into a house which 
he had built in the Banbury Road, when he 
was taken ill, 15 March 1882, and died on 
the 26th. His wife survived him. He had 
no children. Among legacies to be paid 
after the death of his wife were 1,000/. to 
the university for a prize essay in moral 
philosophy (which Mrs. Green has already 
given), 1,000/. for a scholarship at the Oxford 
High School, and 3,500/. to Balliol College 
for promoting education in large towns. 

s Green 

Green's works, edited by Mr. R. L. Nettle- 
ship, were collected in three volumes. Vol. i. 
(1885) includes his introduction to Hume 
and his criticisms upon Mr. Herbert Spencer 
and G. H. Lewes, which (except one article) 
had previously appeared in the ' Contempo- 
rary Review.' Vol. ii. (1886) contains pre- 
viously unpublished papers selected from his 
manuscript lectures. Vol. iii. (1888) con- 
tains a memoir, articles, and reviews upon 
philosophy from periodicals, two ' addresses ' 
delivered in Balliol to his pupils in 1870 and 
1877 before the administration of the com- 
munion, also privately printed and published 
in 1883, with an unfinished preface by Arnold 
Toynbee; lectures on the New Testament 
from notes by himself and his hearers ; four 
lectures upon the ' English Revolution,' de- 
livered before the Edinburgh Philosophical 
Institution in 1867 ; ' Liberal Legislation and 
Freedom of Contract,' originally published 
in 1881, with lectures upon education, &c. 

Green was a man whose homely exterior, 
reserved manner, and middle-class radicalism 
were combined with singular loftiness of cha- 
racter. He recalls in different ways Words- 
worth, of whom he was to some degree a 
disciple even in philosophy ( Works, iii. 119), 
and Bright, whom he followed in politics. 
In his youth he was impressed by Carlyle 
and Maurice. He developed the philoso- 
phical ideas, congenial to him from the first, 
' by a sympathetic study of Kant and Hegel.' 
He was not a wide reader, and even in some 
respects indolent, but he grasped his funda- 
mental beliefs with singular intensity. His 
central conception, says his biographer (ib. 
p. Ixxv), is that ' the Universe is a single 
eternal activity or energy, of which it is the 
essence to be self-conscious, that is, to be 
itself and not-itself in one.' His religious 
philosophy is a constant reproduction of ' the 
idea that the whole world of human experi- 
ence is the self-communication or revelation 
of the eternal and absolute being.' Whatever 
the final fate of his philosophy, his opponents 
must recognise the value of his criticism of 
their position, and of his attempted ethical 
construction. While denouncing the philo- 
sophical claims of the utilitarian school, he 
sympathised to a great extent with their 
practical aims, and admired J. S. Mill as a 
man of exceptional goodness. Though an 
unsparing he was a magnanimous critic, and 
both by his character and his logical power 
gave a potent stimulus to many thinkers who 
have greatly modified his position. His cha- 
racter was described in Mrs. Ward's ' Robert 
Elsmere,' under the name of Mr. Gray. 

[Life, by R. L. Nettleship, prefaced to vol. iii. 
of Works.] L. S. 




GREEN, VALENTINE (1739-1813), 
mezzotint engraver, born on 16 Oct. 1739 at 
Salford, near Chipping Norton in Oxford- 
shire, was the son of a dancing-master, and 
was articled to William Phillips, the town- 
clerk of the borough of Evesham. At the 
end of two years he forsook the study of the 
law, and in 1760 became the pupil of Robert 
Hancock, a line engraver at Worcester, but 
not progressing to his own satisfaction in that 
branch of the art, he went in 1765 to London, 
and turned his attention to engraving in 
mezzotint. In 1766 he exhibited two works 
at the rooms of the Incorporated Society of 
Artists, of which he became a member in 
1767, and before long achieved a brilliant 
success. His plates of ' The Return of Re- 
gulus to Carthage ' and ' Hannibal swearing 
eternal Enmity to the Romans,' after the 
paintings by Benjamin West in the royal col- 
lection, the largest historical works until 
then executed in mezzotint, added greatly to 
his reputation. He first exhibited at the 
Royal Academy in 1774, and in 1775 he was 
elected an associate engraver, and appointed 
mezzotint engraver to the king. In 1789 
the Elector Charles Theodore of Bavaria 
granted him the exclusive privilege of en- 
graving and publishing prints from the pic- 
tures in the Diisseldorf Gallery, and by 1795 
he had completed twenty-two plates from 
that collection, but the outbreak of war 
wrecked the enterprise, and the subsequent 
siege and destruction of the castle and gal- 
lery by the French in 1798 involved him and 
his son Rupert, who was his partner, in 
serious loss. There is a ' Descriptive Cata- 
logue of Pictures from the Dusseldorf Gal- 
lery, exhibited at the Great Room, Spring 
Gardens, London,' which was published in 
1793. On the foundation of the British 
Institution in 1805 he was appointed keeper, 
and by his exertions contributed greatly to 
its success. He died in St. Alban's Street, 
London, on 29 June 1813. He was a fellow 
both of the Society of Antiquaries and of 
the Royal Society. 

Green engraved about four hundred plates 
during his career of upwards of forty years. All 
show great mastery of his art and originality 
of style, but, like other artists of the time, he 
was more intent upon making his portraits 
works of art than faithful likenesses. His 
finest portraits are after Sir Joshua Reynolds, 
and include those of the painter himself, from 
the original in the Royal Academy; Georgiana, 
duchess of Devonshire ; Mary Isabella, duchess 
of Rutland; the Ladies Waldegrave; Emily 
Mary, countess of Salisbury; Louisa, countess 
of Aylesford; Lady Elizabeth Dalme and 
her children ; Jane/countess of Harrington ; 

Anne, viscountess Townshend ; Lady Louisa 
Manners: Lady Jane Halliday; the Duke of 
Buccleuch; Sir William Chambers; Miss 
Sarah Campbell ; Lady Elizabeth Compton, 
afterwards countess of Burlington ; Lady 
Henrietta Herbert, afterwards countess of 
Powis ; Lady Caroline Howard, afterwards 
Lady Cawdor ; Charlotte, countess Talbot ; 
the Duke of Bedford, with his two brothers 
and Miss Vernon. Many of these bring high 
prices at public auction, and at the sale of the 
Duke of Buccleuch's prints (17 March 1887) 
the engraving of Reynolds's l Ladies Walde- 
grave ' fetched the large sum of 2627. 10s. 
1 Among portraits after other masters Green 
' engraved those of Charles Theodore, elector 
1 of Bavaria, after Batoni ; Mrs. Cosway, after 
| herself; Mrs. Yates as the Tragic Muse, after 
Romney ; Miss Hunter, after E. F. Calze ; 
| Mrs. Green, his wife, with her son Rupert 
(called a 'Mother and Child'), after Falco- 
net ; David Garrick and Mark Beaufoy, after 
Gainsborough ; Richard Cumberland, after 
Romney ; Garrick and Mrs. Pritchard in Mac- 
beth, after Zoftany ; George Washington, after 
Trumbull ; Miss Martha Ray, after Dance ; 
Prince Rupert, after Rembrandt; and Henry, 
j earl of Danby, George, marquis of Huntly, 
and Sir Thomas Wharton, after Vandyck, 
for the Houghton Gallery. Besides the two 
works above mentioned, he engraved several 
scriptural and classical subjects after Benja- 
min West, such as * The Raising of Lazarus,' 
' The Three Maries at the Sepulchre,' ' The 
Death of Epaminondas,' ' Agrippina weeping 
over the ashes of Germanicus,' and ' The Death 
of the Chevalier Bayard,' as well as two por- 
traits of Queen Charlotte, and three plates of 
the children of George III. His other sub- 
ject plates include 'The Visitation,'' The Pre- 
sentation in the Temple,' and ' The Descent 
from the Cross,' after Rubens ; 'Time clipping 
the Wings of Love,' after Vandyck ; ' The 
Dutch School,' after Jan Steen; 'The Virgin 
and Child,' after Domenichino ; ' The Assump- 
tion of the Virgin ' and ' St. John with the 
Lamb,' after Murillo ; ' Venus and Cupid,' 
after Agostino Carracci; 'The Entombment 
of Christ,' after Lodovico Carracci ; ' A Her- 
mit,' after Mola; 'The Wright Family' and 
'The Air Pump/ after Joseph Wright of 
Derby; and 'The Sulky Boy,' 'The Disaster 
of the Milk-pail,' and 'The Child of Sorrow,' 
after R. Morton Paye. 

Green wrote : 1. ' A Survey of the City of 
Worcester,' Worcester, 1764, 8vo ; afterwards 
enlarged into ' The History and Antiquities 
of the City and Suburbs of Worcester/ Lon- 
don, 1796,* 4tp, 2 vols. 2. 'A Review of the 
Polite Arts in France, at the time of their 
establishment under Louis XIV, compared 





ith their present state in England, 'London, 
782, 4to, in a letter to Sir Joshua Reynolds. 
3. <ActaHistoricaReginarum Angliae; from 
twelve original drawings executed by J. t*. 
HuckofDusseldorf,'1786,4to. 4 'An Ac- 
count of the Discovery of the Body of King 
John in the Cathedral Church of Worcester, 
July 17, 1797,' London, 1797, 4to. 

There is a portrait of Valentine Green, 
engraved by himself, after a painting by 
Lemuel F. Abbott, which was also engraved 
in line by James Fittler, A.R.A., and pre- 
fixed to the 'History and Antiquities ol 

RUPEKT GREEN, the only son of Valentine 
Green, born about 1768, was brought up to 
his father's profession, and was in partnership 
with him as a print publisher from about 1785 
to 1798. There is a view of ' The Harbour 
and Pier, Ramsgate,' drawn by him in 1781, 
and engraved by V. Green and F. Jukes, and 
also an oval portrait of George III, drawn and 
engraved in mezzotint by him, and published 
in 1801. Before he was nine years old he 
wrote a tragedy called 'The Secret Plot,' 
which was printed for private circulation in 
1777. He died on 16 Nov. 1804, aged 36, 
and was buried in Hampstead churchyard. 

[Monthly Mirror, 1809, i. 323, ii. 7, 135, with 
portrait engraved by Freeman ; Gent. Mag. 1813, 
i. 666, ii. 446 ; John Chaloner Smith's British 
Mezzotinto Portraits, 1878-83, ii. 532-99 ; Bryan's 
Diet, of Painters and Engravers, ed. Graves, 
1886-9, i. 597; Redgrave's Diet, of Artists of 
the English School, 1878; Sandby's Hist, of the 
Royal Academy of Arts, 1862, i. 233-5 ; Exhi- 
bition Catalogues of the Incorporated Society 
of Artists, 1766-75; Royal Academy Exhibition 
Catalogues, 1774-1806; Park's Topography and 
Natural History of Hampstead, 1814, p. 347.1 

R. E. G. 

GREEN, WILLIAM (1714 P-1794), he- 
braist, born at Newark, Nottinghamshire 
about 1714, entered Clare Hall, Cambridge 
as a sizar on 16 March 1733-4, but was ad 
mitted scholar of Mr. Wilson's foundation on 
20 Jan. 1736. On 19 Jan. 1737, having taken 
his B.A. degree, he was admitted scholar o 
Mr. Freeman's foundation, and on 11 Dec 
1738 became afellow of Lord Exeter's founda 
tion. He was elected fellow on Mr. Diggon's 
foundation on 19 Feb. 1739, proceeded M.A. 
in 1741, and finally on 2 Nov. 1743 suc- 
ceeded to a fellowship of the old foundation 
(college books). In 1759 he was presented 
by the college to the rectory of Hardingham, 
Norfolk, where he died on 7 Nov. 1794, aged 
80 (Mon. Insc. ; Gent. Mag. 1794, pt. ii. 
p. 1060). His wife Mary died on 21 June 
1795, aged 75. Some of his correspondence 
with divines like Seeker, Warburton (who ad- 

ised him on his theological reading), Bagot, 
_nd Newton, and with the eminent Hebrew 
cholars, Newcome, Richard Grey, and Blay- 
ley, is printed in the ' Gentleman's Magazine ' 
or 1819. pt.ii., and 1822, pt.i.; in Nichols's 
Literary Anecdotes,' vols. viii. ix. ; and in 
Nichols V Illustrations of Literature,' vol. iv. 
3-reen published : 1. ' The Song of Deborah 
educed to metre; with a new translation and 
commentary,' 4to, Cambridge, 1753. 2. ' A 
lew Translation of the Prayer of Habakkuk, 
he Prayer of Moses, and the cxxxix. Psalm; 
with a commentary,' 4to, Cambridge, 1755. 
3. <A new Translation of the Psalms . . . with 
notes ... To which is added, A Dissertation 
3n the last prophetick Words of Noah,' 8vo, 
Cambridge, 17C2. 4. 'A new Translation 
of Isaiah Hi. 13 to the end of liii. . . . with 
iotes,' 4to, Cambridge, 1776. 5. ' Poetical 
Parts of the Old Testament. . .newly trans- 
lated . . . with notes,' 4to, Cambridge, 1781. 
[Information kindly sent by the master of 
Clare and the rector of Hardingham ; Nichols's 
Literary Anecdotes and Illustrations of Litera- 
ure.] GK GK 

GREEN, Sm WILLIAM (1725-1811), 
general, was the eldest son of Godfrey Green, 
an Irish gentleman who married, at Aber- 
deen, Helen, sister of Adam Smith. God- 
frey settled at- Durham, but his son William 
was educated at Aberdeen by his mother's 
sisters. On 1 Jan. 1737 he received the war- 
rant of a cadet gunner, and joined at the 
Royal Military Academy, Woolwich Warren. 
On 12 March 1743 he was appointed a prac- 
titioner engineer, and stationed at Ports- 
mouth. Early in 1745 he joined the engineer 
brigade in Flanders, took part in all the opera- 
tions of the campaign, and was present at the 
battle of Fontenoy. In 1746 he embarked 
with the expedition under St. Clair to the 
coast of Brittany, and was at the siege of 
L'Orient and the descent on Quiberon. On 
2 Jan. 1747 he was promoted to be sub-engi- 
neer, and was again in the field in Flanders 
with local rank of engineer-in-ordinary. 
During the campaign he was present in the 
action of Sandberg, near Hulst, at the battle 
of Val, where he was wounded and taken 
prisoner, and at the siege of Bergen-op-Zoom 
from 13 July to 16 Sept. He drew four plans 
of this fortress, dated 1751, now in the British 
Museum. When the army left Flanders he re- 
mained with some other engineers to make a 
survey of the Austrian Netherlands. He,with 
a brother officer, made plans of the district 
between Bois-le-Duc and Geertruidenberg, 
showing the inundation, and also careful 
drawings of the galleries and mines of the 
fortress of Luxemburg. These are now in 




the King's Library, British Museum. On 
2 Jan. 1748 Green obtained the warrant of 
engineer-extraordinary. On his recall from 
the Netherlands he was sent to Portsmouth 
to push on the fortifications of the dockyard, 
and remained there until the summer of 1750, 
when he was removed to Landguard Fort 
under Justly Watson. 

In 1752 Green was sent to Newfoundland, 
where he completed the survey and made a re- 
port on the defences. In 1755 he was appointed 
chief engineer at Newfoundland, and made a 
reconnaissance of Louisberg, sending a plan of 
the town and harbour to the king. In 1757 he 
was attached to the expedition commanded by 
the Earl of Loudoun. Green joined the army 
of which Dugal Campbell was chief engineer 
at Halifax, Nova Scotia, on 14 May. On the 
previous 14 May the engineers for the first 
time received ordinary military titles, and 
Green was commissioned as captain-lieu- 
tenant in the army. At Halifax he was em- 
ployed in instructing the troops in military 
engineering work. He accompanied the fleet 
in its reconnaissance of Cape Breton and 
Louisberg. On 4 Jan. 1758 he was promoted 
engineer-in-ordinary and captain He was 
present in the action of 8 June on landing 
at Cape Breton, and at the siege and capture 
of Louisberg. He was next sent to the Lake 
country for duty under Major-general James 
Abercromby, and detached to the Oneida 
station to build a fort. In the campaign of 
1759 Green was attached to the division of 
the army under Wolfe, and was present at 
the repulse at Montmorenci on 31 July, at 
the siege of Quebec, and at the battle on the 
plains of Abraham on 13 Sept. At the latter 
he was wounded in the forehead by a splinter 
from a shell. While before Quebec he was 
promoted (10 Sept.) to be sub-director and 
major of the corps. He was engaged in the 
final operations for the subjugation of Canada, 
and in the capture of Montreal. In. 1760 he 
was present at the battle of Sillery, 28 April, 
and afterwards engaged in the defence of 
Quebec during the French siege. 

On the conclusion of the Canadian cam- 
paign Green returned to England and joined 
for duty at Plymouth. He was shortly after- 
wards appointed senior engineer at Gibraltar. 
On 8 Feb. 1762 he was promoted lieutenant- 
colonel. In 1769 he came home to explain 
to the board of ordnance his projects for 
improving the defence of the Rock. He 
brought with him some osseous breccia which 
he presented to Mr. Boddington, the corps' 
agent, and an account was read by Dr. Hunter, 
F.R.S., on 17 Feb. 1770, to the Royal Society. 
In 1770 Green was back again at Gibraltar, 
and made his valuable report on the defence 

works of this fortress, and his proposals to 
render the Rock impregnable at an estimate 
of over 50,000/. This report is in the Bri- 
tish Museum. On the recommendation of 
the chief engineer of Great Britain, General 
Skinner, the king sanctioned the expenditure, 
and the works were carried out in accordance 
with Green's plans. On 7 Nov. 1770 he was 
promoted chief engineer at Gibraltar, with 
extra pay of 30s. a day, derivable from the 
revenues of the place. In 1771 he designed 
the general hospital. In 1772, on Green's 
strong recommendation, the king granted 
him a warrant to raise a company of military 
artificers, which was the germ of the rank 
and file of the corps of royal engineers. On 
29 Aug. 1777 Green was promoted colonel 
in the army, and was sent by the governor, 
Sir George Eliot t (afterwards Lord Heath- 
field) to England to induce Lord Townshend 
to give additional money to perfect the works 
at Gibraltar. He had several personal inter- 
views with the king, to whom he explained 
his plans (now in the British Museum), and 
he returned to Gibraltar in May 1778 with 
fall powers to go on with the proposed new 
works. On 18 Dec. 1778 he was promoted to 
the engineer rank of director. Throughout the 
famous siege, which began in June 1779, he 
was prominent as chief engineer. On 17 April 
1781 he was appointed brigadier-general. His 
house was so exposed to the fire of the enemy 
that he had to move his family into a bomb- 
proof shelter, where his wife caught a chill, 
from which, although sent to England in July, 
she never recovered. At the affair of 18 July, 
when the Queen's battery at Willis's was 
broken up by the enemy's fire, Green had it 
completely reconstructed during the night. 
In December Green received his commission 
as major-general, dated 19 Oct. 1781. In 
May 1782 he constructed the celebrated sub- 
terranean galleries in the north front, includ- 
ing St. George's Hall. On 13 Sept. he was 
conspicuous in his exertions during the com- 
bined attack by the land forces and the fleets, 
and the success of his kilns for heating shot 
was complete. The red-hot shot w r ere sup- 
plied uninterruptedly throughout the day and 
night, destroying many ships. In Copley's 
picture of this day's work Green is depicted in 
the group round the governor. In November 
the enemy opened the cave on the precipitous 
side of the Rock, which Green had closed up 
before the siege, and, although fifty-seven 
years of age, he had himself lowered down 
the face of the Rock many hundred feet to 
ascertain what was being done. He rebuilt 
the Orange bastion on the sea face a heavy 
piece of masonry during a continuous can- 
nonade. The siege was raised in February 



1783, after it had lasted three and a half 

Green embarked for E nglan don 7 Junel 783, 
after twenty-two years' service at Gibraltar. 
On arrival in London he had an audience with 
the king, and received the thanks of both 
houses of parliament. In 1784 he was ap- 
pointed a member of the board on the fortifica- 
tions of Plymouth and Portsmouth, presided 
over by the Duke of Richmond. On 10 June 
1786 he was created a baronet, and on 15 Nov. 
following presented with the patent of chief j 
engineer of Great Britain, in the room of | 
General Bramham, deceased. In 1787 he ' 
succeeded in carrying out an extension of the 
artificer companies, and was appointed com- 
mandant of the corps in addition to his duties 
as chief engineer of Great Britain. In 1788 
he was appointed president of the defence com- 
mittee, a position he held for the next nine 
years. On 12 Oct. 1793 he was promoted 
lieutenant-general, and on 1 Jan. 1798 full 
general, and in 1802 retired on a pension, and 
lived in retirement at Brambleberry House, 
Plumstead, Kent. He died on 10 Jan. 1811 
at Bifrons, near Canterbury, while on a visit 
to his daughter Miriam, the wife of General 
Nicolls, commanding the Kent district. He 
was buried at Plumstead, where there is a 
tombstone with inscription, and there is also 
a tablet to his memory in Plumstead Church. 
He married, on 26 Feb. 1754, Miriam, daugh- 
ter of Colonel Justly Watson. His son JUSTLY 
WATSON succeeded to the baronetcy. He was 
an officer of the 1st royals, and was selected 
to attend Prince Edward (afterwards Duke of 
Kent) in his travels. He died without issue 
in 1862, and the baronetcy became extinct. 

[Conolly Papers; Corps Records; Siege of Gi- 
braltar, see Drinkwater, Ancell, and Heriot.] 

R. H. V. 

GREEN, WILLIAM (1761-1823), 
water-colour painter and engraver, born at 
Manchester in 1761, was first engaged as 
assistant to a surveyor there. Not liking this 
profession, he came to London and studied 
engraving, especially aquatint, but owing to 
indifferent health settled at Ambleside. He 
now devoted himself to drawing the scenery 
of the lakes, and found many patrons among 
the visitors to Keswick and Ambleside. There 
are three water-colour drawings by him in 
the print room at the British Museum, one 
being of the old bridge at Borrodale, and a 
similar drawing of Raven Crag, Thirlmere, 
is in the South Kensington Museum. They 
are carefully finished, with great truth to 
nature. In 1797, 1798, and 1801, Green was 
an exhibitor at the Royal Academy. In 
1807 he issued a proposal for publishing a 

series of sixty prints from sketches of his 
larger size. Thirty appeared in 1808, twelve 
more in 1809, and the work was completed 
in 1810, and published with an accompany- 
ing volume of text. In 1809 Green published 
a smaller series of seventy-eight studies from 
nature, etched on soft ground by himself. 
In 1814 he also published a smaller edition 
of the former series of sixty prints, executed 
as before. All these were from drawings of 
the scenery in the Lake country. In 1822 
Green published in two volumes 'The Tourist's 
New Guide, containing a description of the 
Lakes, Mountains, and Scenery in Cumber- 
land, Westmoreland, and Lancashire,' with 
forty etchings by himself. Green died at 
Ambleside, 28 April 1823, aged 62. 

[Redgrave's Diet, of Artists; Upcott's Eng- 
lish Topography ; Univ. Cat. of Books on Art ; 
G-raves's Diet, of Artists, 1760-1880.] L. C. 

1846), inventor, born apparently at Halifax, 
Nova Scotia, in 1785, was eldest son of Benja- 
min Green (d. 1794), treasurer of the province 
of Nova Scotia, a member of the House of 
Assembly there, and a justice of the court of 
common pleas. His grandfather, also Benja- 
min Green (1713-1772), was in business at 
Boston, Massachusetts', till 1745, when he 
took part in the capture of Cape Breton. In 
1749 he settled at Halifax, Nova Scotia, and 
became governor of the province in 1766. 
William Pringle entered the Cleopatra as 
a midshipman in 1797, and was afterwards 
for three years and a half in the West Indies 
in La Topaze. He was afterwards in the 
Circe and the Sanspareil. After the peace 
of Amiens he was in the Trent, and thence 
drafted into the Conqueror, in which he served 
at Trafalgar. He took part in the capture 
of the Bucentaure on that day, and was pro- 
moted to a lieutenancy for his services, and 
appointed to the Formidable. He after- 
wards served on the American coast as first 
lieutenant of the Eurydice, and communi- 
cated to Sir John Borlase Warren plans 
for bringing English ships to an equality 
with the Americans. In 1811 he commanded 
the brig Resolute, and carried out his plans 
for training the crew to the satisfaction of 
the admiralty. The Resolute was paid off 
in 1815, and Green devoted his time to in- 
ventions, till in 1829 he was appointed to a 
Falmoutk packet. After nearly three years' 
service she was paid off, and Green was ne- 
glected till in 1842 he was appointed lieute- 
nant of the Victory, and quartered in the 
Blanche frigate at Portsmouth. He fell into 
embarrassments, had to resign a year later, 
and died at Landport, Portsmouth, on 18 Oct. 




1846. He left a widow and seven children. 
He seems to have been neglected through life, 
and could only leave a pension of 50/. a year 
to his family. Green was an officer of great 
mechanical ingenuity. In spite of constant 
discouragement he devoted the greater part 
of his life to the promotion of inventions and 
improvements connected with the service, 
many of which were so valuable as to be in- 
troduced throughout the navy. He sub- 
mitted to the navy board a clever plan for 
lowering and fidding top-masts, an imitation 
of which, at a later period, procured for 
another person a reward of 5,OOOZ. from the 
admiralty. The Society of Arts in 1823 pre- 
sented him with a silver medal for his im- 
provements in rigging ships, as they subse- 
quently did for his ' tiller for a disabled 
rudder ' and his ' gun-carriage and jointed 
ramrod for naval use.' In 1830, and again 
in 1837, he took out patents for improvements 
in capstans, and in machinery employed in 
raising, lowering, and moving ponderous 
bodies (WOODCROFT, Alphabetical Index of 
Patentees, 1617-1852, London, 1854). He 
had previously, in 1833, published a work 
entitled ' Fragments from remarks of twenty- 
five years in every quarter of the globe on 
Electricity, Magnetism, Aerolites, and various 
other Phenomena of Nature,' 1833, with por- 
trait and a genealogy of the author. 

[Gent. Mag. for 1847, i. 209; O'Byrne's Naval 
Biographical Diet.] J. B-Y. 

GREENACRE, JAMES (1785-1837), 
murderer, a farmer's son, born in 1785 at 
either North Runcton or West Winch, Nor- 
folk, married, according to his own account, 
in his twenty-first year, and set up as a grocer 
on his own account at Woolwich. Better au- 
thority than his own testimony states that 
about 1804 his stepfather, a Norfolk farmer 
named Towler, bought a grocer's business for 
him in the Westminster Road, and that Green- 
acre behaving badly was turned adrift. In 
1815 Greenacre was a fairly prosperous trades- 
man in the London Road, Southwark. A fluent 
speaker, he became well known as a local poli- 
tician, advocating advanced political and reli- 
gious views. He presided at meetings to sup- 
port the return of Alderman John Humphery 
and Daniel Whittle Harvey, radical candi- 
dates for Southwark, and boasted that he 
was privy to the Cato Street conspiracy, and 
had narrowly escaped arrest. By 1830 he 
had opened a large shop in the Kent Road, 
and was elected parish overseer on Easter 
Tuesday 1832. In May 1833 an extensive 
seizure of sloe leaves was made on his pre- 
mises by the excise, and on being sued for 
the penalty he hid himself for a fortnight, 

and then started for New York, taking his 
son James with him, but leaving -behind a 
third wife, whom he had brutally ill-used. 
She died three weeks afterwards. He main- 
tained himself in America as a carpenter, 
and endeavoured to promote the sale of a 
washing-machine of his own invention, but 
complained of being swindled of nearly all 
his portable property. After his flight his 
creditors in London made him bankrupt. 
According to his own statement he was twice 
imprisoned at New York for libel, and was 
married for a fourth time at Boston. Re- 
turning to London alone (in 1835) he de- 
clared war against his creditors and against 
his third wife's relatives, whom he accused 
of disposing of his property. He aired these 
grievances in printed statements. At 6 Car- 
penter's Buildings, Camberwell, he com- 
menced the manufacture of ' amalgamated 
candy ' for the cure of throat and chest dis- 
orders, from a herb which he professed to 
have discovered in America. About Septem- 
ber 1836, while still in pecuniary difficulties, 
he made the acquaintance of a washerwoman 
named Hannah Brown, who represented her- 
self as the owner of 300/. or 400/. A mar- 
riage between them was arranged for Christ- 
mas day in St. Giles's Church, Camberwell. 
On 24 Dec. he took her to his house at Cam- 
berwell, and there murdered her. He cut up 
the body and deposited the parts in various 
places on the outskirts of London. Before 
I 2 Feb. the murder was discovered, and Green- 
acre, who had prepared to sail for Quebec 
under an assumed name, was arrested with 
a mistress, calling herself Sarah Gale, on 
25 March. An attempt to strangle himself in 
the cell failed. The trial at the Central Crimi- 
nal Court lasted two days (10 and 11 April 
1837), and was followed by the public with 
the keenest interest. Though a sovereign 
apiece was charged for admission to the gal- 
lery, it was crowded to excess. The jury 
brought in a verdict of guilty against both 
Greenacre and Gale, and they were sentenced 
to death. Gale's sentence was commuted to 
transportation for life. Before his execution 
Greenacre endeavoured to enlist public sym- 
pathy by penning a hypocritically apologe- 
tic autobiography. He wrote to the home 
secretary (Lord John Russell) begging to be. 
relieved from his strait-jacket, as it interfered 
with the intentness of his devotions, and, on 
receiving a refusal, composed a blasphemous 
' Essay on the Human Mind.' Noblemen 
and members of parliament visited him in 
prison. He was hanged on 2 May 1837 in 
front of Newgate, the execution being wit- 
nessed by at least twenty thousand persons. 
Sarah Gale died in Australia in 1888. 



[Times ; Morning Chronicle ; Norwich Mer 
cury ; Norfolk Chronicle ; Evans's Cat. of En 
graved Portraits, ii. 177. The account of the 
murder given in Recollections of John Adolphus 
is inaccurate in every particular.] Gr. G-. 

1650), painter, painted in 1626 a well-known 
portrait, of some merit, of Arthur Lake, 
bishop of Bath and Wells, for New College, 
Oxford. The college paid 4/. for the work. 
It was exhibited at the National Portrait 
Exhibition in 1866 (No. 524). In 1625 
Greenbury was employed by the East India 
Company to paint a large picture giving de- 
tails of the cruelties inflicted on the English 
by the Dutch at Amboyna ( Cal. State Papers, 
Dom. Ser., Car. I). 'The picture, which is 
said to have caused the widow of one of the 
victims to swoon, was intended to inflame 
popular passion, and was defaced from mo- 
tives of foreign policy. ' Robert Greenberry, 
picture-drawer/ figures in the lists of recu- 
sants returned by the Westminster justices 
to the crown in 1628 (ib.) Among the pictures 
belonging to Charles I was one of ' Diana 
and Calisto, bigger than life, a copy after 
Grimberry,' sold to Captain Geere for 22/. 
This is more probably a copy by Greenbury, 
as the king also possessed ' Two copies of 
Albert Durer and his father, which are done 
by Mr. Greenbury, by the appointment of 
the Lord Marshall.' Evelyn in his ' Diary ' 
writes on 24 Oct. 1664 : '< Thence to New 
College, and the painting of Magdalen Chapel, 
which is on blue cloth in chiar'oscuro, by 
one Greenborow, being a Coena Domini.' 
This is no longer in its place, and was pro- 
bably removed in 1829. Greenbury also 
painted a picture of William Waynflete, the 
founder of Magdalen College, Oxford, dated 
1638, and one Richard Greenbury in 1632 
contracted to supply the chapel there with 
painted glass. In 1636 Richard Greenbury 
patented a process for painting with oil 
colours upon woollen cloth, kerseys, and 
stuffs for hangings, also on silk for windows 
(WoQ-DC-RQ-ET. Alphabetical Index of Patentees, 
1617-1852, London, 1854). 

[Art Journal, 1885, p. 140: Notes and Queries, 
2nd ser. vi. 431 ; Redgrave's Diet, of Artists; 
authorities quoted in the text ; Cat. of the Na- 
tional Portrait Exhibition, 1866.] L. C. 

GREENE, ANNE (fl. 1650), criminal, 
born in 1628, was a native of Steeple Barton, 
Oxfordshire, who entered the household of Sir 
Thomas Read of Dunstew in the same county 
as a domestic servant. She was seduced by her 
master's grandson and gave birth to a child, 
which, as she alleged, and according to medi- 
cal evidence, was stillborn. She was, how- 

ever, condemned to death for murder, and on 
14 Dec. 1650 was hanged at Oxford. At her 
own request several of her friends pulled at 
her swinging body, and struck severe blows, 
so as to make sure that she was dead, and 
after the usual interval she was cut down 
and given over to the doctors for dissection. 
It was then discovered that Greene was still 
breathing, and with the help of restoratives 
she soon regained her health. She was granted 
a free pardon. The event was regarded as 
the special interference of the hand of God 
on behalf of the innocent, and called forth 
several pamphlets. The most notable of these 
is ' Newesfrom the Dead, or a True and Exact 
Narration of the Miraculous Deliverance of 
Anne Greene . . . written by a Scholler in 
Oxford . . . whereunto are prefixed certain 
Poems casually written upon that subject/ 
Oxford, 1651 ; the poems, which are twenty- 
five in number and in various languages, in- 
clude a set of Latin verses by Christopher 
Wren, then a gentleman-commoner of Wad- 
ham College. 

[Pamphlets referred to ; Wood's Autobiog. in 
Athense, ed. Bliss, i. xviii, xix.] A. V. 


1788), poet and translator, was the eldest son 
of Edward Burnaby (d. 1759), one of the 
chief clerks of the treasury, by his wife Eliza- 
beth Greene (d. 1754), daughter of Thomas 
Greene (d. 1740), a wealthy brewer of St. 
Margaret's, Westminster (will of Thomas 
Greene registered in P. C. C. 225, Browne). 
On the death of his aunt, Miss Frances Greene, 
on 30 Dec. 1740 (Gent. Mag. 1740, p. 50), he 
inherited his grandfather's fortune, 4,000/. a 
year, and his business ; and in the following 
year an act of parliament was passed to enable 
him, then an infant, to assume the surname 
of Greene in addition to that of Burnaby. As 
Edward Greene Burnaby he entered Corpus 
Christ! College, Cambridge, on 22 Sept. 1755, 
as a fellow-commoner under the tuition of 
Mr. Barnardiston (College Register}, but did 
not take a degree. He then became a brewer, 
knowing- nothing of the business, and lived 
in considerable splendour at Westminster, 
and at Northlands, or Norlands, Kensington. 
He contracted an enormous debt, and in 1779 
his property was sold, and he was forced to 
retire to a lodging. His valuable library was 
sold by Christie. Greene died on 12 March 
1788 (Gent. Mag. 1788, pt. i. p. 276). He 
married, on 12 Feb. 1761, Miss Cartwright of 
Kensington (ib. 1761, p. 94), who died before 
lim, leaving three children, Anne, Pitt, and 

f Greene's literary attempts, turgid transla- 
tions from the Greek and Latin poets, and 



feeble imitations of Gray and Shenstone, 
brought him little save ridicule. The fol- 
lowing is probably an incomplete list : 1. 'An 
Imitation of the Tenth Epistle of the First 
Book of Horace,' 4to, London, 1756. (See 
BOSWELL, Life of Johnson, ed. Hill, i. 517.) 
2. ' Cam. An Elegy,' a satire on the appoint- 
ment of the Duke of Newcastle as chancellor of 
the university. ByE. B.G[reene],4to, London, 
1764 (another edition in vol. Ixxxix. of ' The 
British Poets,' 12mo, London, 1822). 3. < The 
Laureat, a Poem inscribed to the Memory 
of Charles Churchill,' by E. B. G[reene], 4to, 
London, 1765. 4. ' An Essay on Pastoral 
Poetry/ prefixed to l The Idylliums of Theo- 
critus, translated from the Greek with notes 
... by Francis Fawkes,' 8vo, London, 1767. 
5. ' The Works of Anacreon and Sappho ; with 
pieces from. Ancient Authors (Bion, Moschus, 
Virgil, Horace), and occasional Essays; . . . 
[E. B. G(reene)]. With the Classic, an in- 
troductory Poem,' 8vo, London, 1768 ; the 
translation of Anacreon was included in the 
' edition polyglotte ' of that poet, 8vo, Paris 
(Lyon), 1835. 6. ' Critical Essays : ' obser- 
vations on Longinus ; the influence of go- 
vernment on the mental faculties ; and essays 
on the fourth, fifth, and sixth book of the 
< J^neid' [by E. B. G(reene)], 8vo, London, 
1770. 7. 'Poetical Essays' [E. B. G(reene)], 
8vo, London, 1772. 8. 'Hero and Leander, a 
Poem from the Greek of Musseus ' [by E. B. 
G(reene)],4to, London, 1773. 9. 'OdePinda- 
rica [by Thomas Gray] pro Cambriae vatibus, 
Latino carmine reddita' [by E. B. G(reene)], 
4to, London, 1775. 10. ' The Latin Odes of Mr. 
Gray, in English Verse [translated by E. B. 
G(reene)], with an Ode [signed E. B. G.] on 
the death of a favourite Spaniel,' 4to, Lon- 
don, 1775. 11. ' The Pythian, Nemean, and 
Isthmian Odes of Pindar, translated into Eng- 
lish Verse, with remarks' [by E. B. G(reene)], 
4to, London, 1778 (another edition, with the 
versions of G. West and H. J. Pye, 2 vols. 
12mo, London, 1810 ; also in vol. vi. of 'The 
Works of the Greek and Roman Poets/ 16mo, 
London, 1813). This wretched version af- 
forded no little mirth to the wits of the 
* Gentleman's Magazine' (Gent. Mag. 1782, 
pp. 253, 342). 12. ' Substance of Political 
Debates on his Majesty's Speech on the Ad- 
dress and Amendment, Nov. 25, 1779,' 8vo, 
London, 1779. 13. ' The Satires of Persius 
paraphrastically imitated ' [byE.B. G(reene)], 
8vo, London, 1779. 14.'TheArgonauticExpe- I 
dition/ translated from the Greek with notes, i 
&c. [byE.B. G(reene)], 2 vols. 8vo, London, : 
1780. This was severely criticised by ' D. H.' 
(Richard Gough) in the ' Gentleman's Maga- 
zine ' for August, September, and October 
1782. 15. ' Ode inscribed to Leonard Smelt, 

Esq., 1780,' 4to, London, 1780. 16. < Whis- 
pers for the ear of the Author of Thelyph- 
thora [Martin Madan] . . ./ 8vo, London, 
1781. 17. ' Strictures upon a Pamphlet [by 
Edmund Malone]' upon Chatterton's Rowley 
poems, 8vo, London, 1782. 18. ' Ode to the 
Humane Society/ 4to, London, 1784; printed 
gratuitously by John Nichols for the benefit 
of that institution (NICHOLS, Lit. Anecd. viii. 
148-9). Greene contributed occasionally to 
the ' Gentleman's Magazine ; ' his best piece 
being a ' Pastoral ' contributed to the number 
for June 1757. 

[Nichols's Lit. Anecd. viii. ix. ; Gent. Mag. 
1738 p. 357, 1740 p. 50, 1754 p. 530, 1759 p. 
497, 1788 pt. i. p. 276.] G. G. 

GREENE, GEORGE (fi. 1813), travel- 
ler, was born in 1747 or 1748. In 1787 a 
decree in the court of chancery deprived him 
of the greater part of his fortune. Unable 
to find employment at home, he became at 
Easter 1790, on the recommendation of Lord 
Adam Gordon, land-steward to the Prince 
of Monaco on his estate at Torigny in Lower 
Normandy. From 14 Oct. 1793 till 24 Jan. 
1795 he was imprisoned by the revolutionary 
leaders, with his wife Isabella and his five 
children, in the castle at Torigny. The Duke 
of Valentinois, the son and successor of the 
Prince of Monaco, after being restored to his 
castle and such part of his estates as re- 
mained unsold, appointed Greene his land- 
steward in February 1796. The coup d'etat 
of 4 Sept. 1797 again threw him out of em- 
ployment. In 1798 he went to Paris, and 
tried in vain to obtain passports for Eng- 
land. He returned to Torigny, where he 
was again arrested on 14 July 1798, and im- 
prisoned in the citadel of St. Lo until De- 
cember 1799. In February 1800 he was 
allowed to return to England. . To relieve 
his distress he published by subscription 'A 
Relation of several Circumstances which 
occurred in the Province of Lower Normandy 
during the Revolution, and under the Go- 
vernments of Robespierre and the Directory; 
commencing in 1789 down to 1800. With 
a detail of the Confinement and Sufferings 
of the Author; together with an Account 
of the Manners and Rural Customs of the 
Inhabitants of that part of the Country called 
the Bocage, in Lower Normandy/ 8vo, Lon- 
don, 1802. Greene afterwards resided in 
Russia, and wrote a ' Journal from London 
to St. Petersburg by way of Sweden/ 12mo, 
London, 1813. lie is mentioned as still 
alive in the ' Biographical Dictionary of 
Living Authors/ 1816. 

[Greene's Works ; Biog, Diet, of 
Authors, 1816, p. 136.] G. G. 


6 4 


GREENE, MAURICE (1696 P-1766), 
musical composer, son of Thomas Greene, 
D.D., vicar of St. Olave, Jewry, and St. Mar- 
tin, Ironmonger Lane, and grandson of John 
Green, recorder of London, was born m Lon- 
don. He was educated in music successively 
by Charles King, who was then in the choir of 
St. Paul's, and Richard Brind, the cathedral 
organist [q.v.] To the latter he was articled 
until 1716, when, although not twenty years 
of age, he became organist to St. Dunstan's-m- 
the-West, Fleet Street, through the influence 
of his uncle, Sergeant Greene (BuRNEY, &c.) 
In December 1717 he was elected organist of 
St. Andrew's, Holborn, succeeding Daniel 
Purcell, who was dismissed in February of 
that year, and died in 1718. Both appoint- 
ments were resigned by Green when, on 
the death of Brind in 1718, he became or- 
ganist of St. Paul's, receiving the stipend of 
a lay-vicar in addition to the organist's 
salary, an augmentation procured for him by 
Dean Godolphin. On 4 Sept. 1727 he was 
appointed organist and composer to the 
Chapel Royal, in place of Dr. Croft, who had 
died in the previous month. It is said that 
his friend the Countess of Peterborough, 
formerly Anastasia Robinson, procured him 
this post. Soon afterwards he married Mary 
Dillingham of Hampton, Middlesex, who 
was related to the wife of Charles King and 
to Jeremiah Clark [q. v.] She and her sister 
kept a milliner's shop in Paternoster Row. 
They were probably connected with the family 
of Theophilus Dillingham [q. v.] (CHESTER, 
Westminster Abbey Registers, p. 84). 

Greene succeeded Tudway as professor of 
music at Cambridge in 1730. At the same 
time he accumulated the degrees of bachelor 
and doctor of music. His exercise was a 
setting of Pope's ' Ode on St. Cecilia's Day,' 
performed 6 July. The words were abbre- 
viated, and a new verse was specially writ- 
ten for him by Pope. On the death of John 
Eccles [q.v.] in 1735 he was appointed master 
of the king's band of music. He thus held, be- 
fore he was forty years of age, all the chief 
musical appointments in the country. Greene 
had been an ardent admirer of Handel when 
that master first came to England, and be- 
came intimate with him, it is said, through 
procuring for him, even before he himself 
became organist, facilities for playing on the 
cathedral organ at St. Paul's. But Greene 
was also friendly with Buononcini, and did 
not abandon the intimacy at the time of 
Buononcini's famous quarrel with Handel. 
Handel was accordingly furious with Greene, 
who thereupon openly espoused Buononcini's 
cause. In order apparently to injure Handel 
by fair means or foul, Greene assisted Buo- 

noncini in palming oft' upon the Academy of 
Ancient Music a madrigal, ' In una siepe om- 
brosa,' as his own, which was some time after- 
wards (in 1731) discovered in a printed col- 
lection of works by Lotti (see Letters from the 
Academy of Antient Music to Lotti, printed 
by G. James, 1732). At an earlier date 
(1728) Greene had seceded from the Aca- 
demy. Taking with him the boys from St. 
Paul's, he founded a new, and as it proved 
a very short-lived, concert society at the 
Devil Tavern in Fleet Street. An obvious 
pleasantry on the name of the new concert 
room is attributed to Handel. In 1738 
Greene was engaged in a more generous 
undertaking, the foundation of the Royal 
Society of Musicians [see FESTixa, MICHAEL 
CHRISTIAN]. In 1750 the estate of Bois Hall 
in Essex was bequeathed to him by the natural 
son of his uncle, Sergeant Greene ; it was 
worth 700/. a year, and the composer devoted 
the remainder of his life to collecting and 
editing a large number of services and an- 
thems, and other music, both English and 
foreign. Shortly before his death he con- 
signed the results of his labours to his friend 
and pupil, Dr. Boyce, and they became the 
groundwork of that composer's famous collec- 
tion of cathedral music. 

The registers of St. Olave's, Jewry, show 
that Greene was buried in the ministers* 
vault there on 10 Dec. 1755. When this 
church was demolished in 1888, Greene's 
remains were, at the suggestion of Mr. 
W. H. Cummings, removed to St. Paul's, 
and laid beside those of Dr. Boyce (18 May 
1888). The inscription upon the leaden coffin 
is undoubtedly correct, giving the date of 
death as 1 Dec. 1755. The books of the vicars 
choral are stated to give the date as 3 Dec. 
Greene left one daughter, married to the Rev. 
Michael Testing, rector of Wyke Regis, Dor- 
setshire, and son of his old friend, Michael 
Christian Festing, whose descendants are 
still living. 

Greene's works are: 1. The < Ode ' of 1730, 
already mentioned ; a duet from it is printed 
in Hawkins's 'History.' 2. ' Twelve Volun- 
tarys for the Organ or Harpsichord.' 3. Seve- 
ral voluntaries in a collection f by Dr. Greene, 
Mr. Travers, and several other eminent mas- 
ters.' 4. The * Collection of Lessons for the 
Harpsichord,' published by John Johnson, 
had, according to Hawkins, been issued in an 
incorrect form by Wright, a publisher < who 
printed nothing that he did not steal.' The 
same authority states that the pieces were an 
early work of Greene's. 5. 'The Song of 
Deborah' (paraphrased), 1732; there is no 
doubt that it suggested the subj ect of Handel's 
famous oratorio (see CHRYSANDE, Handel, ii. 



281). 6. 'Catches and Canons for three and 
four voices' (Walsh); the book contains 
several cantatas written for special occasions, 
among them one apparently on the marriage 
(14 March 1734) of the Princess Anne, daugh- 
ter of George II, with William, prince of 
Orange, and another evidently referring to 
the marriage of Frederick, prince of Wales 
(27 April 1736). 7. A TeDeum mentioned 
in the ' Daily Gazetteer,' 18 Feb. 1736. 
8. 'Jephthah,' oratorio, 1737. 9. 'Love's Re- 
venge, or Florimel and Myrtillo,' set to words 
by Greene's friend, John Hoadly (1711-1776) 
[q. v.], in 1737 (?), and performed at the 
Gloucester festival, 1745. 10. Service in C, 
composed 1737 (printed, together with five of 
his anthems, in Arnold's 'Cathedral Music'). 
11. 'The Judgment of Hercules,' a masque, 
1740. 12. A cantata and four English songs, 
in two books, 1742 (one of the songs is the 
beautiful and justly celebrated 'Go, Hose,' 
often reprinted, as in the ' Harmonicon,' 
vol. iv.) 13. Six solo anthems (Walsh); all 
of these, with the exception of ' Sing unto the 
Lord with thanksgiving,' are in 14. ' Forty 
Select Anthems in score' (Walsh), 2 vols., 
dedicated to the king, 1743 ; seven of these 
are printed in Page's ' Harmonia Sacra,' and 
elsewhere, and a few of them, such as ' God 
is our hope and strength,' ' I will sing of Thy 
power,' 'Lord, let me know mine end,' 'O, 
clap your hands,' &c., still keep their place 
in cathedral services. 15. 'The Force of 
Truth,' oratorio, 1744. 16. ' Phoebe,' a pas- 
toral opera, 1748. 17. Addison's ode, ' The 
Spacious Firmament.' 18. ' Spenser's Amo- 
retti,' twenty-five sonnets set to music, and 
dedicated to the composer's patroness, the 
Duchess of Newcastle (Walsh). 19. ' The 
Chaplet,' twelve English songs. Many other 
songs were printed separately in broadsheets, 
&c. 20. Nine anthems, published early in the 
present century, principally from manuscripts. 
In his criticism of this composer's works 
Burney was singularly unfortunate, for so 
far from showing the influence of Handel or 
the Italian opera to any appreciable extent, 
the best of them are thoroughly English in 
character and style, and his ballads, such as 
' Go, Rose,' and ' The Bonny Sailor,' have 
a perfect right to be included in all col- 
lections of national music. In these and in 
his anthems his melodies are always natu- 
ral and flowing, while in the latter especially 
there is no lack of scientific skill or earnest- 
ness of purpose. As an organ-player he was 
distinguished for his prominent use of solo 
stops, at that time an important innovation. 
His fame was not confined to England alone, 
for Mattheson, in his ' Vollkommene Capell- 
meister' (Hamburg, 1739), mentions him 


among the eminent organists of Europe, a 
compliment he pays to no other Englishman. 
A full-length portrait of Greene by Hayman, 
taken with his friend Iloadly, is in the 
possession of J. E. Street, esq. 

[Grove's Diet. i. 624, iv. 654 ; Hawkins's Hist, 
of Music, ed. 1853, pp. 800, 859, 879, 909 ; Bur- 
ney'sHist. iii. 614, &c. ; The Georgian Era; Gent. 
Mag. December 1755 (in which the date of death 
is given as 1 Dec.); Busby's Concert-room Anec- 
dotes ; Miss L. M. Hawkins's Anecdotes, vol. i. 
(of continuation), p. 336 ; Lysons's Annals of the 
Three Choirs; Cheque Book of the Chapel Royal, 
communicated by Mr. W. Barclay Squire ; Add. 
MSS. in Brit. Mus. 17820, 31462, 31821; Brit. 
Mus. Catal.; Chester's Westminster Abbey Regis- 
ters, p. 84; London Marriage Licences; Matthe- 
son's Vollkommene Capellmeister, p. 479 ; Mu- 
sical Times for June 1888, giving a report of the 
proceedings at the re-interment of Greene.] 

J. A. F. M. 

GREENE, RICHARD (1716-1793), an- 
tiquary and collector of curiosities, was born 
at Lichfield in 1716. The Rev. Joseph Greene 
(1712-1790) (Gent. Mag. 1 790, i. 574), head- 
master of Stratford-upon-Avon grammar 
school, was his brother, and Johnson was 
his relation. He lived and died as a surgeon 
and apothecary in Lichfield ; a Scottish uni- 
versity conferred on him, it is said, the de- 
gree of M.D., but though highly gratified he 
never assumed the title of doctor. In 1758 
he was sheriff of the city of Lichfield ; he 
was bailiff in 1785 and in 1790, and was one 
of the city aldermen. Greene was the first 
to establish a printing-press at Lichfield, and 
from about 1748 until his death his zeal in 
collecting objects of interest never flagged. 
He deposited these curiosities in the ancient 
registry office of the bishops of that see, which 
stood nearly opposite the south door of the ca- 
thedral, and has long since been pulled down. 
A view of one side of the room of this mu- 
seum, sent by the Rev. Henry White of Lich- 
field, appeared in the' Gentleman's Magazine ' 
for 1788, pt. ii. 847, and was reproduced in 
Stebbing Shaw's ' History of Staffordshire.' 
The fame of his collections spread far and 
wide, and the building was open gratuitously 
on every day except Sundays. After a life 
entirely spent in the city of his birth he died 
there on 4 June 1793, aged 77. His first wife 
was named Dawson, and by her he had one 
daughter, who married William Wright of 
Lichfield. His second wife was Theodosia 
Webb of Croxall in Derbyshire, who died at 
Lichfield on 1 Aug. 1793 ; she had issue an 
only son, Thomas, a lieutenant and surgeon in 
the Stafford militia. Greene's portrait, with 
the motto, styled by Boswell ' truly characte- 
ristical of his disposition, Nemo sibi vivat,' 




was engraved in his lifetime, and is inserted 
in Shaw's ' Staffordshire/ i. 308. A token 
still exists of him, and is described in i Notes 
and Queries,' 1st ser. i. 167, 1850. On one 
side is represented his bust, with the words 
' Richard Greene, collector of the Lichfield 
Museum, died 4 June 1793, aged 77 ; ' on 
the other appears a Gothic window, lettered 
< west porch of Lichfield Cathedral,' 1800. 

The Thrale family and Dr. Johnson visited 
and admired Greene's museum in July ] 774. 
Two years later Johnson and Boswell viewed 
it together. Boswell admired the ' wonderful 
collection ' with the neat labels, printed at 
Greene's own press, and the board with the 
' names of contributors marked in gold let- 
ters.' Boswell took ' a hasty glance ' at the ad- 
dition in 1779. There was printed at Lichfield 
in 1773 'a descriptive catalogue of the rarities 
in Mr. Greene's museum at Lichfield/ with a 
dedication to Ashton Lever/ from whose noble 
repository some of the most curious of the 
rarities had been drawn.' In the five-paged 
list of benefactors to the collection occur the 
names of Boulton of Soho Works, Birming- 
ham, Doctor Darwin, Charles Darwin, Peter 
Garrick, Dr. Johnson, Pennant, Pegge, Dr. 
Taylor of Ashbourne, and Dr. Withering. A 
'general syllabus of its contents' and a second 
edition of the catalogue were published in 1 782. 
The third edition was issued in 1786. In 1773 
the collection was rich in coins, crucifixes, 
watches, and specimens of natural history ; 
by 1786 it had been augmented by additions 
of minerals, orreries, deeds and manuscripts, 
missals, muskets, and specimens of armour. 
It also contained numerous curiosities from 
the South Sea Islands, which had been given 
by David Samwell, surgeon of the Discovery, 
to Miss Seward, who transferred them to 
Greene, and thus enabled him to obtain a 
medal struck off by the Royal Society in 
honour of Captain Cook. A few years after 
Greene's death the collection was broken up. 
In 1799 his son sold the fossils and minerals 
to Sir John St. Aubyn for 100/. Next year 
Bullock bought for a hundred and fifty 
guineas the arms and armour which were first 
exhibited at his museum in the Egyptian 
Hall, and were afterwards added to the col- 
lections of Sir Samuel Meyrick and in the 
Tower of London. Nearly the whole of the 
remaining curiosities were sold for 600/. to 
Walter Honeywood Yates of Bromsberrow 
Place, near Gloucester, who made many addi- 
tions, and in 1801 printed a catalogue of 
the whole. Most of these afterwards became 
the property of Richard Wright, surgeon 
at Lichfield (who was Greene's grandson, 
being the fifth son of the daughter who mar- 
ried William Wright), and at his death in 

1821 the complete contents of his house were 
again scattered. Greene was a frequent con- 
tributor to the pages of the ' Gentleman's 
Magazine.' A woodcut from his sketch of a 
tombstone found in 1746 among the ruins of 
the friary at Lichfield appeared in its number 
for September 1746, p. 465 ; and so late in 
his life as 1790 he communicated to it a 
notice of a manual of devotion, written on 
vellum, and formerly belonging to Catherine 
Parr, the last wife of Henry VIII. A list of 
many of these articles, and several of his 
letters on antiquarian topics are printed by 
Nichols. Stebbing Shaw was favoured by 
Greene's son with the loan of some valuable 
manuscripts and plates from the museum for 
use in his ' History of Staffordshire/ and he 
embodied in his account of Lichfield a descrip- 
tion of the collection. When Johnson was 
desirous of placing an epitaph for his father, 
mother, and brother on the spot in the middle 
aisle in St. Michael's Church at Lichfield, 
where their bones rested, he sent the lines 
to Greene. Greene contributed some anec- 
dotes of Johnson to 'Johnsoniana' (Bos- 
WELL, 1835, ed. ix. 248). 

[Nichols's Illustrations of Lit. vi. 313-26 ; 
Boswell (Napier's ed.), ii. 280, (Hill's ed.) ii. 
465, iii. 412, iv. 393; Gent. Mag. 1793, pt. i. 
579, pt. ii. 772, 859; Shaw's Staffordshire, i. pp. 
x, 254-6, 308, 330-2, App. ii. 9 ; Harwood's 
Lichfield, pp. 434, 436; Art Journal (by LI. 
Jewitt), 1872, pp. 306-8.] W. P. C. 

GREENE, ROBERT (1560? -1592), 
pamphleteer and dramatist, was born in 
Norwich about 1560 (not 1550 as Dyce sup- 
posed). In his ' Repentance ' he states that 
his parents were respected for their gravity 
and honest life. He was matriculated as a 
sizar of St. John's College, Cambridge, on 
26 Nov. 1575, proceeded B.A. 1578-9, mi- 
grated to Clare Hall, where he took the 
degree of M.A. in 1583, and was incorporated 
at Oxford in July 1588. From his ' Repent- 
ance ' we learn that after proceeding B.A. he 
travelled in Italy and Spain ; and from ' A 
Notable Discouery of Coosnage ' it may be 
gathered that he visited Denmark and Poland. 
He acknowledges that he led a dissolute life 
abroad. * At my return into England/ he 
writes, ' I ruffeled out in my silks in the habit 
of Malecontent, and seemed so discontent 
that no place would please me to abide in, 
nor no vocation cause mee to stay myselfe 
in ' (Repentance). He probably returned in 
1580, for the first part of < Mamillia : A Mir- 
rour or Looking-glasse for the Ladies of Eng- 
lande/ 4to, was entered in the 'Stationers* 
Register' (AKBEK, Transcript, ii. 378) on 
3 Oct. of that year, though the earliest ex- 
tant edition (Bodleian) is dated 1583. The 



first part was dedicated 'To ... his very 
good Lorde and Maister, Lord Darcie of the 
North,' and has commendatory verses by 
Roger Portington. Of the second part, 
licensed 6 Sept. 1583, the earliest edition ! 
known is the 1593 4to, which has a dedica- 
tory epistle dated ' From my Studie in Clare- 
hall 'to Robert Lee and Roger Portington. 
Some of Greene's biographers state, without 
authority, that he entered the church. A 
certain ' Robert Grene,' one of the queen's | 
chaplains, was presented in 1576 to the rec- | 
tory of Walkington in the diocese of York, | 
but at that time Greene was an undergraduate 
at Cambridge. Another person who bore the 
poet's name, but whose identity with the 
poet cannot be established, was presented 
on 19 June 1584 to the vicarage of Tolles- 
bury in Essex, which he resigned in the fol- 
lowing year. It is clear from the dedicatory 
epistle before the second part of ' Mamillia ' j 
that on his return from abroad Greene was ' 
engaged on literary work at Cambridge before ! 
taking his M.A. degree. At one time he con- j 
templated adopting the profession of medi- 
cine, for at the end of his ' Planetomachia ' 
is the signature ' R. Greene, Master of Arts j 
and Student in Phisicke.' 

Towards the end of 1585, or early in 1586, I 
Greene married ' a gentleman's daughter of 
good account ' (Repentance], and seems to | 
have settled for a while at Norwich. When 
she had borne him a child he deserted her, 
after spending her marriage portion. She 
returned to her friends in Lincolnshire, and 
he permanently settled in London. In his 
' Repentance ' he states that he deserted her 
because she tried to persuade him from his 
wilful wickedness. If his own account may 
be accepted, the life that he led in London 
was singularly vicious. His friend Nashe 
allows that l hee had not that regarde to his 
credit in which [which it] had beene requisite 
he should/ but declares ' with any notorious 
crime I never knew him tainted ' (Strange 
Newes). The author of ' Greene's Funeralls/ 
1594, a certain i R. B.,' would have us believe 
that Greene was a pattern of virtue : ' His 
life and manners, though I would, I cannot 
halfe expresse ; ' but it is clear that he was 
guilty of grave irregularities, although his own 
confessions (and Gabriel Harvey's charges) are 
doubtless exaggerated. On one occasion he 
was so moved by a sermon which he heard 
in St. Andrew's Church at Norwich that he 
determined to reform his conduct, but his 
profligate associates laughed him out of his 
good resolutions. It is to be noted that, how- 
ever faulty his conduct may have been, his 
writings were singularly free from grossness. 
He never, in the words of his admirer 'R. B.,' 

gave the looser cause to laugh, 

Ne men of judgment for to be offended. 
His pen was constantly employed in the 
praise of virtue. 

Green's literary activity was remarkable, 
and he rose rapidly in popular favour. ' In a 
night and a day,' says Nashe (ib. 1592), 
'would he have yarkt vp a pamphlet as 
well as in seauen yeare ; and glad was that 
printer that might bee so blest to pay him 
deare for the very dregs of his wit.' The 
style of his first romance, 'Mamillia/ is 
closely modelled on ' Euphues/ and all his 
love-pamphlets bear traces of Lyly's influ- 
ence. His enemy, Gabriel Harvey, termed him 
' The Ape of Euphues ' (Fovre Letters, 1592). 

Early in August 1592 Greene fell ill after 
a dinner, at which Nashe was present, of 
pickled herrings and Rhenish wine. The 
account of his last illness and death given by 
his malignant enemy, Gabriel Harvey (/6.), 
may be exaggerated in some particulars, 
but appears to be substantially true. Har- 
vey called on Greene's hostess, and professes 
to record the information that she supplied. 
If his account be true, Greene was deserted 
by all his friends, Nashe among the number, 
and died in the most abject poverty. He 
lodged with a poor shoemaker and his wife, 
who attended him as best they could, and his 
only visitors were two women, one of them a 
former mistress (sister to the rogue known as 
' Cutting Ball/ who had been hanged at Ty- 
burn), the mother of his base-born son,For- 
tunatus Greene, who died in 1593. Having 
given a bond for ten pounds to his host, he 
wrote on the day before his death these lines 
to the wife whom he had not seen for six 
years : ' Doll, I charge thee by the loue of 
our youth and by my sovles rest that thou 
wilte see this man paide, for if hee and his 
wife had not succoured me I had died in the 
streetes. Robert Greene.' He died 3 Sept. 
1592, and his devoted hostess, obeying a wish 
that he had expressed, crowned his dead body 
with a garland of bays. On the following 
day he was buried in the New Churchyard, 
near Bethlehem Hospital. 

Shortly after Greene's death appeared Ga- 
briel Harvey's ' Fovre Letters and Certain e 
Sonnets : especially touching Robert Greene 
and other parties by him abused/ 1592, 4to ; 
licensed 4 Dec., the preface being dated 
16 Sept. Meres (Palladis Tamia, 1598) aptly 
compares Harvey's odious attack on his dead 
antagonist to Achilles' treatment of Hector's 
corpse. Chettle, in ' Kind-Hartes Dream ' 
(licensed 8 Dec., four days after Harvey's 
tract had been licensed), represents that 
Greene's spirit appeared to him and laid on 
his breast a letter addressed to Nashe. This 





letter urged Nashe to defend Greene's me- 
mory and his own reputation. Nashe, who 
had been assailed in ' Fovre Letters/ stood 
in little need of exhortation. On 12 Jan. 
1592-3 was licensed his < Strange Newes/ 
one of a series of pamphlets directed against 
Gabriel Harvey. He was more active in 
ridiculing Harvey than in defending Greene 

Loue/ 4to. Of the original edition of ' Ar- 
basto/ licensed for publication on 13 Aug. 
1584, two imperfect copies are preserved (one 
at Lamport Hall and the other in the library 
of Mr. C. Davis), which together give the 
entire text ; other editions appeared in 1594, 
1617, 1626. Arbasto is a hermit, once king 
of Denmark, who had been unfortunate in 

He had no wish to be regarded as one of j his love affairs. The story was dedicated to 

'the Ladye Mary Talbot, Wife to the Right 
honorable Gilbert, Lorde Talbot.' ' Morando/ 
a series of dialogues on the subject of love, 
dedicated to the Earl of Arundel, was reissued 
with the addition of a second part in 1587 

Greene's intimate friends. Harvey had called 
him l Greene's inwardest companion.' Nashe 
retorts, ' neither was I Greene's companion 
any more than for a carowse or two.' ' A 
thousand there bee,' he writes, 'that have 
more reason to speake in his behalfe than I, 
who, since I first knew him about town, haue 
beene two yeares together and not seene him.' 
He declares that, so far as his own observa- 
tion went, Greene's conduct was orderly, and 
he denies but his denial weighs little that 
Greene died in the abject condition described 
in the ' Fovre Letters.' Harvey, who had 
never seen Greene, speaks of his ' fond dis- 
guisinge of a master of arte with ruffianly 
haire/ and of his ' vnseemely apparell.' 
Nashe jocularly notices that ' a iolly long 
red peake like the spire of a steeple hee 
cherisht continually without cutting, where- 
at a man might hang a iewell, it was so 
sharpe and pendant.' Chettle gives a pleasant 
description of him : ' Of face amible, of body 
well proportioned, his attire after the habite 
of a scholler-like gentleman, onely his haire 
was somewhat long.' The woodcut portrait 
in John Dickenson's ' Greene in Conceipt,' 
1598, is doubtless fanciful. 

No less than twenty-eight separate publica- 
tions (chiefly romances and prose tracts) ap- 
peared in Greene's lifetime. Ten other books 
issued after his death have been assigned 

4-^. 1,1*., f~\ f~^,,. _~ *-. 1 ! A 1_ T A* 

to him. Of Greene's earliest publication, 
(1) 'Mamillia/ mention has already been 
made. His second publication, (2) * The Myr- 
rovr of Modestie. ... By R. G., Maister of 
Artes,' 1584, 16mo (Brit. Mus.), partly deals 
with the story of Susanna and the elders ; it 
was dedicated to the Countess of Derby. 

(3) ^ Gwydonius, the Garde of Fancie,' 4to, 
dedicated to the Earl of Oxford, was en- 
tered in the ' Stationers' Register ' 11 April 
1584, and published in the same year (Sir F. 
Freeling's sale-catalogue); reprinted, under 
the title of 'Greene's Garde of Fancie,' in 
1587, 1593, and 1608. Commendatory Latin 
hexameters by Richard Portington are pre- 
fixed, and appended is 'The Debate betweene 
Follie and Loue, translated out of French 
[of Louise Labe].' In 1584 also appeared 

(4) ' Arbasto, the Anatomie of Fortune 
Omne tulit punctum qui miscuit vtile dulci,' 
4to, and (5) 'Morando, the Tritameron of 

(Brit. Mus.) Only one of Greene's pamphlets 
is dated 1585, (6) ' Planet omachia : or the 
first parte of the generall opposition of the 
seuen Planets. . . . Conteyning also a briefe 
Apologie of the sacred and misticall Science 
of Astronomic,' 4to (British Museum), love- 
tales and astrological fancies, dedicated to the 
Earl of Leicester. 

On 11 June 1587, his 'Farewell to Follie' 
was entered in the 4 Stationers' Register,' but 
the publication was postponed. Another 
pamphlet, licensed eight days later, (7) ' Pene- 
lope's Web ' (Bodleian), was issued without 
delay in 1587, 4to, dedicated to the Countesses 
of Cumberland and Warwick. Penelope and 
her attendants discourse on love and marriage. 
A second edition appeared in 1601. (8) 'Eu- 
phues, his Censure to Philautus, wherein is 

Sesented a Philosophicall Combat betweene 
ector and Achylles, discovering in four dis- 
courses . . . the Vertues necessary to be inci- 
dent in every Gentleman,' 4to (Brit. Mus.), 
was licensed on 1 8 Sept. 1587, and published in 
the same year, with a dedication to the Earl 
of Essex ; reprinted in 1634. This pamphlet, 
which was intended to serve as a continua- 
tion to Lyly's ' Euphues,' aimed at presenting 

the exquisite portraiture of a perfect mar- 
tialist.' (9) ' Perimedes the Blacke-Smith, 
a golden methode how to use the minde in 
pleasant and profitable exercise. . . . Omne 
tulit punctum qui miscuit vtile dulci/ 1588, 
4to (Bodleian), licensed 29 March, has a 
dedication to Gervase Clifton and a com- 
mendatory French sonnet by J. Eliote. Pre- 
fixed is an interesting ' Address to the Gen- 
tlemen Readers/ which contains a satirical 
notice of Marlowe's ' Tamburlaine.' It may 
be gathered from this address that one of 
Greene's plays had been unsuccessful on the 
stage, and that his blank verse had been pro- 
nounced inferior to Marlowe's. The book is 
a collection of love-stories (largely borrowed 
from Boccaccio), which the Memphian black- 
smith Perimedes and his wife Delia relate to 
one another of an evening after their day's 
work is done. Some delightful poetry is in- 


6 9 


terspersed, and appended are certain 'sonets,' 
published at the instance of the author's 
friend William Bubb. In 1588 also appeared 
Greene's popular romance ( based on a Polish 
tale), (10) 'Pandosto: The Triumph of 
Time,' 4to (Brit. Mus.), with a dedication to 
the Earl of Cumberland; reprinted in 1607, 
1609, 1614, 1629, 1632, 1 636, 1655, 1664, 1675, 
1677, 1684, 1694, 1703, 1723, 1735. The 
running title is ' TheHystorie ot'Dorastus and 
Fawnia,' which is found on the title-page of 
the later editions. It was twice translated 
into French ; first in 1615 (Bodleian), and 
again in 1722 (Bibl. Nationale, Paris). From 
' Pandosto ' Shakespeare drew the plot of his 
'Winter's Tale.' (11) The earliest edition 
known of ' Alcida ; Greene's Metamor- 
phosis . . .,' 4to, is dated 1617, but the pam- 
phlet was licensed on 9 Dec. 1588, and pro- 
bably published in 1589. It is dedicated to 
Sir Charles Blount, knt., and four copies of 
commendatory verse are prefixed two in 
Latin by ' R. A. Oxon.' and ' G. B. Cant.,' and 
two in English by ' Ed. Percy ' and ' Bubb 
Gent.' The stories in * Alcida ' show the evils 
that spring from women's pride and vanity. 
(12)'The Spanish Masquerade. Wherein vnder 
a pleasant deuise is discouered effectuallie in 
certaine breefe Sentences and Mottos the pride 
and insolencie of the Spanish Estate,' 1589, 
4to (Brit. Mus.), reprinted in the same year, 
was licensed on 1 Feb. 1588-9. Written im- 
mediately after the Spanish Armada, it con- 
tains a strong attack on the Roman catholics. 
Prefixed are a dedication to Hugh Ofley , sheriff' 
of the city of London, and commendatory 
French verses by Thomas Lodge. (13) ' Me- 
naphon. Camillas Alarvm to Slumbering 
Euphves in his Melancholic Cell at Silexedra 
. . .,' 1589, 4to (Brit. Mus.), dedicated to Lady 
Hales, is stated by some bibliographers to 
have been first published in 1587, but there 
is no authority for the statement. Later 
editions, under the title of * Greene's Arcadia ; 
or Menaphon,' &c., appeared in 1599, 1605, 
1610, 1616, 1634. Nashe prefixed a lively 
address to the gentlemen students of both 
universities, in which he reviewed the state 
of English literature and glanced at the stage. 
It is possible, but scarcely probable, that some 
passages in the address refer to Shakespeare; 
it is certain that others are directed against 
Marlowe. Greene had been vexed (as we 
gather from the preface to ' Perimedes ' ) at 
the success of rival playwrights. Nashe 
assures him that * Menaphon ' excelled the 
achievements of men who, unable to pro- 
duce a romance, 'think to outbrave better 
pens with the swelling bumbast of a bragging 
blank verse,' and ' repose eternity in the 
mouth of a player.' In the same spirit writes 

Thomas Barnibe, who signs his compliment ary 
verses with the anagram ' Brabine' : 
Come forth, you wits, that vaunt the pomp of 

And strive to thunder from a stageman's throat ; 
View Menaphon, a note beyond your reach, 

Whose sight will make your drumming descant 


' Menaphon ' contains some of Greene's best 
poems, notably the beautiful cradle-song, 

1 Weep not, my wanton, smile upon my 
knee.' Simpson's attempt (School of Shak- 
spere, ii. 355-6, 370-2) to identify Shake- 
speare with Doron, one of the characters in 
' Menaphon,' lacks all semblance of proba- 
bility. (14) ' Ciceronis Amor. Tullies Loue : 
Wherein is discoursed the prime of Ciceroes 
youth . . .,' 1589, 4to (Huth), was dedicated 
to Lord Strange, and has commendatory 
verses in Latin by Thomas Watson and ' G. B. 
Cantabrigiensis,' in English by Thomas Bur- 
naby (or Barnibe) and Edward Rainsford. 
This love-story proved very popular and was 
reprinted in 1592, 1597, 1601, 1609, 1611, 
1615, 1616, 1629, and 1639. (15) ' Greenes 
Orpharion. Wherein is discouered a musi- 
call concorde of pleasant Histories. . . . 
Omne tulit punctum qui miscuit vtile dulci,' 
4to, dedicated to Robert Carey, was licensed 
9 Feb. 1589-90, but the earliest edition known 
is dated 1599. In the preface to ' Perimedes,' 
1588, Greene promised to publish ' Orpha- 
rion' during the next term; but the pub- 
lishers kept the book (see preface to l Orpha- 

, rion') for a whole year. The first edition 
I must have appeared in 1589-90, shortly after 
j the date of its entry in the ' Stationers' Re- 
1 gister.' Greene imagines himself in ' Orpha- 
rion ' to be transported in a dream from Mount 
I Erycinus [Eryx] to Olympus, where he feasts 
1 among the gods and goddesses. Orpheus and 
Arion are summoned from the shades to en- 
i tertain the company. (16) 'The Royal Ex- 
1 change. Contayning sundry Aphorismes of 
' Phylosophie. . . . Fyrst written in Italian and 
| dedicated to the Signorie of Venice, nowe 
translated and offered to the Cittie of London,' 
1590, 4to (Chetham Library), a collection of 
maxims, is dedicated to the lord mayor, Sir 
John Hart, kt., and to the sheriffs, Richard 
| Gurney and Stephen Soame. (17) * Greenes 
i Mourning Garment : given him by Remem- 
brance at the Funerals of Love ; which he 
presents for a favour to all Young Gentlemen 
that wish to weane themselves from wanton 
desires. . . . Sero sed serio,' 4to, was licensed 

2 Nov. 1590 and published in the same year; 
but the edition of 1616 is the earliest that 
has been discovered. A dedication to the 
Earl of Cumberland and an address to the 
' Gentlemen Schollers of both Vniversities ' 


are prefixed. The story, remotely autobio 
graphical, relates the adventures of a young 
man, Philador, who, beguiled by rapacious 
courtesans, endures much misery, but finally 
returns a penitent to his father's house. At 
the end is an apologetical discourse in which 
Greene announces that he will write no more 
love-pamphlets, and that he intends to apply 
himself henceforward to serious studies. He 
wishes his ' Mourning Garment ' to be re- 
garded as ' the first fruites of my new labours 
and the last farewell to my fond desires. 
( 18 ) ' Greenes Neuer too Late. Or, a Powder oi 
Experience : sent to all Youthful Gentlemen 
. . . Omne tulit punctum,' with the con- 
tinuation ' Francescos Fortunes : Or the se- 
cond part of Greenes Neuer too Late. . . 
Sero sed serio,' was published in 1590, 4to 
Francesco tells in the first part how he de- 
serted his wife Isabella for a courtesan, In- 
fida, who robbed him of his last penny and 
then thrust him out of doors, whereupon he 
fell among a company of actors and was en- 
couraged by them to write plays, an employ- 
ment which he found lucrative and congenial. 
When Infida heard of his success she tried 
to win him back to her side ; but he rejected 
her advances. The second part shows his 
return to the faithful Isabella, whose virtue 
had been put to severe trial in his absence. 
Passages in the first part of Francesco's 
career clearly relate Greene's own expe- 
riences ; but the second part is fiction. The 
tract was reprinted in 1600, 1607, 1616, 
1631, and n. d. Each part has a separate 
dedication to Thomas Burnaby ; Ralph Sid- 
ley and Richard Hake prefixed commenda- 
tory verses to the first part, and before the 
second part are more verses by Hake and an 
anonymous sonnet. (19) ' Greenes farewell to 
Folly : sent to Covrtiers and Schollers as a 
president to warne them from the vaine de- 
lights that drawes youth on to repentance. 
Sero sed serio,' 1591, 4to (Bodleian), was 
licensed 11 June 1587, but was probably al- 
tered later. It consists of a series of discus- 
sions on pride, love, &c., supposed to take 
place in a villa near Florence. Greene de- 
clares in the dedicatory epistle, addressed to 
Robert Carey, that this pamphlet is ' the last 
I meane euer to publish of such superficiall 
labours.' The prefatory address to the stu- 
dents of both universities has an attack on 
the anonymous author of the poor play ' Fair 
Emm.' Another edition appeared in 1617. 
Sir Christopher Hatton died 20 Sept. 1591, 
and Greene paid a tribute to his memory in 
an elegy entitled (20) < A Maiden's Dreame. 
Vpon the death of the right Honorable Sir 
Christopher Hatton, Knight, late Lord Chan- 
celor of England,' 1591, 4to (Lambeth Palace), 

> Greene 

dedicated to the wife of Sir William Hatton, 
the late chancellor's nephew. 

Then followed a batch of pamphlets writ- 
ten to expose the practices of the swindlers 
who infested the metropolis. (21) ' A Notable 
Discouery of Coosnage. Now daily prac- 
tised by sundry lewd persons called Connie- 
catchers and Crosse-biters. . . . Nascimur 
pro patria,' 1591, 4to (Brit. Mus.), reprinted 
in 1592, was licensed 13 Dec. 1591. It shows 
the various tricks by which card-sharpers 
and panders cozen unwary countrymen, and 
touches on the dishonesty of coal-dealers 
who give light weight to poor customers. 
In the preface Greene states that the ' conny- 
catchers ' had threatened to cut off" his hand 
if he persisted in his purpose of exposing their 
villainies. (22) ' The Second part of Conny- 
catching. Contayningthe discouery of certaine 
wondrous Coosenages, either superficiallie 
past ouer, or vtterlie vntoucht in the first. 
. . . Mallem non esse quam non prodesse 
patrie [sic],' 1591, 4to (Huth), reprinted in 
1592, treats of horse-stealing, swindling at 
bowls, picking of locks, &c. (23) ' The Thirde 
and last Part of Conny-catching. With the 
new devised knauish Art of Foole-taking,' 
1592, 4to (Brit. Mus.), was entered in the 
1 Stationers' Register ' 7 Feb. 1591-2. Greene 
states that he had intended to write only two 
parts, but that, having learned new particu- 
lars about ' conny-catchers ' from a justice of 
the peace, he published the additional infor- 
mation. (24) 'ADispvtationBetweeneaHee 
Conny-catcher and a Shee Conny-catcher, 
whether a Theefe or a Whoore is most hurt- 
full in Cousonage to the Common-wealth. . . . 
Nascimur pro patria,' 1592, 4to (Huth), an 
entertaining medley, was reprinted with al- 
terations in 1617 under the title ' Theeves 
falling out, True Men come by their Goods/ 
4to. He states in the ' Dispvtation ' that a 
band of ' conny-catchers ' made an attempt 
on his life. (25) < The Black Bookes Messenger. 
Laying open the Life and Death of Ned 
Browne, one of the most notable Cutpurses, 
Crosbiters, and Conny-catchers, that euer 
liued in England. . . . Nascimur pro patria/ 
1592, 4to (Bodleian), was intended as an in- 
troduction to a 'Blacke Booke ' which Greene 
bad in preparation, but which was never 
issued. When he had written this intro- 
duction he fell ill ; but he looked forward to 
publishing the larger work after his recovery. 
He also promised to issue a tract called ' The 
Oonny-catcher's Repentance,' which did not 
appear. Earlier in 1592 was issued (26) < The 
Defence of Connycatching. Or, a Confvta- 
^ion of those two injurious Pamphlets pub- 
ished by R. G. against the practitioners of 
many Nimble-witted and mysticall Sciences. 



By Cuthbert Cony-catcher,' 159:2, 4to (Brit. 
Mus.) The writer contends that since there 
is knavery in all trades Greene might have 
let the poor ' conny-catchers ' alone and flown 
at higher game. Greene is himself charged 
with cheating : ' Aske the Queen's Players if 
you sold them not Orlando Furioso for twenty 
nobles, and when they were in the country 
sold the same play to the Lord Admirals men 
for as much more. Was not this plaine 
Conny-catching, R. G. ? ' Nevertheless it is 
not improbable that Greene wrote this ' De- 
fence,' or at least was privy to the publica- 
tion. He would certainly have had no ob- 
jection to let it be known that he had gulled 
the players. The whole series of ' conny- 
catching ' pamphlets (some of which are 
adorned with curious woodcuts) is full of 
interest. Greene had brushed against dis- 
reputable characters, but much of his infor- 
mation could have been got from Harman's 

* Caveat ' and other sources. Nor need we 
accept the view that his sole object in pub- 
lishing these books was to benefit society 
and atone for his unprincipled life. As a 
matter of fact, some of the pamphlets are by 
no means edifying ; they amused the public, 
and that was enough. Samuel Rowlands 
and Dekker went over the ground again a 
few years later. ' Questions concerning Conie- 
hood and the nature of the Conie,' n. d., 4to, 
1 Mihil Mumchance,' n. d., 4to, and other 
anonymous ' conny-catching ' tracts have been 
uncritically assigned to Greene. 

(27) i Philomela. The Lady Fitzwaters 
Nightingale. . . . Sero sed serio. II vostro 
Malignare non Giova Nulla/ 1592, 4to (Bod- 
leian), licensed 1 July, an Italian story of 
jealousy, was dedicated to Lady Fitzwater; 
and Greene states that, in christening it in 
her ladyship's name, he followed the example 
of Abraham Fraunce [q.v.], 'who titled the 
lamentations of Aminta vnder the name of 
the Countesse of Pembrookes luie Church.' 
' Philomela ' was written (he tells us) before 
he had made his vow not to print any more 

* wanton pamphlets.' He wished the ro- 
mance to be published anonymously, but 
yielded to the publisher's earnest entreaty. 
Later editions were published in 1615, 1631, 
and n. d. (28) 'A Qvip for an Vpstart 
Courtier : or, a quaint dispute between Vel- 
uet-breeches and Cloth-breeches. Wherein 
is plainely set downe the disorders in all 
Estates and Trades/ 4to, licensed 20 July 
1592, appears to have passed through three 
editions in that year. In its original form 
the tract contained a satirical notice of Ga- 
briel Harvey and his brothers ; but none of 
the extant copies has the libellous passage, 
though a certain ropemaker (Harvey's father 

was a ropemaker) is introduced. Richard 
Harvey, Gabriel's younger brother, in a 
' Theological Discourse of the Lamb of God/ 
had spoken disrespectfully of ' piperly make- 
plaies and make-bates.' Thereupon Greene 
' being chief agent of the companie (for hee 
writ more than four other) tooke occasion to 
canuaze him a little in his Cloth-breeches 
and Veluet-breeches ; and because by some 
probable collections hee gest the elder bro- 
thers hand was in it he coupled them both 
in one yoake, and to fulfill the proverbe Tria 
sunt omnia, thrust in the third brother who 
made a perfect parriall [pair royal] of pam 
phleters. About some seauen or eight lines 
it was ' (NASHE, Strange Newes, 1592). Ga- 
briel Harvey declares (Fovre Letters) that 
Greene cancelled the obnoxious passage from 
fear of legal proceedings. According to Nashe, 
who ridicules Harvey's statement, a certain 
doctor of physic (consulted by Greene in his 
sickness) read the book and laughed over 
the ' three brothers legend,' but begged Greene 
to omit the passage altogether, or tone it 
down, for one of the brothers ' was proceeded 
in the same facultie of phisicke hee profest, 
and willinglie hee would have none of that 
excellent calling ill spoken off.' Greene can- 
celled or altered the passage ; but some copies 
containing the offensive matter appear to have 
got abroad. The pamphlet contrasts the pride 
and uncharitableness of present times with 
the simplicity and hospitality of the past, 
denouncing upstart gentlemen who maintain 
themselves in luxury by depressing their poor 
tenants. It was dedicated to Thomas Bar- 
naby, who is praised as a father of the poor 
and supporter of ancient hospitality. Greene 
was very largely indebted to a poem by F. T. 
(not Francis Thynne) entitled ' The Debate 
between Pride and Lowliness.' The ( Quip ' 
was reprinted in 1606, 1615, 1620, 1625, and 
1635. A Dutch translation was published 
at the Hague in 1601, and later editions ap- 
peared ; the pamphlet was also translated into 
French. This was the latest work issued in 
Greene's lifetime. 

The first of his posthumous tracts : 
(29 )' Greens Groatsworth of Wit, bought with 
a Million of Repentance. . . . Written before 
his death, and published at his dying request. 
Faelicem fuisse infaustum,' 4to, was licensed 
20 Sept. 1592 ; but the earliest extant edition 
is dated 1596 (Huth). It was reprinted in 
1600,1616, 1617, 1620, 1621, 1629, 1637, n.d. 
Henry Chettle, who edited this tract from 
Greene's original manuscript, tells us in the 
preface to ' Kind Harts Dreame ' (licensed 
December 1592) that he toned down a pas- 
sage (unquestionably relating to Marlowe) 
in the notorious letter ' To those gentlemen 



his quondam acquaintance/ but that he added 
nothing of his own. * I protest,' he writes, 
1 it was all Greenes, not mine, nor Maister 
Nashes, as some uniustly haue affirmed.' In 
the ' Private Epistle to the Printer,' prefixed 
to ' Pierce Pennilesse ' (issued at the close of 
1592), Nashe indignantly repudiates all con- 
nection with the 'Groatsworth of Wit.' 
There is, indeed, not the slightest ground for 
suspecting the authenticity of the tract. It 
narrates the adventures of a young man, 
Roberto, who, deserting his wife, makes 
the acquaintance of some strolling players, 
becomes * famoused for an arch-playmaking 
poet,' continually shifts his lodging, and bilks 
his hostesses ; consorts with the most aban- 
doned characters, and ruins his health by 
sensual indulgence. Towards the end of the 
tract Greene interrupts Roberto's moralising : 
' Heere, gentlemen, breake I off Roberto's 
speech, whose life in most part agreeing with 
mine, found the selfe punishment as I haue 
done.' Greene is not to be identified with 
Roberto in every detail. For instance, Ro- 
berto is represented as the son of an ' old 
usurer called Gorinius,' who is described in 
the most unflattering terms; whereas Greene's 
father is praised in * The Repentance ' for his 
honest life. Having narrated the story of 
Roberto, Greene takes his farewell of the 
* deceiving world ' in an impressive copy of 
verses, and adds a string of maxims. He then 
delivers an address ' to those gentlemen his 
quondam acquaintance that spend their wits 
in making plaies,' in which, after uttering a 
solemn warning to Marlowe, ' Young Juue- 
nall ' (probably Nashe, not Lodge), and Peele, 
he assailed with invective the ' vpstart crow,' 
Shakespeare. The pamphlet closes with a 
pathetic ' letter written to his wife, found 
with this booke after his death.' A second 
posthumous pamphlet, (30) 'The Repentance 
of Robert Greene, Maister of Artes. Where- 
in by himselfe is laid open his loose life with 
the manner of his death,' 4to (Bodleian), 
licensed 6 Oct. 1592, and published in the 
same year, gives a brief account, seemingly 
drawn from his own papers, of Greene's dis- 
solute courses. But it was probably l edited,' 
and the passage in which he thanks God for 
having put it into his head to write the 
pamphlets on f conny-catching ' has a sus- 
picious look, as though it were introduced 
in order to advertise those pamphlets. Ap- 
pended is an account of Greene's last sick- 
ness, with a copy, somewhat differing from 
the version printed by Gabriel Harvey, of the 
last letter to his wife ; also a prayer that he 
composed shortly before his death. Another 
posthumous work is (31) ' Greenes Vision. 
Written at the instant of his death. Con- 

teyning a penitent passion for the folly of his 
Pen. Sero sed serio '(1592?), 4to (Brit. Mus.) 
The publisher, Thomas Newman, in the dedi- 
catory epistle to Nicholas Sanders, declares- 
that every word of this tract is Greene's own. 
We have Chettle's authority for the fact that 
Greene left at his death many papers, which, 
fell into the hands of booksellers. The 
' Vision ' may have been put together from 
some of these papers ; but it certainly was 
not written in his last illness. It begins by 
declaring that ' The Cobler of Canterbury * 
(an anonymous tract published in 1590) had 
been wrongly attributed to Greene, much to 
his annoyance ; yet this * Vision ' is to some 
extent modelled on ' The Cobler.' Chaucer 
and Gower are supposed to appear to Greene- 
in a dream, and to hold a discussion about 
his writings, Chaucer commending and moral 
Gower condemning them. In the end Solo- 
mon presents himself and counsels the study 
of divinity. 

Greene's dramatic work is not so interest- 
ing as his pamphlets. Only five undoubted 
plays (all posthumously published) have- 
come down, and their chronological order 
cannot be accurately fixed. (32) ' The His- 
toric of Orlando Furioso. As it was plaid 
before the Queenes Maiestie,' 1594, 4to (2nd 
edit. 1599 ; both editions are in Brit. Mus.), 
founded on an episode in the twenty- third book 
of Ariosto's poem, is mentioned in Henslowe's 
'Diary' as having been acted 21 Feb. 1591-2 
by Lord Strange's men ; but the date of its- 
original production is unknown. It is a poor 
play, with a very corrupt text. In Dulwich. 
College is preserved a transcript made for Ed- 
ward Alleyn of a portion of Orlando's part ; 
it differs considerably from the printed text. 
(33) ' A Looking Glass for London and Eng- 
land. Made by Thomas Lodge, gentleman, 
and Robert Greene. In Artibus Magister," 
1 594, 4to (Brit. Mus.), reprinted in 1598, 1602, 
and 1617, is mentioned in Henslowe's Diary 
under date March 1591-2. This is a didactic 
play on the subject of Jonah and the Nine- 
vites, with comical matter intermixed. Mr. 
F. Locker-Lampson has an undated edition 
containing some early manuscript annota- 
tions. When Lodge left England with Ca- 
vendish (in August 1591) he handed the 
manuscript of his ' Euphues Shadow' to 
Greene, who issued it in 1592 with a dedi- 
catory epistle to Lord Fitzwater, and an ad- 
dress to the gentlemen readers. (34) ' The 
Honorable Historic of frier Bacon and frier 
Bongay. As it was plaid by her Maiesties 
seruants/ 1594, 4to (Devonshire House), re- 
printed in 1599, 1630, 1655, was founded 
on the prose tract (of which no early edition 
is known), 'The Famous History of Friar 




Bacon.' Greene may have chosen this 
subject from the popularity of Marlowe's 
' Faustus.' Lord Strange's men gave a per- 
formance of ' Friar Bacon ' 19 Feb. 1591-2 
(HENSLOWE, Diary, ed. Collier, p. 20) ; but 
we do not know when the play was first pro- 
duced. Middletoii wrote a prologue and epi- 
logue on the occasion of its revival at court 
in December 1002. There is less rant and 
pedantry (though there is too much of both) in 
' Friar Bacon ' than we usually find in Greene's 
plays, and the love-story is not without tender- 
ness. (35) ' The Scottish Historic of James the 
fourth, slaine at Floddon. Entermixed with 
a pleasant Comedie, presented by Oboram, 
King of Fayeries,' 1598, 4to (Brit. Mus.) ; 
licensed for publication 14 May 1594, and 
probably published in that year, is not 
founded on a Scotch chronicle, but on the 
first story of the third decade of Cinthio's 
collection of tales (P. A. Daniel, Athenceum, 
8 Oct. 1881). Greene's ' Oberon' bears little 
resemblance to his namesake in the romance 
of t Huon of Burdeux,' and certainly gave no 
hints to Shakespeare for 'A Midsummer 
Night's Dream.' (36) ' The Comicall Historic 
of Alphonsus, King of Aragon. As it hath 
bene sundrie times Acted,' 1599, 4to (Devon- 
shire House), a dreary imitation of ' Tambur- 
laine,' is the crudest of Greene's plays. From 
Venus's last speech we learn that there was to 
be a second part. (37) 'A pleasant conceyted 
Comedie of George a Greene, the Pinner of 
Wakefield. As it was sundry times acted by 
the Seruants of the right Honourable the Earle 
of Sussex,' 1599, 4to, licensed for publication 
1 April 1595, has been ascribed to Greene on 
the authority of a manuscript note on the title- 
page of a copy belonging to the Duke of Devon- 
shire: 'Writt by ... a minister who ac[ted] 
the piners p* in it himself. Teste W. Shake- 
spea[re]. Ed. luby saith that y s play was 
made by Ro. Gree[ne].' Assuming that these 
memoranda are genuine, we need not accept 
Dyce's view that they prove Greene to have 
been a minister. The second note seems to 
contradict rather than to confirm the first. 
Shakespeare supposed that the play was 
written by a minister ; on the other hand, 
Edward Juby,the actor, declared that Greene 
was the author. The old ' History of George- 
a-Green' (of which only late editions are 
known) supplied the playwright with his 
materials. Some skill is shown in the drawing 
of the character of the Pinner; and the homely 
pictures of English country life are infinitely 
superior to Greene's ambitious tragic scenes. 
(38) An anonymous play, ' The First Part of 
the Tragicall Raigne of Selimus. ... As it 
was playd by the Queenes Maiesties Players,' 
1594, 4to, has been plausibly assigned to 

Greene. Robert Allott, in * England's Par- 
nassus/ 1600, gives two extracts from it, 
ascribing both to Greene. Langbaine and 
others claim it for Thomas Gofi'e [q. v.], who 
was about two years old when the first edition 
was published. It is highly probable that 
Greene had some share in the authorship of 
the original * Henry VI ' plays. 

Greene's fame rests chiefly on the poetry 
that is scattered through his romances. The 
romances themselves are frequently insipid ; 
but in some of his numerous songs and 
eclogues he attained perfection. His plays 
are interesting to students of dramatic his- 
tory, but have slender literary value. 

A lost ballad, ' Youthe seinge all his wais 
so troublesome, abandoning virtue and lean- 
yng to vyce, Recalleth his former follies, with 
an inward Repentaunce,' was entered in the 
Stationers' Books 20 March 1580-1, as ' by 
Greene.' He may also be the ' R. G/ whose 
1 Exhortation and fruitful Admonition to 
Vertuous Parentes, and Modest Matrones/ 
1584, 8vo, is mentioned in Andrew Maun- 
sell's ' Catalogue of English printed Bookes/ 
1595. ' A Paire of Turtle Doves ; or, the 
Tragicall History of Bellora and Fidelio/ 
1606, 4to, has been attributed to Greene on 
internal evidence, and Steevens was under 
the impression that he had seen an edition of 
this romance in which Greene's name was 
' either printed in the title ' or ' at least 
written on it in an ancient hand ' (Biblioth. 
Heber. pt. iv. p. 130). Samuel Rowlands in 
his preface to l 'Tis Merrie when Gossips 
Meete,' 1602, testifies to Greene's popularity, 
but Ben Jonson in ' Every Man out of his 
Humour,' 1600, ii. 1, hints that he w^as a 
writer from whom one could steal without 
fear of detection. 

Alexander Dyce collected Greene's plays 
and poems in 1831, 2 vols. 8vo, with an ac- 
count of the author and a list of his works. 
A revised edition of * The Dramatic and 
Poetical Works of Robert Greene and George 
Peele' was issued in 1858, 1 vol. Dr. Gro- 
sart edited * The Complete Works of Robert 
Greene,' 15 vols., 8vo, 1881-6, in the < Huth 
Library ' series. Vol. i. contains a transla- 
tion by Mr.Brayley Hodgetts (from the Rus- 
sian) of Professor Nicholas Storojenko's able 
sketch of Greene's life and works. 

[Memoirs by Dyce and Storojenko ; Simpson's 
School of Shakspere, ii. 339, &c. ; F. G. Fleay's 
Chronicle History of the Life and Work of Wil- 
liam Shakespeare ; Cooper's Athenae .Cantabr. ; 
Works of Thomas Nashe ; Works of Gabriel 
Harvey; 31. Jusserand's English Novel in the 
Time of Shakespeare (Engl. transl.), 1890; 
British Museum and Bodleian Catalogues ; 
Bibliotheca Heberiana, pt. iv. ; Bibliotheca 




Steevensiana; Sale Catalogue of Sir Francis 
Freeling's Library (1836) ; Hazlitt's Bibliogra- 
phical Collections ; Cat. of the Huth Library ; 
Collier's Bibl. Cat. ; Arber's Transcript of Stat. 
Reg.] A. H. B. 

GREENE, ROBERT (1678 ?-l 730), 
philosopher, the son of Robert Greene, a 
mercer of Tamworth, Staffordshire, by his 
wife Mary Pretty of Fazeley, was born about 
1678. His father, who according to the son 
was a repository of all the Christian virtues, 
died while Greene was a boy, and it was 
through the generosity of his uncle, John 
Pretty, rector of Farley, Hampshire, that he 
was sent to Clare Hall, Cambridge. He 
graduated B.A. 1689, and M.A. 1703. He 
became a fellow and tutor of his college and 
took orders. In 1711 he published ' A De- 
monstration of the Truth and Divinity of the 
Christian Religion,' and in the following year 
' The Principles of Natural Philosophy, in 
which is shown the insufficiency of the present 
systems to give us any just account of that 
science.' The latter work was ridiculed and 
parodied in ' A Taste of Philosophical Fana- 
ticism ... by a gentleman of the University 
of Gratz.' Greene, while taking an active 
part in college and parochial work, was con- 
vinced that the whole field of knowledge was 
his proper province, and devoted many years' 
leisure to the production of his next work, a 
large folio volume of 980 pages, entitled ' The 
Principles of the Philosophy of the Expan- 
sive and Contractive Forces, or an Enquiry 
into the Principles of the Modern Philo- 
sophy, that is, into the several chief Rational 
Sciences which are extant/ 1727. In the pre- 
face Greene, after being at some pains to prove 
himself a whig, declared his intention of pro- 
posing a philosophy, English, Cantabrigian, 
and Clarensian, which he ventured to call the 
* Greenian/ because his name was ' not much 
worse in the letters which belonged to it 
than those of Galileo and Descartes.' The 
book is a monument of ill-digested and mis- 
applied learning. In 1727 Greene served as 
proctor at Cambridge, and in the next year 
he proceeded D.D. He died at Birmingham 
16 Aug. 1730, and was buried at All Saints, 
Cambridge, where he had for three years 
officiated. In his will he named eight execu- 
tors, five being heads of Cambridge colleges, 
and directed that his body should be dissected 
and the skeleton hung up in the library of 
King's College ; monuments to his memory 
were to be placed in the chapels of Clare and 
King's colleges, in St. Mary's Church, and at 
Tamworth, for each of which he supplied a 
long and extravagant description of himself ; 
finally, Clare Hall was to publish his posthu- 
mous works, and on condition of observing 

this and his other directions was to receive his 
estate, failing which it was to go to St. John's, 
Trinity, and Jesus colleges, and on refusal of 
each to Sidney Sussex. None of his wishes 
were complied with, and it was stated by a 
relative of Greene (Gent. Mag. 1783, ii. 657) 
that his effects remained with Sidney Sussex, 
but that college preserves no record of having 
received the benefactions. 

[Cole's Athense Cantabr. MS. ; Luard's G-rad. 
Cantabr. ; Gent. Mag. 1783 ii. 657 (where a copy 
of his will is given), 1791 ii. 725; prefaces to 
Greene's Works.] A. V. 




archbishop of York and chancellor, was of good 
family and a kinsman of Archbishop Walter 
Giffard [q. v.] of York, and of Bishop God- 
frey Giffard [q. v.] of W rcester - Tne state- 
ment that he was born in Cornwall (FULLER, 
Worthies, ed. 1811, i. 212) is probably due 
to a confusion of him with the Grenvilles. 
A more probable conjecture connects him 
with a hamlet which bears his name in Lin- 
colnshire (RAINE, Fasti Eboracenses, p. 361). 
He was educated at Oxford, and in 1269 
Archbishop Giffard ordered his bailiff at 
Churchdown, near Gloucester, 'to pay to 
Roger the miller of Oxford twenty shillings, 
for our kinsman William of Greenfield while 
he is studying there, because it would be 
difficult for us to send the money to him on 
account of the perils of the ways ' (ib. p. 311, 
from ' Reg. Giffard '). Greenfield also studied 
at Paris (RAINE, Papers from Northern Re- 
ffisters,Tp. 193). He became a doctor of civil 
and canon law (TRivix, Annales, p. 404, 
Engl. Hist. Soc.) He was made by Archbishop 
Giffard prebendary of Southwell in 1269, and 
in 1272 exchanged that preferment for a pre- 
bend of Ripon. Before 1287 he was pre- 
bendary of York. He was in 1299 prebendary 
of St. Paul's and dean of Chichester, parson 
of Blockley between 1291 and 1294, rector 
of Stratford-on-Avon in 1294, and also chan- 
cellor of the diocese of Durham (RAINE, p. 
362). His stall at Ripon was for a time se- 
questrated, on account of non-residence, for 
he was mainly busied on affairs of state as a 
clerk and counsellor of Edward I (Fcedera, 
i. 741). In 1290 he was one of a legation of 
three sent to Rome to treat about the grant 
to Edward of the crusading tenth. In 1291 
he was, with Henry of Lacy, earl of Lincoln, 
sent to Tarascon, to be present at the treaty 
made between Charles king of Sicily and 
Alfonso of Aragon (ib. i. 744). Next year he 
was present during the great inquest on the 
Scottish succession at Norham (ib. i. 767). 




His name appears among the clerks in the 
council summoned to parliaments between 
1295 and 1302 (Parl. Writs, i. 644). In 1 296 
he was one of the numerous deputation sent 
to Cambray to treat for a truce with France 
before the two cardinals sent by Boniface VIII 
to mediate (Foedera, i. 834). In 1302 he was 
also one of the royal proctors to treat for a 
peace with the French (ib. i. 940). On 
30 Sept. 1302 Greenfield received the custody 
of the great seal as chancellor at St. Rade- 
gund's, near Dover, and during his absence on 
his French embassy Adam of Osgodby, master 
of the. rolls, acted as his substitute (Foss, 
from Rot. Claus. 30 and 31 Edw. I). 

On 4 Dec. 1304 Greenfield was elected 
archbishop of York, in succession to Thomas 
of Corbridge [q. v.] His election received 
the royal assent on 24 Dec., and on 29 Dec. he 
resigned the chancellorship. On leaving for 
the papal court to receive consecration and 
the pallium, Greenfield was strongly com- 
mended to the pope and cardinals by the king, 
who speaks of his ' wisdom in council, in- 
dustry, literary knowledge, and usefulness to 
the state ' (Fcedera, i. 968) ; but the troubles 
resulting from the death of Benedict X de- 
layed his business, and it was not until 
30 Jan. 1306 that he obtained consecration as 
bishop from Clement V himself at Lyons 
(T. STTJBBS, in RAINE, Historians of the Church 
of York, ii. 413 ; ADAM MURIMUTH, p. 7, Engl. 
Hist. Soc. ; WALTER HEMINGBTJRGH, ii. 233, 
Engl. Hist. Soc.) Bishop Baldock [q. v.] of 
London was consecrated at the same time. 

Greenfield at once returned to England, and 
defiantly bore his cross erect before him as | 
he passed through London (' Ann. London.' j 
in STUBBS, Chronicles of Edward I and Ed- \ 
ward II, i. 144). He was not molested by | 
Archbishop Winchelsey, but he owed this j 
favour to the special intercession of King 
Edward (WiLia^s, Concilia, ii. 284). It was 
not till 31 March that Greenfield received the 
temporalities of his see, and then only by 
purchasing the favour of an influential noble. 
This expense, his payments to the crown, 
and especially his long and expensive resi- 
dence abroad without enjoying his official in- 
come, caused him to be terribly crippled by 
debts for many years. He got the greedy 
papal curia to postpone for a year the pay- 
ment of what he owed to it (IxAiKE, Northern 
Registers, pp. 179-81). But he was forced 
to raise the money from the company of the 
Bellardi of Lucca ; and to free himself from 
the Italian usurers he exacted aids from the 
clergy, and borrowed freely from nearly every 
church dignitary of the north. 

The Scotch wars caused the frequent resi- 
dence of the court at York, and enhanced 

the political importance of the archbishop. 
In July 1307 he acted as regent jointly with 
Walter Langton [q. v.], bishop of Lichfield, 
Edward's favourite minister, who had just 
shown his friendship for Greenfield by the 
large loan of five hundred marks. Edward II 
on his accession obtained from the pope a 
commission authorising Greenfield to crown 
him in the absence of Winchelsey ; but the 
latter, regaining papal favour, caused it to be 
revoked and appointed his own agents (* Ann. 
Paul.' in STUBBS, Chronicles of Edward I and 
Edward II, i. 260). Greenfield was a good 
deal occupied with the Scotch war, enter- 
taining the king after his flight from Bannock- 
burn, and being next year excused from par- 
liament because he was occupied in defending 
the marches from Bruce and his followers. 
In 1314 and 1315 he summoned councils at 
York, in which the great ecclesiastical and 
temporal magnates to the north assembled 
to ' provide for the safety of the kingdom ' 
(RAINE, Northern Registers, pp. 235, 245). 
He in vain employed ecclesiastical censures 
against the rebellious Bishop of Glasgow, and 
supported the Bishop of Whithorn in his 
English exile for fidelity to York and King 
Edward. He also inspired Dominican friars 
to preach against the Scots (ib. p. 238). 

When Clement V attacked the Templars 
he appointed Greenfield a member of the com- 
mission to examine the charges brought 
against the English members of the order 
(1309). He showed some activity but little 
zeal in discharging this unpleasant office, and 
declined to act at all within the southern pro- 
vince. In 1310 and 1311 he held provincial 
councils, in the former collecting evidence, 
and in the latter sentencing those reputed to 
be guilty. But the worst sentence he im- 
posed was penance within a monastery. He 
soon released the Templars from the excom- 
munication which they had incurred, and 
showed his sympathy for them by sending 
them food and other help. Yet in April 
1312 he was present at the council of Vienne, 
where the order was condemned and dis- 
solved. The king had in the previous July 
directed Greenfield to stay at home and go 
to parliament, but in October granted him 
letters of safe-conduct for the journey be- 
yond sea. At Vienne Greenfield 'was treated 
with special distinction by Clement V, and 
was seated nearest to the pope after the car- 
dinals and the Archbishop of Trier. 

The energy and activity of Greenfield as a 
bishop are clearly illustrated by the copious 
extracts from his extant registers quoted by 
Canon Raine. The Scotch wars had made 
his see very disorderly, but he showed great 
zeal in putting down crimes and irregu- 



larities, correcting the misconduct of his own 
household, attacking non-residence, and visit- 
ing the monasteries. In 1311 he visited Dur- 
ham, during the vacancy between the epis- 
copates of Bek and Kellawe. He quarrelled 
with Archbishop Keynolds on the question 
of the southern primate bearing his cross 
erect within the northern province, and in 
1314 he very unwillingly acquiesced in the 
Archbishop of Canterbury exercising this 
mark of power in York city itself (TROKE- 
LOWE, p. 88, Rolls Ser.) In 1306 he promul- 
gated at Ripon a series of constitutions, the 
same, with additions, as those issued in 1289 
by his old friend Gilbert of St. Lifard [see 
GILBERT] bishop of Chichester (WILKINS, 
Concilia, ii. 169-72, 285, prints them in full). 
He also published in 1311 certain statutes re- 
forming the procedure of his consistory courts 
and regulating the functions of the officials 
and proctors practising there (ib. ii. 409-15), 
He urged strongly the canonisation of Grosse- 

Greenfield died at Cawood on 6 Dec. 1315, 
and was buried in the eastern side of the 
north transept of York minster, under a mo- 
nument which, though much defaced and 
injured, is still of considerable grandeur. 
His nephew, William of Greenfield, became 
an adherent of Thomas of Lancaster. 

[Raine'sFasti Eboracenses, pp. 361-97, collects 
practically all that is known about Greenfield, in- 
cluding a great deal from his manuscript Register, 
large extracts from which are given in Raine's 
Papers from the Northern Registers (Rolls Ser.) ; 
Thomas Stubbs'sLife of Greenfield, in Twysden's 
Decem Scriptores c. 1729-30, and now repub- 
lished in Raine's Historians of the Church of York, 
ii. 413-15 (Rolls Ser.) ; Stubbs's Chronicles of 
Edward I and Edward II (Rolls Ser.) ; Murimuth, 
Trivet, and Hemingburgh (Engl. Hist. Soc.) ; 
Parl. Writs; Wilkins's Concilia, vol. ii. ; Rymer's 
Fcedera, vols. i. and ii. Record edit. Foss's Judges 
of England, iii. 96-7, is hardly so full as usual ] 

T. F. T. 

1831), philologist, was born in London on 
1 April 1799. His father, William Green- 
field, a native of Haddington, attended Well 
Street Chapel, London, then under the minis- 
try of Alexander Waugh. He joined a mis- 
sionary voyage in the ship Duff, and was 
accidentally drowned when his son was two 
years old. In the spring of 1802 Greenfield 
was taken by his mother to Jedburgh. In 
the summer of 1810 they returned to Lon- 
don, and Greenfield resided for some time 
with his two maternal uncles, who gave him 
instruction. They were men of business who 
studied languages in order to understand 
learned quotations, and they taught him. 

In October 1812 Greenfield was apprenticed 
to a bookbinder named Eennie. A Jew em- 
ployed in his master's house, and a reader of 
the law in the synagogue, taught him Hebrew 
gratuitously. At sixteen Greenfield began 
to teach in the Fitzroy Sabbath school, of 
which his master was a conductor. At seven- 
teen he became a member of Well Street 
Chapel, and a close friend of the minister, Dr. 
Waugh. In 1824 he left business to devote 
himself to languages and biblical criticism. 
In 1827 he published 'The Comprehensive 
Bible . . . with ... a general introduction 
. . . Notes/ &c. The book, though fiercely 
attacked as heterodox by the l Record ' and a 
Dr. Henderson, became very popular, espe- 
cially among Unitarians. An abridgment was 
afterwards published as ' The Pillar of Divine 
Truth immoveably fixed on the foundation 
of the Apostles and Prophets. . . . The whole 
of the arguments and illustrations drawn 
from the pages of the Comprehensive Bible, 
by . . .'[W. Greenfield], 8vo,London, 1831. 
Greenfield's valuable l Defence of the Seram- 
pore Mahratta Version of the New Testa- 
ment ' (in reply to the ' Asiatic Journal ' for 
September, 1829), 8vo, London, 1830, com- 
mended him to the notice of the British and 
Foreign Bible Society, by whom he was en- 
gaged, about April of that year, as superin- 
tendent of the editorial department. He had 
no previous knowledge of the Mahratta and 
other languages referred to in the pamphlet, 
which, it is said, was written within five 
weeks of his taking up the subject. He fol- 
lowed it up by ' A Defence of the Surinam 
Negro-English Version of the New Testa- 
ment . . .,' 1830 (in reply to the < Edinburgh 
Christian Instructor'). 

While nineteen months in the society's 
service Greenfield wrote upon twelve Euro- 
pean, five Asiatic, one African, and three 
American languages ; and acquired consider- 
able knowledge of Peruvian, Negro-English, 
Chippeway, and Berber. His last under- 
taking for the society was the revision of the 
' Modern Greek Psalter ' as it went through 
the press. He also projected a grammar in 
thirty languages, but in the midst of his la- 
bours he was struck down by brain fever, 
dying at Islington on 5 Nov. 1831 (Gent. 
Mag. 1831, pt. ii. p. 473). He left a widow 
and five children, on whose behalf a subscrip- 
tion was opened (ib. 1832, pt. i. pp. 89-90). 
His portrait by Hay ter was engraved by Holl 
(EDWARD EVA^S, Cat. of Engraved Portraits, 
ii. 177). 

Greenfield's other publications include : 
1. ' The book of Genesis in English-Hebrew 
. . . with notes,' &c., by . . . [W. Green- 
field], 8vo, London, 1828 ; another edition, 




8vo, London, 1831. 2. 'New Testament, 
Greek, 16mo, London, 1829. 3. < The Poly- 
micrian Greek Lexicon to the New Testa- 
ment,' &c., 16mo, London, 1829 (new edition 
as 'A Greek-English Lexicon to the New 
Testament,' revised by T. S. Green, 8vo, Lon- 
don, 1849 ; other editions in 1870 and 1885). 
4. ' Novi Testament! Graeci Ta^etoi/ ... Ex 
opera E. Schmidii . . . depromptum a Gu- 
lielmo Greenfield,' Greek, 16mo, London, 

1830. 5. ' New Testament, Greek and He- 
brew, translated into Hebrew by W. Green- 
field,' 8vo, London, 1831 (with the Hebrew 
translation only, 16mo, London [1831]). The 
Hebrew version was also included in Samuel 
Lee's 'Biblia Sacra Polygotta,' fol. London, 

1831. Greenfield was a member of the Royal 
Asiatic Society. 

[Thomas Wood's Funeral Sermon in vol. iii. of 
the British Preacher.] Gr. Gr. 

GREENHALGH, JOHN (d. 1651), go- 
vernor of the Isle of Man, only son of 
Thomas Greenhalgh of Brandlesome Hall in 
the parish of Bury, Lancashire, by Mary, 
daughter of Robert Holte of Ash worth Hall 
in the same parish, was born before 1597. 
His father dying in 1599 his mother married 
Sir Richard Assheton of Middleton, Lanca- 
shire, by whom Greenhalgh was brought up. 
He was well educated and travelled abroad. 
On the death of his grandfather, John Green- 
halgh, he succeeded to Brandlesome Hall, was 
on the commission of the peace for and de- 
puty-lieutenant of the county of Lancaster, 
and was appointed governor of the Isle of 
Man by the Earl of Derby in 1640 [see STAN- 
1642 he was discharged as a royalist from 
the commission of the peace by order of the 
House of Commons. He fought under the 
Earl of Derby at the head of three hundred 
Manxmen at the battle of Wigan Lane in 
August 1651, greatly distinguished himself 
at Worcester (3 Sept.), when he saved the 
colours from capture by tearing them from 
the standard and wrapping them round his 
person, was severely wounded in a subsequent 
affair with Major Edge, when the Earl of 
Derby was taken prisoner, but made good 
his escape to the Isle of Man, and there died 
of his wound, and was buried at Malow, 
19 Sept. 1651 . His estates were confiscated. 
Greenhalgh married thrice : first, on 30 Jan. 
1608-9, Alice, daughter of the Rev. William 
Massey, rector of Wilmslow. Cheshire ; se- 
condly, Mary, daughter of William Assheton 
of Clegg Hall, Lancashire ; and thirdly, Alice, 
daughter of George Chadderton of Lees, near 
Oldham. He had issue three sons and three 

[Seacome's Hist, of the House of Stanley, 
p. 21o et seq. ; Peck's Desid. Curiosa, 1779, 
p. 434 et seq. ; Comm. Journ. ii. 821, vii. 199 ; 
Gal. State Papers, Dom. 1650, p. 543; Notes 
and Queries, 4th ser. viii. 203 ; Manx Miscel- 
lanies (ManxSoc.).vol. xxx.; Orraerod's Cheshire, 
ed. Helsby, iii. 596.] J. M. R. 

ARD (1535P-1594?), puritan divine, was 
probably born about 1535, and went at an 
unusually late age to Cambridge University, 
where he matriculated as a sizar of Pem- 
broke Hall on 27 May 1559. He graduated 
B.A. early in 1564, and was elected fellow, 
proceeding M. A. in 1567. His puritanism was 
of a moderate type ; he had scruples about 
the vestments, and strong views about such 
abuses as non-residence, but was more con- 
cerned for the substance of religion and the 
co-operation of all religious men within the 
church than for theories of ecclesiastical 
government. His name, ' Richardus Gren- 
ham,' is appended with twenty-one others to 
the letters (3 July and 11 Aug. 1570), pray- 
ing Burghley, the chancellor, to reinstate 
Cartwright in his office as Lady Margaret's 
divinity reader. Neal's statement that at a 
subsequent period he declared his approbation 
of Cartwright's 'book of discipline' (1584) is 
somewhat suspicious, yet Strype says he was 
at one of Cartwright's synods. 

On 24 Nov. 1570 he was instituted to the 
rectory of Dry Dray ton, Cambridgeshire, then 
worth 100/. a year. He used to still preach 
at St. Mary's, Cambridge, where he reproved 
young divines for engaging in ecclesiastical 
controversies, as tantamount to rearing a roof 
before laying a foundation. In his parish he 
preached frequently, choosing the earliest 
hours of the morning, ' so soon as he could 
well see,' in order to gather his rustics to 
sermon before the work of the day. He de- 
voted Sunday evenings and Thursday morn- 
ings to catechizing. He had some divinity 
pupils, including Henry Smith (1560-91), 
known as ' silver-tongu'd Smith.' During a 
period of dearth, when barley was ten groats 
a bushel, he devised a plan for selling corn 
cheap to the poor, no family being allowed 
to buy more than three pecks in a week. He 
cheapened his straw, preached against the 
public order for lessening the capacity of the 
bushel, and got into trouble by refusing to let 
the clerk of the market cut down his mea- 
sure with the rest. By this unworldliness 
his finances were kept so low that his wife 
had to borrow money to pay his harvestmen. 
Richer livings were steadily declined by him. 
Nevertheless he was not appreciated by his 
flock ; his parish remained l poore and peevish ; ' 
his hearers were for the most part ' ignorant 



and obstinate.' ' Hence,' says Fuller, ' the 
verses : 

Greenham had pastures green, 
But sheep full lean.' 

He was cited for nonconformity by Rich- 
ard Cox [q. v.], bishop of Ely, who, know- 
ing" his aversion to schism, asked him whether 
the guilt of it lay with conformists or with 
nonconformists. Greenham answered that, 
if both parties acted in a spirit of concord, 
it would lie with neither ; otherwise with 
those who made the rent. Cox gave him 
no further trouble. His * Apologie or Aun- 
swere' is in ' A Parte of a Register ' (1593), 
p. 86 sq. On the appearance of the Mar-Pre- 
late tracts (1589) he preached against them 
at St. Mary's, on the ground that their ten- 
dency was ' to make sin ridiculous, whereas 
it ought to be made odious.' 

His friends were anxious to get him to 
London ' for the general good.' He resigned 
his living about 1591, having held it some 
twenty or twenty-one years. He told War- 
field, his successor, ' I perceive noe good 
wrought by my ministerie on any but one 
familie.' Clarke says he went to London 
about 1588 or 1589, but this conflicts with 
his other data. He soon tired of a ' plane- 
tary' occupation of London pulpits, repented 
of leaving Drayton, and at last settled as 
preacher at Christ Church, Newgate. 

In 1592 (if Marsden is right) appeared 
his 'Treatise of the Sabboth,' of which Fuller 
says that ' no book in that age made greater 
impression on peoples practice.' The second 
of two sonnets (1599) on Greenham by 
Joseph Hall [q. v.], afterwards bishop of Nor- 
wich, is a graceful tribute, often quoted, to 
the merit as well as to the popularity of 
the work. It was the earliest and wisest of 
the puritan treatises on the observance of the 
Lord's day. It is much more moderate than 
the l Sabbathvm ' (1595) of his step-son Ni- 
cholas Bownde [q. v.], who borrows much 
from Greenham. 

Clarke says Greenham died about 1591, in 
about his sixtieth year. Fuller, whose father 
was ' well acquainted ' with Greenham, says 
his death was unrecorded, because he died 
of the plague which raged in 1592. This ill 
agrees with Clarke's statement that, < being 
quite worn out, he comfortably and quietly' 
died. It is mentioned by Waddington that 
on 2 April 1593 Greenham visited John 
Penry in the Poultry compter. Henry Hol- 
land, who had known him many years, says 
that Greenham 'the day before his departure 
out of this life ' was ' troubled, for that men 
were so vnthankfull for that strange and 
happie deliuerance of our most gracious 
Queene ; ' the margination has ' D. Lopes ; ' 

he must therefore have survived the affair of 
Lopez, February-June 1594. f No sooner,' 
adds Holland, was he 'gone from vs, but 
some respecting gaine, and not regarding 
godlinesse, attempted forthwith to publish 
some fragments of his workes.' The date of 
these pieces (' A most sweete and assured 
Comfort' and 'Two . . . Sermons') is 1595. 
It is therefore probable that his death took 
place in the latter part of 1594. He was of 
short stature and troubled with a bad di- 
gestion. In preaching he perspired so exces- 
sively that he had always to change his linen 
on coming from the pulpit. Throughout the 
year he rose for study at four o'clock. He 
married the widow of Robert Bownde, M.D., 
physician to the Duke of Norfolk, but had no 
issue ; his step-daughter, Anne Bownde, was 
the first wife of John Dod [q. v.] 

Greenham's ' Workes ' were collected and 
edited by H.H., i. e. Henry Holland, in 1599, 
4to ; a second edition appeared in the same 
year; the third edition was 1601, fol., re- 
printed 1605 and 1612 (< fift and last ' edi- 
tion). ' A Garden of Spiritual Flowers,' by 
Greenham, was published 1612, 8vo, and 
several times reprinted, till 1687, 4to. It is 
very doubtful whether Greenham himself 
published anything, or left anything ready 
for the press. Of his l Treatise of the Sabboth/ 
which had ' been in many hands for many 
yeeres,' Holland found 'three verie good 
copies,' and edited the best. It was origin- 
ally a sermon or sermons ; and the remain- 
ing works (excepting a catechism) are made 
up from sermon matter, with some additions 
from Greenham's conversation. They show 
much study of human nature, and are full 
of instances of shrewd judgment. 

[Fullers Church Hist, of Britain, 1655, ix. 
219 ; Clarke's Lives of Thirty-two English Di- 
vines (at the end of a General Martyrologie), 
1677, pp. 12 sq., 169 sq. ; Brook's Lives of the 
Puritans, 1813, i. 415 sq. ; Neal's Hist, of the 
Puritans, 1822, i. 281, 387; Strype's Aylmer, 
1821, p. 100; Whitgift, 1822, p. 6; Annals, 
1824, ii. (2) 415,417, iii. (1) 720, iv. 607; Wad- 
dingtori's John Penry, 1854, p. 123 ; Marsden's 
Hist, of the Early Puritans, 1860, p. 248; 
Cooper's Athenae Cantabr. 1861, ii. 103, 143 sq., 
356, 546 ; Notes and Queries, 6th ser. vii. 366, 
viii. 55.] A. G. 

GREENHILL, JOHN (1644P-1676) 
portrait-painter, born at Salisbury about 
1644, was eldest son of John Greenhill, re- 
gistrar of the diocese of Salisbury, and Pene- 
lope, daughter of Richard Champneys of 
Orchardleigh, Somersetshire. His grand- 
father was Henry Greenhill of Steeple Ash- 
ton, Wiltshire. His father was connected 
through his brothers with the East India 




trade. Greenhill's first essay in painting 
was a portrait of his paternal uncle, James 
Abbott of Salisbury, whom he is said to have 
sketched surreptitiously, as the old man 
would not sit. About 1662 he migrated to 
London, and became a pupil of Sir Peter Lely. 
His progress was rapid, and he acquired some 
of Lely's skill and method. He carefully 
studied Vandyck's portraits, and Vertue nar- 
rates that he copied so closely Vandyck's 
portrait of Killigrew with a dog that it was 
difficult to know which was the original. 
Vertue also says that his progress excited 
Lely's jealousy. Greenhill was at first in- 
dustrious, and married early. But a taste for 
poetry and the drama, and a residence in Co- 
vent "Garden in the vicinity of the theatres, 
led him to associate with many members 
of the free-living theatrical world, and he 
fell into irregular habits. On 19 May 1676, 
while returning from the Vine Tavern in a 
state of intoxication, he fell into the gutter 
in Long Acre, and was carried to his lodgings 
in Lincoln's Inn Fields, where he died the 
same night. He was buried in St, Giles's- 
in-the-Fields. He left a widow and family, 
to whom Lely gave an annuity. Green- 
hill's portraits are of great merit, often ap- 
proaching those of Lely in excellence. Among 
his chief sitters were Bishop Seth Ward, in 
the town hall at Salisbury, painted in 1673 ; 
Anthony Ashley, earl of Shaftesbury, painted 
more than once during his chancellorship in 
1672, engraved by Blooteling ; John Locke, 
who wrote some verses in Greenhill's praise, 
engraved by Pieter van Gunst ; Sir William 
D'Avenant, engraved by Faithorne ; Philip 
Woolrich, engraved in mezzotint by Francis 
Place ; Abraham Cowley, Admiral Spragge, 
and others. At Dulwich there is a portrait of 
Greenhill by himself (engraved in Wornum's 
edition of WalpoleV Anecdotes of Painting'), 
James, duke of York, and those of William 
Cartwright (who bequeathed the collection) 
and of Charles II are attributed to him. In the 
National Portrait Gallery there are portraits 
of Charles II and Shaftesbury. In the print 
room at the British Museum there is a drawing 
of Greenhill by Lely, and a similar drawing 
by himself; also a rare etched portrait of his 
brother, Henry Greenhill [see below], exe- 
cuted in 1667. In the Dyce collection at the 
South Kensington Museum there is a draw- 
ing of George Digby, earl of Bristol, and at 
Peckforton drawings of Sir Robert Worsley 
and the Countess of Gainsborough. Among 
Greenhill's personal admirers was Mrs. Behn 
[q. v. ] .who kept up an amorous correspondence 
with him, and lamented his early death in a 
fulsome panegyric. 

HENRY GREENHILL (1646-1708), younger 

brother of the above, born at Salisbury 21 June 
I 1646, distinguished himself in the merchant 
service in the West Indies, and was rewarded 
i by the admiralty. He was appointed by the 
| Royal African Company governor of the Gold 
Coast. In 1685 he was elected an elder 
brother of the Trinity House, in 1689 com- 
missioner of the transport office, and in 1691 
| one of the principal commissioners of the 
navy. The building of Plymouth dockyard 
was completed under his direction. He re- 
j ceived a mourning ring under Samuel Pepys's 
| will. He died 24 May 1708, and was buried 
I at Stockton, Wiltshire, where there is a 
monument to his memory. 

[Hoare's Hist, of Modern Wiltshire, vi. 629 ; 
Wiltshire Archaeological Mag. xii. 105; Vertue's 
MSS.(Brit.Mus.Addit. MSS. 23068, &c.); Wal- 
I pole's Anecdotes of Painting, ed. Dallaway and 
Worrmm; De Piles's Lives of the Painters; Red- 
grave's Diet, of Artists; information from Gr. 
Scharf, C.B.] L. C. 

GREENHILL, JOSEPH (1704-1788), 
theological writer, was a nephew of Thomas 
Greenhill [q. v.] His father, William (one 
of a family of thirty-nine children by the 
same father and mother), was a counsellor-at- 
law, who lived first in London and then re- 
tired to a family estate at Abbot's Lang- 
ley, Hertfordshire, where Joseph was born 
and baptised in February 1703-4. He was 
educated at Sidney Sussex College, Cam- 
bridge, graduated 13. A. in 1726, and was ad- 
mitted M.A. in 1731. He was appointed 
rector of East Horsley in 1727, and of East 
Clandon in 1732, both livings in the county 
of Surrey, and small both as to population 
and emolument. He lived at East Horsley, 
and died there in March 1788. He wrote 'An 
Essay on the Prophecies of the New Testa- 
ment,' 2nd edition, 1759, and ' A Sermon on 
the Millennium, or Reign of Saints for a 
thousand years,' 4th edition. 1772. These 
two little works he afterwards put together, 
and republished with the title ' An Essay on 
the Prophecies of the New Testament, more 
especially on the Prophecy of the Millennium, 
the most prosperous State of the Church of 
Christ here on Earth for a thousand Years/ 
7th edition, with additions, Canterbury, 1776. 
He was probably the last person who thought 
it his duty to denounce inoculation from the 
pulpit, which had been rather a common habit 
with the clergy since its introduction in 1718. 
He published 'A Sermon on the Presumptuous 
and Sinful Practice of Inoculation/ Canter- 
bury, 1778. 

[Brayley's Hist, of Surrey; Manning and 
Bray's Hist, of Surrey; Cat. of Cambridge 
Graduates ; family papers.] W. A. Gr. 




GREENHILL, THOMAS (1681-1740 ?), 
writer on embalming, son of William Green- 
hill of Greenhill at Harrow, Middlesex, a 
counsellor-at-law and secretary to General 
Monck, was born in 1681, after his father's 
death, probably at Abbot's Langley, Hert- 
fordshire, as his father died there. His 
mother was Elizabeth, daughter of William 
White of London, who had by one husband 
thirty-nine children, all (it is said) born alive 
and baptised, and all single births except one. 
An addition was made to the arms of the 
family in 1698, in commemoration of this 
extraordinary case of fecundity. There are 
portraits of Elizabeth Greenhill at Walling 
Wells, near Worksop, and at Lowesby Hall, 
Leicestershire. Thomas was a surgeon of some 
repute, who lived in London, in King Street, 
Bloomsbury, and died about 1740, leaving a 
family behind him. He was the author of 
two papers in the ' Philosophical Transactions' 
of no great interest or value, July 1700 and 
June 1705. He is known as the author 
of ' Nf KpoKJ/Seuz, or the Art of Embalming ; 
wherein is shewn the right of Burial, the 
funeral ceremonies, especially that of pre- 
serving Bodies after the Egyptian method/ 
pt. i. London, 4to, 1705. From another 
title-page it appears that the work was to 
have consisted of three parts, but only the 
first was published by subscription. It is 
not a book of original learning or research, 
but is a very creditable work for so young 
a man, and its information is still useful. 
The author's portrait by Nutting, after T. 
Murray, is prefixed. 

[Family papers ; Notes and Queries, 5th ser. ix. 
512; Gent. Mag. 1805, pt. i. 405; Noble's con- 
tinuation of Granger's Biog. Hist. i. 235.] 

W. A. G. 

GREENHILL, WILLIAM (1591-1671), 
nonconformist divine, was born of humble 
parents in 1591, probably in Oxfordshire. At 
the age of thirteen he matriculated at Oxford 
on 8 June 1604 (Oxford Univ. Reg., Oxford 
Hist. Soc., II. ii. 273) ; was elected a demy of 
Magdalen College, Oxford, on 8 Jan. 1604-5 ; 
graduated B.A. on 25 Jan. 1608-9, and M.A. 
on 9 July 1612, in which year he resigned his 
demyship. A Thomas Greenhill, supposed 
to be William's brother, matriculated from 
Magdalen College on 10 Nov. 1621, aged 
eighteen, and was a chorister from 1613 to 
1624, graduating B.A. on 6 Feb. 1623-4. He 
died on 17 Sept. 1634. A punning epitaph on 
him, said to be by William, is in Beddington 
Church, near Croydon. There is much un- 
certainty as to William's relationship with 
Nicholas Greenhill (1582-1650), who was 
demy of Magdalen 1598-1606, master of 
Rugby School 1602-5, prebendary of Lincoln 

from 1613, and rector of Whitnash, Warwick- 
shire, from 1609 till his death (J. R. BLOXAM, 
Reg. iv. 243 ; M. II. BLOXAM, Rugby, 1889, 
pp. 24, 30, 31 ; Oxford Univ. Reg., Oxford 
Hist. Soc., II. ii. 230, iii. 238; Blackwood's 
Mag. May 1862, p. 540). 

From 1615 to 1633 William Greenhill held 
the Magdalen College living of New Shore- 
ham, Sussex. Wood writes of him with his 
usual prejudice, and represents him as be- 
coming * a notorious independent,' ' for interest 
and not for conscience ; ' but John Howe and 
others give him a high spiritual character, and 
that estimate of him is borne out by his writ- 
ings. He appears to have officiated in some 
ministerial capacity in the diocese of Norwich 
(then ruled by Matthew Wren, one of the 
severest of the bishops), for he got into trouble 
for refusing to read * The Book of Sports.' 
He afterwards removed to London, and was 
chosen afternoon preacher to the congrega- 
tion at Stepney, while Jeremiah Burroughes 
[q. v.] ministered in the morning, so that they 
were called respectively the ' Morning Star ' 
and the * Evening Star of Stepney.' He was 
a member of the Westminster Assembly of 
Divines, convened in 1643, and was one of 
that small band of independents who gave so 
much trouble to their presbyterian brethren. 
In the same year (26 April) he preached 
before the House of Commons on occasion of 
a public fast, and his sermon was published by 
command of the house, with the title ' The 
Axe at the Root.' In 1644 he was present at 
the formation of the congregational church in 
Stepney, and was appointed first pastor. In 
1645 he published the first volume of his 
1 Exposition of the Prophet Ezekiel,' which 
had been delivered as lectures to an audience 
among whom were many eminent persons. 
The first volume is remarkable for its dedi- 
cation to the Princess Elizabeth, second 
daughter to Charles I, then nine years old. 
He calls her ' the excellent princess and most 
hopeful lady,' and gives a pleasing idea of her 
character in terms which seem to imply some 
special source of information. It has been 
conjectured (and with great probability) that 
this may have been through his friend Henry 
Burton [q. v.], who had for several years been 
intimately acquainted with the royal family. 
Four years later (1649), after the death of 
Charles, he was appointed by the parliament 
chaplain to three of the king's children : James, 
duke of York (afterwards James II) ; Henry, 
duke of Gloucester; and the Lady Henrietta 
Maria. In 1654 he was appointed by the Pro- 
tector one of the 'commissioners for approba- 
tion of public preachers,' known as ' triers.' 
It was also probably by Cromwell that he was 
appointed vicar of St. Dunstan's-in-the-East, 




the old parish church of Stepney, while he 
continued pastor of the independent church. | 
This post he held for about seven years, till 
he was ejected immediately after the Restora- 
tion in 1660, but the pastorate of the inde- 
pendent church he retained till his death on j 
27 Sept. 1671. He was succeeded by Mat- ! 
thew Mead. His chief work is his 'Exposi- j 
tion of the Prophet Ezekiel,' which is a com- j 
mentary full of varied learning (especially | 
scriptural), expounding the literal sense of 
the chapters, with a practical and spiritual i 
application. It was published in five thick 
small 4to volumes between 1645 and 1662. 
The last volume is said to be scarce, and it 
is supposed that many copies were destroyed 
in the fire of London, 1666. The whole was 
reprinted (with some omissions and altera- 
tions), with an advertisement dated 26 Jan. 
1837, and a title-page bearing (in some copies) 
the words ' second edition,' in 1839. Green- 
hill also published (besides editing books by 
several of his friends) two volumes of ser- 
mons, one called ' Sermons of Christ, His Dis- 
covery of Himself,' &c., small 8vo, 1656; the 
other called ' The Sound-hearted Christian,' 
c., by W. G., small 8vo, 1670 (in some copies 

[Memoir in Evangelical Magazine and Mis- 
sionary Chronicle, July 1862, by Rev. John Ken- 
nedy, pastor of the independent church at Stepney. 
See also Tower Hamlets Independent, 9 May 
1868 ; Wood's Athenae Oxon. ed. Bliss, iii. 1145; 
Palmer's Nonconf. Memorial, ii. 468 ; Orme's 
Biblioth. Biblica, p. 217; Lysons's Environs of 
London, i. 60, 61, iii. 435, 443, 444; Manning and 
Bray's Hist, of Surrey, ii. 529 ; J. R. Bloxam's 
Reg. Magdalen College, Oxford, i. 32, ii. 132, 
v. 6 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] W. A. G. 


(1814-1888), physician, born in North Shields 
in 1814, was grandson of E. M. Greenhow, 
M.D., of North Shields, and was nephew of 
T. M. Greenhow, M.D., F.R.C.S. (1791- 1881), 
surgeon for many years to the Newcastle In- 
firmary, a notable operator and sanitary re- 
former (see British MedicalJournal, 1881, 
ii. 799). He studied medicine at Edinburgh 
and Montpelier, and practised for eighteen 
years in partnership with his father in North 
Shields and Tynemouth. In 1852 he gra- 
duated M.D. at Aberdeen, and in 1853 settled 
in London. From 1854 he frequently re- 
ported on epidemics and questions of pub- 
lic health to the board of health and the privy 
council, and he served on several royal com- 
missions. In 1855 he was appointed lec- 
turer on public health at St. Thomas's Hos- 
pital ; joining the medical school of the Middle- 
sex Hospital as assistant physician and joint 
lecturer on medical jurisprudence in 1861, 


he became full physician to the hospital in 
1870, lecturer on medicine in 1871, and con- 
sulting physician in 1870. In 1875 he de- 
livered the Croonian lectures at the Royal 
College of Physicians on Addison's disease. 
The Clinical Society was founded in 1867 
mainly by his exertions ; he was its treasurer 
from the commencement to 1879, when he 
became president. He was a zealous and suc- 
cessful teacher and investigator, and an ex- 
cellent and thorough-going man of business. 
He was twice married, first in 1842 to the 
widow of W. Barnard, esq. (she died in 
1857, leaving one son, the Rev. Edward 
Greenhow) ; and secondly to Eliza, daughter 
of Joseph Hume, M.P. (she died in 1878, 
leaving two daughters). Greenhow retired 
in 1881 to Reigate, Surrey, and died suddenly 
at Charing Cross Station on 22 Nov. 1888 on 
his return from a meeting of the pension com- 
mutation board, to which he was medical 

Greenhow wrote : 1 . ' On Diphtheria/ 1860. 
2. On Addison's Disease,' 1866. 3. < On 
Chronic Bronchitis,' 1869. 4. 'Croonian 
Lectures on Addison's Disease,' 1875. 5. ' On 
Bronchitis and the Morbid Conditions con- 
nected with it,' 1878. He also prepared the 
following parliamentary reports: 'The dif- 
ferent Proportions of Deaths from certain 
Diseases in different Districts in England and 
Wales,' 1858, an especially valuable memoir ; 
' On the Prevalence and Causes of Diarrhoea 
in certain Towns ; ' ' Districts with Excessive 
Mortality from Lung Diseases ; ' t Excessive 
Mortality of Young Children among Manu- 
facturing Populations,' appendix to ' Report 
of Medical Officer of Privy Council,' 1859-61. 
Many papers by Greenhow appeared in the 
medical journals. 

[Lancet, 1888, ii. 1104-6.] G. T. B. 

(1778-1855), geographer and geologist, was 
born in 1778. His father, whose name was 
Bellas, was a proctor in Doctors' Commons, 
and died in 1780. His mother, a daughter 
of a surgeon named Greenough, died soon 
after, leaving her son to the care of her father. 
Being a good classical scholar the grandfather 
did much to foster a taste for scholarship in 
the boy, who at nine years old was sent to 
Eton. While Bellas was still at school his 
grandfather died, leaving him a fortune, and 
desiring him to add the name of Greenough to 
his own. In 1795 Greenough entered St.Peter's 
College, Cambridge, and kept nine terms, but 
took no degree, and in 1798 proceeded to the 
university of Gottingen to study law. He 
there became intimate with Coleridge, and 
coming under the influence of Blumenbach 



devoted himself mainly to natural history 
He studied mineralogy for a time at Freiburg 
under Werner, and after visiting the Hartz 
Mountains, Italy, and Sicily, returned to Eng- 
land in 1801. After going to Cornwall and the 
Scilly Isles, he settled in Parliament Street, 
Westminster, and became an active member 
of the Royal Institution. He attended the 
lectures of Wollaston and Davy, and for 
several years acted as secretary to the insti- 
tution. In 1806 he accompanied Davy to 
Ireland to study the geology and the social 
condition of the country, and in the follow- 
ing year he entered parliament as member for 
Gatton, Surrey, which he represented until 
1812. In politics he was a liberal of the 
school of Bentham, Romilly, and Horner. 
In 1807 he organised in an informal manner 
what afterwards became the Geological So- 
ciety of London, though it was not regularly 
constituted, with Greenough as its first pre- 
sident, until 1811. The young society met 
with considerable opposition from Sir Joseph 
Banks, who wished to subordinate it to the 
Royal Society. Davy and others withdrew 
their names, but Greenough adhered to his 
original scheme of an independent society, 
acting as its president for six years, and being 
subsequently re-elected in 1818 and 1833. 
His presidential addresses to the society are 
among his chief contributions to geology ; 
but he was proficient also in architecture and 
in archaeology, and took a deep interest in 
ethnology. At an early date he began to 
form a collection of maps, upon which or in 
his note-books he entered all the geological 
data he could obtain from travellers and from 
books. In 1808 he first sketched the boundary- 
lines of the various strata in England and 
Wales, and in 1810 he travelled over a great 
part of the country for the purpose of map- 
ping it. At the request of the Geological 
Society he then, with the help of Conybeare, 
Buckland, and Henry Warburton, coloured 
a large scale-map drawn by Webster, and in 
1820 published it in six sheets, with an index 
of hills. A second edition of this map was 
engraved in 1839, and he presented the copy- 
right to the society. Meanwhile in 1819 
he published his only independent book, < A 
Critical Examination of the first principles 
of Geology,' a series of eight essays, mainly 
directed against the views of the plutonists. 
This work was translated into French, Ger- 
man, and Italian. Most of his addresses are of 
the same critical character, carefully analysing 
the year's work and discussing various theo- 
retical conclusions. For a long time he re- 
fused to admit the cogency of evidence de- 
rived from fossils, but ultimately abandoned 
his opposition and formed a collection. In 

1822 he built himself a house in the Regent's 
Park, his home for the remainder of his life. 
He was one of the first trustees of the Geo- 
logical Society under its charter in 1826, an 
original member of the British Association 
in 1831, one of the original council of Uni- 
versity College, an active member of the So- 
ciety for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, 
and a fellow of the Royal, Linnean, and 
Ethnological Societies. He acted as president 
of the Royal Geographical Society in 1839 
and 1840, and in 1840 delivered an obituary 
notice of his former teacher, Blumenbach, 
< the John Hunter of Germany.' In 1852 he 
laid before the Asiatic Society a series of 
maps of Hindostan, mainly hydrographical, 
and in 1854 a large-scale geological map of 
the whole of British India, afterwards pub- 
lished as a ' General Sketch of the Physical 
Features of British India.' This had been the 
work of eleven years, and in it he had the 
assistance of his niece, Miss Colthurst, after- 
wards Mrs. Greer. He then started for Italy 
and the East, but was taken ill on the way ; 
dropsy supervened, and he died at Naples on 
2 April 1855. His books and maps were be- 
queathed to the Geological and Royal Geo- 
graphical Societies. His bust, by Westma- 
cott,is in the Geological Society's apartments. 

[Proc. Geol. Soc. 1856; Journ. Roy. Geogr. 
Soc. xxv. p. Ixxxviii.] GK S. B. 

GREENWAY, OSWALD (1565-1635), 

Jesuit. [See TESIMOND.] 

GREENWELL, DORA (1821-1882), poet 
and essayist, was born on 6 Dec. 1821 at 
Greenwell Ford in the county of Durham. 
Her father, an active country gentleman, be- 
came embarrassed, and when Dora was six- 
and-twenty their home was sold. Poverty, 
want of a settled home for many years, and 
very poor health served to deepen her reli- 
gious views. For eighteen years she lived 
with her mother in Durham, and, after her 
mother's death, chiefly in London. An ac- 
cident in 1881 seemed seriously to impair 
tier delicate constitution, and she died on 
29 March 1882. 

Miss Greenwell began her career as an 
authoress by the publication of a volume of . 
poems in 1848, the year that she left Green 
well Ford. It was well received, and was 
followed by another volume in 1850, * Stories 
;hat might be True, with other poems.' A third 
volume appeared in 1861, and of this an en- 
larged edition was published in 1867. Her next 
volume of poems was called ' Carmina Crucis ' 
1869). These were her deepest and most 
characteristic effusions, 'road-side songs, with 
)oth joy and sorrow in them.' She afterwards 



published ' Songs of Salvation ' (1873), < The 
Soul's Legend ' (1873), and ' Camera Obscura ' 
(1876), all in verse. Her principal prose 
works, 'The Patience of Hope' (1860), ' A 
Present Heaven ' (1855, reissued in 1867 as 
' The Covenant of Life and Peace '), and l Two 
Friends' (2nd edit. 1867,with a sequel, ' Collo- 
quia Crucis,' 1871), are full of deep and beau- 
tiful religious thought. A volume of ' Essays ' 
appeared in 1866, consisting chiefly of pieces 
that had appeared in periodicals, and included 
' Our Single Women,' originally an article in 
the ' North British Review,' February 1862, 
in which she earnestly pleaded for the ex- 
tension of educated women's work, with a due 
regard to their appropriate sphere. Another of 
her books was a ' Life of Lacordaire ' (1867), 
with whose character and views she was in 
many respects in close sympathy. She also 
wrote a memoir of the quaker John Wool- 
man (1871), and ' Liber Humanitatis: Essays 
on Spiritual and Social Life ' (1875). 

To the American edition (1862) of the 
t Patience of Hope' a preface was prefixed by 
Whittier, who classed the writer with Thomas 
a Kempis, Augustine, Fenelon, John Wool- 
man, and Tauler. Whittier says of Miss 
Greenwell's work : ' It assumes the life and 
power of the gospel as a matter of actual 
experience ; it bears unmistakable evidence 
of a realisation on the part of the author 
of the truth that Christianity is not simply 
historical and traditional, but present and 
permanent, with its roots in the infinite past 
and its branches in the infinite future, the 
eternal spring and growth of divine love.' 

[Memoirs of Dora Greenwell, by William Dor- 
ling, London, 1885 ; selections from her Poetical 
Works, by the same editor, in the Canterbury 
Poets, 1889 ; personal knowledge.] W. Or. B. 

1844), major-general, born in 1781, was third 
son of Joshua Greenwell of Kibblesworth, of 
the family of Greenwell of Greenwell Ford, 
county Durham. He entered the army by 
purchase as ensign in the 45th foot in 1802, 
became lieutenant in 1803, and captain ] 804. 
In 1806 he embarked with his regiment in 
the secret expedition under General Cran- 
ford, which ultimately was sent to La Plata as 
a reinforcement, and took part in the opera- 
tions against Buenos Ayres. He landed with 
the regiment in Portugal on 1 Aug. 1808, 
and, save on two occasions when absent on 
account of wounds, was present with it 
throughout the Peninsular campaigns from 
Rolica to Toulouse. He was in temporary 
command of the regiment during Massena's 
retreat from Torres Vedras, at the battle 
of Fuentes d'Onoro, and at the final siege 

and fall of Badajoz ; he became regimental 
major after Busaco, and received a brevet 
lieutenant-colonelcy after the battle of Sala- 
manca; he conducted the light troops of 
Picton's division at Orthez, and succeeded 
to the command of his regiment on the fall 
of Colonel Forbes at Toulouse. In the 
course of these campaigns he was repeatedly 
wounded, was shot through the body, through 
the neck, and through the right arm, a bullet 
lodged in his left arm, and another in his right 
leg. In 1819 Greenwell took his regiment 
out to Ceylon, and commanded it there for 
six years, but was compelled to return home 
through ill-health before it embarked for 
Burma. In 1831 he was appointed com- 
mandant at Chatham, a post he vacated on 
promotion to major-general 10 Jan. 1837. 

Greenwell was a K.C.B. and K.C.II. He 
had purchased all his regimental steps but 
one. He died in Harley Street, Cavendish 
Square, London, on 11 Nov. 1844, aged 63. 

[Army Lists ; Philippart's Roy. Mil. Calendar, 
1820, iv. 429; Gent. Mag. 1845, pt. i. 98.] 

H. M. C. 

BELL, JOHN, second DUKE OF AKGYLL, 1678- 

GREENWOOD, JAMES (d. 1737), 
grammarian, was for some time usher to Ben- 
jamin Morland at Hackney, but soon after 
1711 opened a boarding-school at Woodford 
in Essex. At midsummer 1721, when Mor- 
land became high-master, he was appointed 
surmaster of St. Paul's School, London, a post 
which he held until his death on 12 Sept. 
1737 (Gent. Mag. 1737, p. 574). He left a 
widow, Susannah. He was the author of: 
1. 'An Essay towards a practical English 
Grammar. Describing the Genius and Na- 
ture of the English Tongue/ &c., 12mo, Lon- 
don, 1711 ; 2nd edit. 1722; 3rd edit. 1729; 
5th edit. 1753. It received the praises of Pro- 
fessor Andrew Ross of Glasgow, Dr. George 
Hickes, John Chamberlayne, and Isaac Watts, 
who in his 'Art of Reading and Writing Eng- 
lish' considered that Greenwood had shown 
in his book ' the deep Knowledge, without 
the haughty Airs of a Critick.' At Watts's 
suggestion Greenwood afterwards published 
an abridgment under the title of * The Royal 
English Grammar,' which he dedicated to 
the Princess of Wales ; the fourth edition of 
this appeared in 1750, an eighth in 1770. 
The appearance of two other English gram- 
mars by John Brightland and Michael Mat- 
taire at about the same time called forth 
an anonymous attack on all three books, en- 
titled ' Bellum Grammatical ; or the Gram- 
matical Battel Royal. In Reflections on the 



8 4 


three English Grammars publish'd in about a 
year last past,' 8vo, London, 1712. Greenwood 
also wrote ' The London Vocabulary, English 
and Latin : put into a new Method proper to 
acquaint theLearner with Things, as well as 
Pure Latin Words. Adorn'd with Twenty 
Six Pictures,' &c., 3rd edition, 12mo, Lon- 
don 1713 (many editions, both English and 
American). It is, however, nothing more 
than an abridgment of Jan Amos Komensky s 
' Orbis Pictura.' Greenwood's last work was 
'The Virgin Muse. Being a Collection of 
Poems from our most celebrated English 
Poets ... To which are added some Copies 
of Verses never before printed ; with notes,' 
&c., 12mo, London, 1717 ; 2nd edition, > 1722. 
It does not appear that Greenwood himself 
was a contributor. 

[Notes and Queries, 1st ser.xi. 31 1 ; Gardiner's 
St. Paul's School Keg. pp. 78, 80.] G. G-. 

GREENWOOD, JOHN (d. 1593), in- 
dependent divine, matriculated as a sizar 
at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, on 
18 March 1577-8, and graduated B.A. in 
1580-1. He does not appear to have taken 
any further degree, though he is sometimes 
styled M.A. He entered the church, and 
was ordained deacon by Aylmer, bishop of 
London, and priest by the Bishop of Lincoln. 
He was previously to 1582 employed by 
Robert Wright to say service at Rochford, 
Essex, in the house of Lord Robert Rich, who 
was a leader of the puritans. He was already 
described as ' a man known to have given 
over the ministry' (STRYPE, Annals, iii. 124) 
Afterwards he became connected with Henry 
Barrow [q. v.] In the autumn of 1586 Green- 
wood was arrested in the house of one Henry 
Martin at St. Andrew's in the Wardrobe in 
London, while holding a private conventicle, 
and was imprisoned in the Clink, Southwark, 
where he was visited on 19 Nov. by Barrow, 
who was consequently arrested. Greenwood 
appeared before Archbishop Whitgift, Ayl- 
mer, and others, and underwent a long exami- 
nation, in the course of which he denied the 
scriptural authority of the English church 
and of episcopal government (Examination, 
pp. 22-5). Paule (Life of Whitgift, 66, 
67, ed. 1612) says that l upon show of con- 
formity Greenwood and Barrow were en- 
larged upon bonds, but all in vain ; for after 
their liberties they burst forth into further 
extremities, and were again committed to 
the Fleet, 20 July 1588 [1587].' After an 
imprisonment of thirty weeks in the Clink 
they were, according to the account given 
by Baker (MS. Harl 7041, f. 311), removed 
under a habeas corpus to the Fleet, where 
they ( lay upon an execution of two hundred 

..nd sixty pounds apiece.' In March 1589 
Greenwood held conferences with Arch- 
deacon Hutchinson at the Fleet ; the sum of 
them was printed in 'A Collection of certaine 
Sclanderous Articles,' 1589. Greenwood was 
kept in prison over four years (HAKBURY, 
Memorials, i. 59). Together with his fellow- 
prisoners, Barrow and John Penry, he em- 
ployed himself in writing various books, 
which were smuggled out of the prison in 
fragments, and printed in the Netherlands 
[see more fully under BARROW, HENRY]. 
In 1592 Greenwood obtained his release, 
and met with Francis Johnson, formerly a 
preacher at Middleburg, who had been em- 
ployed by the English bishops to destroy all 
copies of a tract by Greenwood and Barrow 
entitled 'Plain refutation of Mr. Gifford's 
. . . Short Treatise, &c.,' but had undergone 
a change of opinions through the perusal of 
a copy which he had preserved. Greenwood 
joined with Johnson in forming a congrega- 
tion in the house of one Fox in Nicholas Lane ; 
Johnson became minister, and Greenwood 
doctor or teacher; from this the beginning of 
Congregationalism is sometimes dated. On 
5 Dec. 1592 Greenwood and Johnson were 
arrested shortly after midnight at the house 
of Edward Boys in Fleet Street, and taken to 
the Counter in Wood Street, Cheapside, and 
in the morning the archbishop recommitted 
Greenwood to the Fleet. On 11 and 20 March 
Greenwood was examined, and confessed to 
the authorship of his books (Egerton Papers, 
pp. 171, 176). On 21 March Greenwood and 
Barrow were indicted, and two days later Sir 
Thomas Egerton [q. v.], the attorney-general, 
writes that they had been tried for publishing 
and dispensing seditious books, and ordered 
to be executed on the morrow. According to 
Barrow's account, preparation was made for 
their execution on 24 March, but they were 
reprieved, and certain doctors were sent to 
exhort them ; however, on the 31st they 
were taken to Tyburn, but again at the last 
moment reprieved (Apoloyie, p. 92) ; this 
seems to have been due to an appeal from 
Thomas Philippes to Burghley (DEXTER, 
Congregationalism, p. 245). But shortly 
after they were suddenly taken from prison 
and hanged at Tyburn, 6 April 1593. Ac- 
cording to a statement in the 1611 edi- 
tion of Barrow's i Platform,' Dr. Raynolds is 
said to have told Elizabeth that Barrow and 
Greenwood, 'had they lived, would have 
been two as worthy instruments of the 
church of God as have been raised up in this 
age.' Elizabeth is doubtfully said to have 
regretted their execution. Bancroft writes : 
' Greenwood is but a simple fellow, Barrow 
is the man ' (Survey of Pretended Holy Dis- 



cipline, p. 249). Greenwood was married, 
and had a son called Abel (Examination, 
p. 24). 

Greenwood's books were chiefly written in 
conjunction with Barrow, to the article on 
whom reference should be made. He also 
wrote : 1. *M. Some laid open in his couleurs. 
Wherein the indifferent Header may easily 
see hovve wretchedly and loosely he hath 
handeled the case against M. Penri/ 1589, 
n.p., 12mo. 2. * An Answer to George 
Gifford's Pretended Defence of Read Prayers I 
and Devised Leitourgies, with the ungodly 
cauils and wicked sclanders ... in the first 
part of his . . . Short Treatise against the 
Donatists of England, by lohn Greenwood, 
Christes poore afflicted prisoner in the Fleete 
at London, for the trueth of the Gospel,' 
Dort, 1590, 4to ; a second edition appeared 
in the same year, and a third in 1640. The 
examinations of Barrow, Greenwood, and 
Penry were printed at London in 1593 and 
1594, and are reprinted in the ' Harleian 
Miscellany ' (iv. 340-65). 

[MSS. Harley 6848, 6849 (original papers), 
7041, and 7042 (Baker's collections) ; MS. Lans- I 
downe 982, ff. 1 59-6 1 (notice by Bishop Kennett) ; j 
Brook's Puritans, ii. 23-4 1 ; Hanbury's Historical 
Memorials of Congregationalism; Dexter's Con- | 
gregationalism; Cooper's Athenae Can tabr.ii. 153 j 
(where a number cf minor references will be ; 
found) ; Waddington's Penry ; Stow's Annales, 
p. 765 (ed. 1615); Strype's Annals, ii. 534, iii. 
124, App. 40, iv. 96, 136 ; Egerton Papers, pp. 
166-79 (Camden Soc.) ; Ames's Typogr. Antiq. 
(Herbert), pp. 1262, 1678,1711-13,1716,1723.] 

C. L. K. 

GREENWOOD, JOHN (d. 1609), school- 
master, was matriculated as a pensioner of j 
St. John's College, Cambridge, in 1558 ; re- 
moved to Catharine Hall, of which he was j 
afterwards fellow ; proceeded B. A. in 1561-2, \ 
and commenced M.A. in 1565. lie became | 
master of the grammar school at Brentwood, 
Essex, where he appears to have died at an 
advanced age in 1609. His only work is 
' Syntaxis et Prosodia, versiculis composites/ 
Cambridge, 1590, 8vo. 

[Manuscript additions to Cooper's Athense 
Cantabr. ; Bullen's Cat. of Early Printed Books.] 

T. C. 

GREENWOOD, JOHN (1727-1792), 
portrait-painter, born 7 Dec. 1727 in Boston, 
Massachusetts, was a son of Samuel Green- 
wood, merchant, by his second wife, Mary 
Charnock. and a nephew of Professor Isaac 
Greenwood of Harvard College. In 1742, 
just after his father's death, he was appren- 
ticed to Thomas Johnston, an artist in water- 
colours, heraldic painting, engraving, and ja- 
panning. He made rapid progress, and some 

of his portraits painted at this period are 
still preserved in Boston. One of the Rev. 
Thomas Prince was engraved in 1750 by 
Peter Pelham, stepfather of John S. Copley 
the elder [q. v.] Greenwood removed late 
in 1752 to the Dutch colony of Surinam, 
where he remained over five years, executing 
in that time 113 portraits, which brought 
him 8,025 guilders. He visited plantations, 
made notes about the country, and collected 
or sketched its fauna, plants, and natural 
curiosities. Desiring to perfect himself in 
the art of mezzotinting he left Surinam, and 
arriving in May 1758 at Amsterdam, soon 
acquired many friends, and was instrumental 
in the re-establishment there of the Academy 
of Art. At Amsterdam he finished a number of 
portraits, studied under Elgersma, and issued 
several subjects in mezzotint, some of which 
were heightened by etching. He entered into 
partnership with P. Foquet as a dealer in 
paintings. In August 1763 he visited Paris, 
stopping some time with M. F. Basan. About 
the middle of September he reached London, 
and permanently settled there a year later. 
He was invited by the London artists to 
their annual dinner at the Turk's Head on 
St. Luke's day, 18 Oct. 1 763, and at their 
fifth exhibition in the following spring dis- 
played two paintings, ' A View of Boston, 
N.E./ and ' A Portrait of a Gentleman.' 
Early in 1765 a charter passed the great seal 
founding the ' Incorporated Society of Ar- 
tists of Great Britain/ and Greenwood be- 
came a fellow of the society. 

In 1768 he exhibited his admirable mezzo- 
tint of ' Frans von Mieris and Wife,' after 
the original in the Hague Gallery ; in 1773 
' A Gipsey Fortune-teller' in crayon ; in 1774 
a painting of t Palemon and Lavinia ' from 
Thomson's ' Seasons,' &c. ; and in 1790 a large 
landscape and figures representing the l Seven 
Sisters,' a circular clump of elms at Totten- 
ham, embracing a view of the artist's summer 
cottage,with himself on horseback and his wife 
and children. His attention, however, was 
for some years principally directed to mezzo- 
tints, including portraits and general subjects 
after his own designs, and pictures of the 
Dutch school. His ' Rembrandt's Father/ 
1704, the ' Happy Family/ after Van Harp, 
and ' Old Age/ after Eckhout, both finished 
! for Boydell in 1770, may be mentioned. His 
' Amelia Hone/ a young lady with a tea- 
cup, 1771, was probably the best example of 
his art. 

The Royal Academy was founded by dis- 
sentient members of the ' Incorporated So- 
ciety ' in December 1768. Greenwood, then a 
director of the latter society, tried in vain to 
persuade his friend and countryman, John 




Singleton Copley [q. v.], to adhere to his 
society (5 Dec. 1775). But Copley joined 
the Academy. 

At the request of the Earl of Bute Green- 
wood made a journey, in July 1771, into 
Holland and France purchasing paintings ; he 
afterwards visited the continent, buying up 
the collections of Count van Schulembourg 
and the Baron Steinberg. In 1776 he was 
occupying Ford's Rooms in the Haymarket 
as an art auctioneer. In this business he 
continued to the end of his life, removing in 
1783 to Leicester Square, where he built a 
commodious room adjoining his dwelling- 
house, and communicating with Whitcomb 

He died while on a visit at Margate, 16 Sept. 
1792, and was buried there. His wife, who 
survived him a few years, was buried at Chis- 
wick, close to the tomb of Hogarth. 

A small half-length portrait of Greenwood 
in mezzotint, by W. Pether, bearing an ar- 
tist's pallet and brushes and an auctioneer's 
mallet, was afterwards published. A three- 
quarter length, by Lemuel Abbot, and a 
miniature by Henry Edridge, are in posses- 
sion of his grandson, Dr. JohnD. Greenwood, 
ex-principal of Nelson College, New Zealand. 
The portrait of himself as a young man, in 
coloured crayon, mentioned by Van Eynden 
and Van der Willigen, is now in the possession 
of the writer of this article. 

Greenwood was not, as has been said, father 
of Thomas Greenwood, the scene-painter at 
Drury Lane Theatre, who died 17 Oct. 1797. 
His eldest son, Charnock-Gladwin, died an 
officer in the army at Grenada, West Indies ; 
the second, John, succeeded him in business ; 
James returned to Boston ; and the youngest, 
Captain Samuel Adam Greenwood, senior- 
assistant at the residency of Baroda, died at 
Cambray in 1810. 

native county were very great. He was 
one of the originators of the tenant league, 
formed in 1850 by himself, Sir John Gray, 
proprietor of the ' Freeman's Journal/ Dr. 
M'Knight, editor of the ' Londonderry Stan- 
dard,' Frederick Lucas, and John Francis 
Maguire. They demanded for the Irish tenant 
what have since been known as the three F's 
fixity of tenure, fair rents, and free sale. 
Greer was one of the few Ulstermen of any 
weight or position William Sharman Craw- 
ford [q. v.J was another who adopted these 
principles. He contested the representation 
of co. Derry four times, and that of the city 
of Londonderry twice, being successful only 
once, in 1857. Although almost continu- 
ously defeated he was in reality more than 
any other man the creator of the liberal party 
in Ulster. He practically retired in 1870, 
before the movement in favour of home rule 
had attained its later importance. Most of 
the reforms for which he struggled tenant 
right, vote by ballot, &c. had already been 
conceded. He probably would not have ap- 
proved the policy afterwards developed by 
Mr. Parnell's party, and dissented from their 
cardinal principle of standing entirely aloof 
from both English parties. There was, there- 
fore, nothing to prevent him from accepting- 
the recordership of Londonderry in 1870. 
He held this office until 1878, when he was 
appointed county court judge of Cavan and 
Leitrim. He died in 1880. 

[Private information from his nephew, Dr. T. 
Greer, of Cambridge.] T. G-. 

[Communicated by Dr. Isaac J. Greenwood 
from papers in his possession.] 


1880), Irish politician, eldest son of the 
Rev. Thomas Greer, presbyterian minister of 
Dunboe, and Elizabeth Caldwell, daughter 
of Captain Adam Caldwell, R.N., was born 
at Springvale, co. Derry, in 1810, educated 
at the Belfast Academy and Glasgow Uni- 
versity, and was called to the Irish bar in 
idd His life was devoted to constitu- 
tional agitation for such reforms in Irish land 
tenure as were necessary to make the union 
tolerable as a permanent arrangement. It 
was about 1848 that Greer first began to 
take an active part in political life, and 
a though never a very prominent figure in 
public, his influence and popularity in his 

GREETING, THOMAS (ft. 1675), musi- 
cian, published in 1675 ' The Pleasant Com- 
panion, or new Lessons and Instructions for 
the Flagelet.' Pepys engaged him to teach 
his wife an ' art that would be easy and plea- 
sant for her ' (1 March 1666-7); in the fol- 
lowing year Greeting sent the Duke of Buck- 
ingham's musicians to Pepys's house to play 
dance music. 

[Hawkins's Hist, of Music, p. 737; Pepys's 
Diary, iii. 417, iv. 317; Grove's Diet. i. 625.] 

L. M. M. 

GREG, PERCY (1836-1889), author, son 
of William Rathbone Greg [q. v.], was born at 
Bury in 1836, and died in London on 24 Dec. 
1889. His career during the greater part of his 
life was that of a journalist, and in his later 
years that of a novelist and historian. He con- 
tributed largely to the < Manchester Guardian/ 
' Standard,' and ' Saturday Review,' and ob- 
tained much distinction as a political writer. 
But, although endowed with great ability' 
he lacked the equity that characterised his 
lather, and always tended to violent ex- 
tremes j in youth a secularist, in middle life 



a spiritualist, in his later years a champion 
of feudalism and absolutism, and in particular 
an embittered adversary of the American 
Union. The violence of his political sym- 
pathies has entirely spoiled his attempted 
' History of the United States to the Recon- 
struction of the Union,' 1887, which can only 
be regarded as a gigantic party pamphlet. 
His ultimate convictions, political and reli- 
gious, found expression in two volumes of 
essays, < The Devil's Advocate,' 1878, and 
' Without God ; Negative Science and Na- 
tural Ethics,' 1883; and in a series of novels 
displaying considerable imagination and in- 
vention : 'Across the Zodiac,' 1880; ' Er- 
rant,' 1880 ; ' Ivy cousin and bride,' 1881 ; 
1 Sanguelac,' 1883 ; and < The Verge of Night,' 
1885. Of his sincerity there could be no 
question, and his polemical virulence did not 
exclude a tender vein of lyrical poetry, plea- 
singly manifested in his early poems, pub- 
lished under the pseudonym of Lionel H. 
Holdreth, and in his ' Interleaves' (1875). 

[Manchester Guardian, 30 Dec. 1889; Academy, 
18 Jan. 1890; personal knowledge.] R. Of. 

GREG, ROBERT HYDE (1795-1875), 
economist and antiquary, born in King Street, 
Manchester, on 24 Sept. 1795, was son of 
Samuel Greg, a millowner near Wilmslow, 
Cheshire, and brother of William Rathbone 
Greg [q. v.] and Samuel Greg [q. v.] His 
mother was Hannah, daughter and coheiress 
of Adam Lightbody of Liverpool, and a de- 
scendant of Philip Henry, the nonconformist 
[q. v.] He was educated at Edinburgh Univer- 
sity, and before joining his father in business 
as a cotton manufacturer, travelled in Spain, 
Italy, and the East. In 1817 he entered the 
Literary and Philosophical Society of Man- 
chester, and afterwards contributed to its 
' Memoirs' some interesting papers on topics 
chiefly suggested by his observations abroad. 
Their titles are : 1. l Remarks on the Site of 
Troy, and on the Trojan Plain,' 1823. 2. < Ob- 
servations on the Round Towers of Ireland/ 
1823. 3. t On the Sepulchral Monuments of 
Sardis and Mycenae,' 1833. 4. ' Cyclopean, 
Pelasgic, and Etruscan Remains ; or Remarks 
on the Mural Architecture of Remote Ages,' 

He took a leading part in public work in 
Manchester, aiding in the foundation of the 
Royal Institution, the Mechanics' Institution, 
and in the affairs of the Chamber of Com- 
merce, of which for a time he was president. 
He was an ardent liberal politician, and ren- 
dered valuable assistance in money and ad- 
vocacy in the agitations for parliamentary 
reform and the repeal of the corn laws. In 
1837 he wrote a pamphlet on the ' Factory 

Question and the Ten Hours Bill.' He was 
elected M.P. for Manchester in September 

1839, during his absence from England. He 
took the seat against his will and he retired 
in July 1841. In the meantime he published 
a speech on the corn laws, which he had de- 
livered in the House of Commons in April 

1840, and a letter to Henry Labouchere, after- 
wards LordTaunton, ' On the Pressure of the 
Corn Laws and Sliding Scale, more especially 
upon the Manufacturing Interests and Pro- 
ductive Classes,' 1841, 2nd ed. 1842. 

He was much interested in horticulture, 
and in practical and experimental farming, 
which he carried on at his estates at Norcliffe, 
Cheshire, and Coles Park, Hertfordshire. In 
this connection he wrote three pamphlets : 
' Scottish Farming in the Lothians,' 1842 ; 
1 Scottish Farming in England,' 1842; and 
1 Improvements in Agriculture,' 1844. 

He married, 14 June 1824, Mary, eldest 
daughter of Robert Philips of the Park, Man- 
chester ; by her he had four sons and two 
daughters. Greg died at Norclifie Hall on 
21 Feb. 1875, and was buried at the Unitarian 
chapel, Dean Row, Wilmslow, Cheshire, being 
followed to the grave by nearly five hundred 
of his tenants and employes, and by many 

[Manchester Guardian and Examiner, 23 and 
27 Feb. 1875 ; Earwaker's East Cheshire, i. 137; 
Proc. of Lit. and Phil. Soc. of Manchester, xiv. 
1?5; Prentice's Manchester, 1851; Burke's 
Landed Gentry, i. 545.] C. W. S. 

GREG, SAMUEL (1804-1876), philan- 
thropist, was fourth son of Samuel Greg, a 
mill-owner at Quarry Bank, near Wilmslow, 
Cheshire, by his wife Hannah, and therefore 
a brother of Robert Hyde Greg [q. v.] and 
William Rathbone Greg [q. v.] He was born 
in King Street, Manchester, 6 Sept. 1804, and 
educated at Unitarian schools at Nottingham 
and Bristol. After leaving Bristol he spent 
two years at home learning mill-work, and in 
the autumn of 1823 went to Edinburgh for a 
winter course of university lectures. In 1831, 
with his youngest brother,William Rathbone 
Greg, he studied and practised mesmerism 
with great enthusiasm, and to such practice he 
attributed his subsequent ill-health. He took 
the Lower House Mill, near the village of Bol- 
lington, in 1832, and having fitted it up with 
the requisite machinery, commenced working 
with hands imported from the neighbouring 
districts of Wilmslow, Styall, and other 
places. For about fifteen years the mill and 
the workpeople were his all-absorbing objects 
of consideration and pursuit. Some account 
of his proceedings is found in two letters 
which in 1835 he addressed to Leonard Horner, 




inspector of factories, and which were printed 
for private circulation. He first established 
a Sunday school, next a gymnasium, then 
drawing and singing classes, baths and li- 
braries, and finally he instituted the order 
of the silver cross in 1836 as a reward for 
good conduct in young women. In 1847 
he was employed in making experiments on 
new machinery for stretching cloth. This 
idea was unpopular in the mill, and the 
workpeople, instead of coming to him to talk 
the matter over, surprised him by turning 
out. Other troubles followed, and it was 
not long before he was obliged to retire al- 
together from business, a comparatively poor 
man. In 1854 he wrote and published ' Scenes 
from the Life of Jesus/ a work of which a 
second edition was printed in 1869. His 
' Letters on Religious Belief ' appeared in 
1856, but came to a conclusion after the 
seventh letter. He entertained Kossuth on 
22 March 1857, at his residence, the Mount, 
Bollington, and in the same year commenced 
giving Sunday evening lectures to working 
people in Macclesfield, a practice which he 
continued for the remainder of his life. During 
1867 he gave scientific lectures to a class of 
boys. In 1863 he formed the acquaintance 
of Dean Stanley, with whom he afterwards 
continued a pleasant intercourse. After a 
long illness he died at Bollington, near 
Macclesfield, 14 May 1876. In June 1838 
he married Mary Needham of Lenton, near 
Nottingham, by whom he had a family. She 
was the writer in 1855 of ' Little Walter, a 
Mother's first Lessons in Religion for the 
younger classes.' 

[A Layman's Legacy in prose and verse. Se- 
lections from the papers of Samuel Greg, with a 
prefatory letter by A.P.Stanley, Dean of West- 
minster, and a Memoir (1877), pp. 3-63 ; Good 
Words, 1877, pp. 588-91 ; H. A. Page's Leaders 
of Men, 1880, pp. 264-77; Unitarian Herald, 
Manchester, 12 Feb. 1875, and 26 May 1876.] 

G. C. B. 

1881), essayist, born at Manchester in 1809, 
was son of Samuel Greg, merchant, and bro- 
ther of Robert Hyde Greg [q. v.] and Samuel 
Greg [q. v.] His father became owner of a 
mill near Wilmslowin Cheshire, where Wil- 
liam Rathbone's childhood was passed. After 
receiving his education under Dr. Lant Car- 
penter at Bristol, and afterwards at the uni- 
versity of Edinburgh, Greg became in 1828 
manager of one of his father's mills in Bury, 
and in 1832 commenced business on his own 
account. In 1835 he married Lucy, daughter 
of William Henry [q. v.], a physician of Man- 
chester. In 1842 he won a prize offered by 
the Anti-Corn Law League for the best essay 

on * Agriculture and the Corn LaAvs.' In the 
same year he was induced by concern for his 
wife's health to settle in the neighbourhood 
of Ambleside. The removal unfavourably 
affected his business, and after a long struggle 
to avert failure he ultimately relinquished it 
in 1850. His literary and speculative pursuits 
had also probably interfered with his success 
in trade, for in 1851 he came before the world 
with his l Creed of Christendom/ the outcome 
of long study and thought. Mr. Morley has re- 
corded the effect in its day of this contribution 
to ' dissolvent literature ; ' it must be said that 
no work hostile to received opinions was ever 
so little of a polemic against them, or more 
distinguished by candour and urbanity. Greg 
now took distinct rank as an author, writing 
in 1852 no fewer than twelve articles for the 
four leading quarterlies, mostly on political 
or economical subjects. His essay on Sir 
Robert Peel in the ' Westminster Review/ 
vol. Iviii., was the finest tribute called forth 
by the statesman's death. His ' Sketches in 
Greece and Turkey ' appeared in 1853. In 
1856 Sir George Cornewall Lewis bestowed 
on him a commissionership at the board of 
customs, which restored him to independence. 
From 1864 to 1877 he was comptroller of the 
stationery office. He had in the interim lost 
his first wife, and married the daughter of 
James Wilson of the ' Economist' [q. v.] The 
only other marked incidents of his life during 
this period were the successive publications of 
his works : ' Political Problems for our Age 
and Country/ 1870 ; ' Enigmas of Life/ 1872 ; 
' Rocks Ahead, or theWarnings of Cassandra/ 
1874 ; ' Mistaken Aims and Attainable Ideals 
of the Working Classes/ 1876. He continued 
to be an extensive contributor to the periodi- 
cal press, and his essays were collected three 
times, as ' Essays on Political and Social Sci- 
ence ' (1853), { Literary and Social Judgments ' 
(2nd edit. 1869, 4th edit. 1877), and 'Mis- 
cellaneous Essays ' (1882 and 1884). He died 
at Wimbledon 15 Nov. 1881. His son Percy 
is separately noticed. 

In Greg ardent philanthropy and disin- 
terested love of truth were curiously allied 
to an almost epicurean fastidiousness, which 
made him unduly distrustful of the popular 
element in politics. He would have wished 
to see public affairs controlled by an en- 
lightened oligarchy, and did not perceive that 
such an oligarchy was incompatible with the 
principles which he had himself admitted. 
Little practical aid towards legislation, there- 
fore, is to be obtained from his writings. It 
was Greg's especial function to discourage 
unreasonable expectations from political or 
even social reforms, to impress his readers 
with the infinite complexity of modern pro- 




blems, and in general to caution democracy 
against the abuse of its power. His appre- 
hensions may sometimes appear visionary, 
and sometimes exaggerated, but are in general 
the previsions of a far-seeing man, acute in 
observing the tendencies of the age, though 
perhaps too ready to identify tendencies with 
accomplished facts. His style is clear and 
cogent, but his persuasiveness and impres- 
siveness rather arise from moral qualities, his 
absolute disinterestedness, and the absence of 
class feeling, even when he may seem to be 
advocating the cause of a class. 

[Mr. John Morley's account of W. R. Greg in 
Macmillan's Mag. vol. xlviii., reprinted in his 
Miscellanies ; Burke's Landed Gentry, i. 545 ; 
personal knowledge.] R. G. 

GREGAN, JOHN EDGAR (1813-1855), 
architect, was born at Dumfries on 18 Dec. 
1813. He studied architecture first under 
Walter Ne wall and afterwards at Manchester 
under Thomas Witlam Atkinson. He com- 
menced practice on his own account in 1840, 
and was engaged on many important build- 
ings erected in Manchester during the next fif- 
teen years, including the churches of St. John, 
Longsight, and St. John, Miles Platting ; the 
warehouses of Robert Barbour and Thomas 
Ashton, and the bank of Sir Benjamin Hey- 
wood & Co. in St. Ann's Street. His last 
work was the design for the new Mechanics' 
Institution in David Street. 

His zeal for art and education led him to 
take much interest in various local institu- 
tions ; he acted as honorary secretary of the 
Royal Institution, assisted materially in the 
success of the local school of art, and sat as 
a member of the committee which undertook 
the formation of the Manchester Free Library. 
On the visit of the British Archaeological 
Association to Manchester, he read a paper 
entitled ' Notes on Humphrey Chetham and 
his Foundation,' which is printed in the asso- 
ciation's journal for 1851. He died at York 
Place, Manchester, on 29 April 1855, aged 
42, and was buried in St. Michael's church- 
yard, Dumfries. 

[Architectural Publication Society's Dictionary, I 
sub nom.; Builder, vii. 18, viii. 409, xiii. 222, ! 
xvi. 99.1 C. W. S. 

GREGG, JOHN, D.D. (1798-1878), bishop 
of Cork, Cloyne, and Ross, was born 4 Aug. 
1798 at Cappa, near Ennis, where his father, 
Richard Ross, lived on a small property. 
After attending a classical school in Ennis, 
he entered Trinity College, Dublin, in 1819, 
where he took a sizarship, a scholarship, and 
many prizes. He obtained his degree in 
1824. A sermon which he heard from the Rev. 

B. W. Matthias in Bethesda Chapel deter- 
mined him to enter the church, and in 1826 
he was ordained in Ferns Cathedral, and be- 
came curate of the French Church, Portar- 
lington, where he laboured with much earnest- 
ness. In 1828 he obtained the living of Kil- 
sallaghan, in the diocese of Dublin, and threw 
himself with great energy into the work of 
the parish. His reputation as an eloquent 
evangelical clergyman procured for him in 
1836 the incumbency of the Bethesda Chapel, 
Dublin. Trinity Church was built for him 
in 1839, and became in his hands a chief 
centre of evangelical life in Dublin. After re- 
fusing various offers of preferment he accepted 
the archdeaconry of Kildare in 1857, still 
remaining incumbent of Trinity. In 1862 he 
was appointed by the lord-lieutenant (the 
Earl of Carlisle) bishop of the united dioceses 
of Cork, Cloyne, and Ross. During his epi- 
scopate the new cathedral of St. Fin Barre 
was built at a cost of nearly 100,000/. He 
died 26 May 1878, and was buried in Mount 
Jerome cemetery, Dublin. He was one of the 
ablest and most earnest evangelical leaders 
of the Irish episcopal church. He married 
in 1830 Elizabeth, daughter of Robert Law 
of Dublin, by whom he had six children; 
his son Robert was elected bishop of Ossory 
in 1875, and succeeded him in the bishopric 
of Cork. He published ' A Missionary Visit 
to Achill and Erris,' 3rd edit. Dublin, 1850, 
besides many sermons, lectures, and tracts. 

[Memorials of the Life of John Gregg, D.D., 
by his son.] T. H. 

GREGOR, WILLIAM (1761-1817), 
chemist and mineralogist, younger son of 
Francis Gregor, a captain in General Wolfe's 
regiment, by Mary, sister of Sir Joseph Cop- 
ley, bart., was born at Trewarthenick in the 
parish of Cornelly, Cornwall, 25 Dec. 1761, 
and educated at Bristol grammar school under 
the Rev. Charles Lee. In 1778 he was placed 
under the care of a tutor at Walthamstow, 
and in 1780 was admitted at St. John's Col- 
lege, Cambridge. He graduated B. A. in 1784, 
and having gained a prize given for Latin 
prose by the representatives of the university 
in parliament, he was elected a Platt fellow 
of his college. Proceeding M.A. in 1787 he 
vacated his fellowship, and was collated to 
the rectory of Diptford, near Totnes, which 
had been purchased for him by his father. 
In 1790 he married Charlotte Anne, only 
daughter of David Gwatkin, by Anne, daugh- 
ter of Robert Lovell, by whom he had issue 
one child, a daughter. Dr. John Ross, bishop 
of Exeter, to whom his wife was related, pre- 
sented him in 1793 to the rectory of Bratton 
Clovelly, Devonshire, which in the same year 


9 o 


he exchanged for the rectory of Creed in 
Cornwall, where he continued for the rest of 
his life. He was distinguished as a painter 
of landscapes, as an etcher, and as a musician. 
"While attending Mr. Waltier's lectures at 
Bristol he acquired a taste for chemical pur- 
suits, but he gave his chief attention to ana- 
lytical mineralogy. In .1791 a peculiar black 
sand, found in the Menacchan or Manaccan 
Valley, Cornwall, was sent to him for analy- 
sis, which he ascertained to be a compound 
of iron, with traces of manganese and of an 
unknown substance, which by a series of ex- 
periments he proved to possess a metallic 
base, although he was unable to reduce it 
to its simple form. In an article in Crell's 
' Annals ' he gave the name of Menacchanite 
to the sand, and that of Menacchine to the 
metallic substance which he had proved it to 
contain. No further notice was taken of this 
matter for six years. In 1795 Klaproth pub- 
lished the analysis of red schorl, showing 
that it was composed of the oxide of a pecu- 
liar metal to which he gave the name of Ti- 
tanium. Two years after the same chemist 
analysed some Menacchanite, and was sur- 
prised to find that it contained his new metal, 
when he abandoned his claim to the disco- 
very of Titanium, and acknowledged that 
the merit belonged solely to Gregor. This 
substance was afterwards found in the United 
States of America and in other places, and is 
sometimes called Gregorite. Gregor next 
made experiments on zeolite and wavellite, 
in both of which he found fluoric acid, while 
in uran glimmer he discovered oxide of lead, 
lime and silica, and in the topaz he was 
enabled to detect lime and potash, which had 
escaped the observation of Klaproth. He 
published sermons in 1798, 1805, 1809, three 
pamphlets, and in 1802 'A Letter on the 
Statute 21 Hen. VIII, c. 13, and on the 
Grievances to which the Clergy are exposed,' 
besides papers in scientific journals. He died 
of consumption at the rectory, Creed, 11 July 
1817. His wife died at Exeter, 11 Sept. 

[Paris's Memoir of the Eev. W. Gregor, 1818 ; 
Burke's Landed Gentry, 1850, i. 504 ; Boaseand 
Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. p. 1 88 ; Boase's Collect. 
Cornub. pp. 292, 307.] G. C. B. 

GREGOR, cacique of Poyais (d. 1886). 

GREGORY the GEEAT (d. 889), GEIG, 
king of Scotland, was the seventy-third king 
according to the fictitious chronology of 
Fordoun and Buchanan, but according to 
Skene's rectified list, the fifth king of the 
united kingdom of Scone, which Kenneth 

MacAlpine founded in 844. He succeeded 
in 878 Aed, the brother of Constantine and 
son of Kenneth MacAlpine, who after a short 
reign of one year was killed by his own people. 
With Aed the sons of Kenneth were ex- 
hausted, and instead of his grandson Donald, 
the son of Constantine, being taken as king, 
Eocha, son of Run, king of the Britons of 
Strathclyde, and the son of Constantine's 
sister, was made king, according, it is sug- 
gested, to the old custom of Pictish succession 
in the royal house through females. Eocha 
or Eochodius, was under age, and Gregory 
was associated with him, according to the 
Pictish l Chronicle,' as his guardian (' alump- 
nus ordinatorque Eochodii fiebat '). The word 
* alumnus,' though more usually meaning a 
foster-child, was also in late Latin applicable 
to a guardian, * Qui alit et alitur alumnus 
dici potest.' The father of Gregory was 
Dungaile, and it is supposed that he also was, 
like Run, of British descent, which may 
account for the omission of his name from 
the Albanic Duan and the 'Annals of Ulster,' 
which treat chiefly of the kings of Scottish or 
Dalriadic origin. Apart from the statement 
that he and his ward were expelled from the 
kingdom after a reign of eleven years, the 
earliest version of the Pictish ' Chronicles ' 
gives no information as to Gregory except 
the fact of the expulsion, and that an 
eclipse of the sun occurred 'in the ninth 
year of his reign, on the day of St. Ciricius r 
his patron or name saint for Ciricius is the 
form this ' Chronicle ' uses for the name of 
Gregory. Such an eclipse there in fact was 
on 16 June 885, the day of St. Ciricius, which 
was the seventh or the eighth year of Gregory's 
reign, so that, allowing for the discrepancy of 
one or two years, the period of his accession 
is thus confirmed. Later chroniclers have 
added two facts to our scanty knowledge 
which seem to be consistent with the probable 
course of this reign. Gregory is said to have 
brought into subjection the whole of Ber- 
nicia and the greater part of Anglia (Chroni- 
cles of Picts and Scots, p. 288), or, as the 
later thirteenth (p. 174) and fourteenth cen- 
tury 'Chronicles' of the Scots (p. 304) express 
it, Hibernia and Northumbria. There seems 
no foundation for the alleged Irish conquest, 
nor for that of nearly the whole of England 
at a time when Alfred was winning his vic- 
tories over the Danes. But it is possible 
that Northumbria, or that part of Eng- 
land, which was then also suffering from 
divided rule and the Danish incursions, 
may have been in part subdued by this 
Scottish king. Simeon of Durham states 
that during the reign of Guthred, son of 
Hardicnut, the Dane who succeeded Half- 



dene as ruler in the north of England, and 
whose capital was York, the Scots invaded 
Northumbria and plundered the monastery 
of Lindisfarne. 

The other fact recorded as to Gregory in 
the ' Chronicle ' of the thirteenth century is 
that l he was the first to give liberty to the 
Scottish church, which was under servitude 
up to that time, according to the constitutions 
and customs of the Picts.' This is one of those 
tantalising entries which we feel almost sure 
conceal a fragment of authentic history, but 
leave much room for conjecture as to what 
that fragment is. The view of Skene, that it 
refers to the Scottish clergy being then freed 
from secular services and exactions, seems 
more probable than that of Mr. E. W. Ro- 
bertson, that it indicates a transfer of the pri- 
vileges of the church of Dunkeld to that of St. 
Andrews. That in some form Gregory was a 
benefactor of the church is certain, and ac- 
counts for the epithet of Great given to him 
by the later chroniclers and historians, and 
perhaps for the dedication of the church of 
Ecclesgreig in the Mearns in his honour. Mr. 
Robertson, following some of the later ' Chro- 
nicles,' assumes that Gregory continued to 
reign, along with the next king, Donald, the 
son of Constantine, for seven years, and that 
his reign therefore lasted till 896. But this 
is inconsistent with the earliest l Chronicle 
of the Picts and Scots/ which distinctly states 
that he was expelled, along with his ward 
Eocha, and names Donald as their successor. 
According to the same class of authorities 
he died at Dunadeer, and was buried at 
Scone. But the place of his death is not really 
known. Some chronicles place it at Done- 
doune, which Chalmers identified with Duna- 
deer in Gareoch, although Skene identifies it 
with Dundurn, a fort on the Earn. 

Buchanan, as usual, amplifies even the 
amplifications of Fordoun ; but all that is 
known with reasonable certainty of this king 
is contained in the above narrative, mainly 
taken from Skene. 

[Chronicles of the Picts and Scots ; Robertson's 
Scotland under her Early Kings ; Skene's Celtic 
Scotland, vol. i.] JE. M. 

TER (fl. 1270), historian, entered the monas- 
tery of St. Peter's at Gloucester, according 
to his own account, on 29 Oct. 1237 (MS. 
Cott. Vesp. A. v. f. 201 recto), and is stated 
to have lived there for sixty years. He 
wrote the annals of his monastery from 682 
to 1290, a work which has only survived in 
an epitome made by Lawrence Noel, and 
now contained in Cotton MS. Yesp. A. v. 
ff. 198-203. It consists almost entirely of 

obits and of notices relating to events which 
concerned his own monastery or the town of 
Gloucester, but even in the early part it 
includes matter which is not contained in 
the ' Historia S. Petri Gloucestrise,' printed 
in the Rolls Series. A Gregory of Karewent 
was dean of the arches in 1279 (PRYNNE, 
Hist, of K. John, &c., 1219), and in Peck- 
ham's ' Register ' (Rolls Ser. iii. 1014) for 
the same year the livings of Tetbury, Glou- 
cestershire, and Blockley, Worcestershire, 
are mentioned as vacant through the death 
of Gregory de Kerewent. A Philip de Kayr- 
went was prior of Gloucester in 1284 (Hist. 
S. Pet. Glouc. iii. 23), and Richard de Kayr- 
went was infirmarer in 1275 and 1284 (ib. i. 
171 , iii. 23). Gregory has also been supposed 
to be the author of the ' Metrical Life of St. 
Hugh of Lincoln ' (MSS. Reg. 13, A. iv., in 
Brit. Mus.,and Laud. 515 in Bodleian) ; but 
this is scarcely probable, since that poem 
appears to have been written before 1235 
(DIMOCK, preface to Metrical Life of St. 
Huyh of Lincoln). The Laudian MS., how- 
ever, seems to contain a later edition, and 
ascribes the poem to a Gregory who had 
dedicated it to a bishop of Winchester, and 
it is therefore possible that our writer may 
have been the reviser of the older poem. 

[Bale, iv. 346 ; Pits, p. 375 ; Tanners Bibl. 
Brit. p. 343 ; Hardy's Cat. Brit. Hist. ii. 548, 
iii. 214, 341.] C. L. K. 

monk of Ramsey, of which abbey he is said 
to have been prior for thirty-eight years, 
is described as a man of much learning, 
acquainted with Latin, Greek, and Hebrew. 
On the expulsion of the Jews from England 
in 1290 he purchased from them all the 
Hebrew books which he could procure, and 
presented them to his abbey. In the cata- 
logue of books in the library of Ramsey 
printed in ' Chr. Ramsey,' Rolls Ser., p. 365 
a list of books of Gregory the prior is given, 
which includes several in Hebrew and Greek. 
From the books thus collected Laurence 
Holbeach is said to have compiled a Hebrew 
dictionary about 1410. According to Bale 
and Pits, Gregory wrote : 1. ' Ars intelligendi 
Grseca.' 2. ' Grammaticse summa.' 3. ' Ex- 
planationes Grsecorum nominum.' 4. 'Atten- 
tarium.' 5. * Epistolfe curiales.' 6. ' Expo- 
sitio Donati.' 7. 'Notulae in Priscianum.' 
8. * Imago mundi.' This work is commonly 
ascribed to Henry of Huntingdon, and some- 
times to Bede ; it is printed among St. An- 
selm's ' Works/ ed. 1630, ii. 416. The manu- 
scripts are very numerous, e.g. Bodl. 625 and 
E. Mus. 223 in the Bodleian (see also COXE, 
Cat. Cod. MSS. Coll. Oxon.) 9. < Rudimenta 



grammatics.' 10. ' Sententise per versus/ 
11. ' lie guise versificandi.' 

[Bale, iv. 22; Pits, p. 333; Tanner, p. 342 ; 
Fabricius, Bibl. Med. lv. 1754, iii. 100.] 

C. L. K.. 

GREGORY, MBS. -(d. 1790?). [See MES. 


GREGORY, BARNARD (1796-1852), 
journalist, was born in 1796. He first came 
into public notice as the editor and proprietor 
of a new London weekly paper, which was 
issued on Sunday, 10 April 1831. It was 
called ' The Satirist, or the Censor of the 
Times,' and was printed by James Thompson 
at 119 Fleet Street, and published at 11 Crane 
Court, London, price Id. The motto on the 
first page was ' Satire's my weapon. I was 
born a critic and a satirist ; and my nurse 
remarked that I hissed as soon as I saw 
light.' This paper obtained the support of 
readers delighting in scandal and calumny, 
and prospered by levying blackmail upon 
those who dreaded exposure or slander. The 
libels were often sent in manuscript to the 
persons concerned, accompanied by a notice 
that publication would promptly ensue unless 
a price were paid for suppression of the ar- 
ticle. The weak yielded and were plundered, 
the strong resisted and were libelled, when, 
owing to the uncertain state of the law and 
the expenses attending a trial, it was not 
easy to obtain any redress. During a period 
of eighteen years Gregory was almost con- 
tinually engaged in litigation, and several 
times was the inmate of a prison. In Sep- 
tember 1832 John Deas, an attorney, recovered 
300/. damages and costs from the proprietor 
of the ' Satirist ' for a libel. On 11 Feb. 1833 
the proprietor was convicted of accusing a 
gentleman called Digby, of Brighton, of 
cheating at cards (Barnewall and Adolphus" 1 s 
Reports, iv. 821-6). In November 1838 an 
action was brought for a libel printed 15 July 
1838, reflecting on the characters of the 
Marquis of Blandford and his son the Earl of 
Sunderland (Times, 23 Nov. 1838, p. 6), in 
which Lord Denman described Gregory as ' a 
trafficker in character.' In the same year he 
libelled J. Last, the printer of < The Town.' 
Here, however, he made a mistake in his 
policy ; for ' Chief-baron ' Renton Nicholson, 
the editor of that paper, replied in a series of 
articles which thoroughly exposed Gregory's 
character and his proceedings (The Town, 
28 July 1838, p. 484 et seq.) On 14 Feb. 
1839 he was convicted in the court of queen's 
bench for a libel on the wife of James Weir 
Hogg, esq., M.P. for Beverley, and impri- 
soned for three months. Charles, duke of 
Brunswick and Lunenburg, who, after his 

flight from his dukedom in September 1830, 
lived many years in England, was frequently 
made the subject of severe articles in many of 
the English papers, and more especially in the 
< Satirist.' On 14 Nov. 1841 the duke and his 
attorney, Mr. Vallance, were libelled in that 
paper ; proceedings were taken, and Gregory 
was on 2 Dec. 1843 sentenced to six months' 
imprisonment in Newgate. He, however, 
appealed, and, taking advantage of all the 
intricacies of the law, kept the case in the 
courts until 13 June 1850, when the judg- 
ment was affirmed (Carrington and Kirwaris 
Reports, 1845, i. 208-10, 228-32; Adolphus 
and Ellis' s Queen's Bench Reports, new ser. 
1847, vii. 274-81, xv. 957-75 ; Dowling and 
Lowndes's Reports, 1848, iv. 777-87 ; Cox's 
Cases in Criminal Law, 1853, v. 247-54). On 
25 Feb. 1843 he was again found guilty in a 
case in the court of exchequer, McGregor v. 
Gregory, for a libel published 11 Oct. 1842, in 
which the plaintiff was called a black-sheep, 
the associate of blacklegs, &c. In the same 
year Gregory was convicted of another series 
of libels on the Duke of Brunswick, in which 
he charged him with being the assassin of 
Eliza Grimwood,an unfortunate woman, who 
had been found murdered in her room in Wel- 
lington Terrace, Waterloo Road, on 26 May 
1838. In 1848 the duke brought a third action 
against Crowle, the printer of the ' Satirist/ 
and was awarded damages, which, however, 
he never succeeded in obtaining. The ' Satirist ' 
had a circulation of ten thousand copies. In 
private life Gregory is said to have been 
gentlemanly and retiring in his manners, and 
possessed of a good fund of anecdote. He was, 
moreover, a good actor, and could play several 
Shakespearean characters as effectively as the 
majority of the professionals of his time. The 
public, however, would not tolerate his appear- 
ance on the stage. On 13 Feb. 1843 he at- 
tempted Hamlet at Covent Garden before an 
infuriated mob, who would not listen to a word 
he said. The leader of the mob was the Duke 
of Brunswick, who, seated in a private box, led 
the opposition. Gregory at once brought an 
action in the court of queen's bench against 
the duke, charging him with conspiracy in 
hiring persons to hiss him. The duke in re- 
ply stated that Gregory had during the past 
five years been busy slandering him and 
other persons, and that it was not for the 
public good that such a person should be per- 
mitted to appear on the stage. The jury gave 
a verdict for the defendant, 21 June 1843 
(Carrington and Kirwan's Reports, 1845, i. 
24-53). In August 1846 he appeared in 
' Hamlet ' at the Haymarket, and continued 
his efforts for several evenings ; but the old 
systematic rioting was resumed, and the 




house had to be closed. He then went to the 
Victoria Theatre, where he played on 7 Sept. 
1840, and on the following Thursday, 10 Sept., 
acted Richard III at the Strand Theatre. 
This was his last appearance on the stage. 
He was the author of four unpublished 
dramas, two of which were acted with suc- 
cess. At length, by the force of public opi- 
nion, aided by the law courts and the lasting 
hostility of 'the Duke of Brunswick, the 
* Satirist ' was suppressed, No. 924, Saturday, 
15 Dec. 1849, being the last issue of that 
journal. Gregory, in March 1847, married 
Margaret, niece of John Thompson of Frog- 
nail Priory, Hampstead, who was generally 
known as ' Memory Thompson.' Thompson 
died just before the marriage, and Gregory 
came into Thompson's money, which with 
his own savings made him a comparatively 
well-to-do man. After an illness of three 
years, of disease of the lungs, he died at 
The Priory, 22 Aberdeen Place, St. John's 
Wood, London, on 24 Nov. 1852, aged 56. 
His will, dated 17 Nov. 1852, was proved 
22 April 1853. It is now at Somerset House, 
arid in it he speaks of a daughter by a first 
wife who had greatly offended him, and he 
refers in bitter terms to ' his enemy ' the 
Duke of Brunswick. 

[Era, 19 Feb. 1843, p. 6; The Theatre, Sep- 
tember 1878, pp. 117-21, by Button Cook; the 
Rev. J. Richardson's Recollections (1855), i. 22, 
25-8, ii. 181-3; Cobbett's Weekly Political Re- 
gister, 10 Sept. 1832, pp. 395-8.] G. C. B. 

GREGORY, DAVID (1661-1708), as- 
tronomer, was the eldest son of David Gre- 
gory (1627-1720) [q. v.] of Kinnairdie in 
Banffshire, where he was born on 24 June 
1661. From Marischal College, Aberdeen, 
he entered the university of Edinburgh, and 
graduated M.A. on 28 Nov. 1683. He had a 
month previously been elected to the mathe- 
matical chair occupied in 1674 and 1675 by his 
uncle, James Gregory [q. v.], the possession 
of whose papers had directed his attention to 
mathematics. A salary of 1000/. Scots was 
attached to the office. His inaugural ad- 
dress, ' De Analyseos Geometric^ progressu 
et incrementis,' is lost; but he published at 
Edinburgh, in 1684, ' Exercitatio Geometrica 
de Dimensione Figurarum,' in which, with the 
help of his uncle's memoranda, he extended 
the method of quadratures by infinite series. 
A notice of the work appeared in the ' Philo- 
sophical Transactions ' (xiv. 730). Gregory 
was the first professor who publicly lectured 
on the Newtonian philosophy. His enthusi- 
asm for the 'Principia' reacted even on 
Englishmen. Whiston relates (Memoirs, p. 
36) that he himself was led to its study by 

Gregory's ' prodigious commendations.' A 
collection of notes from his lectures, preserved 
in the university library at Edinburgh, shows 
that they covered an unusually wide range, 
their subjects including geodesy, optics, and 
dynamics, as well as the various branches of 
mathematics. The inquisitorial proceedings 
of the committee of visitation to the univer- 
sity, appointed under the act of 4 July 1690, 
caused him much annoyance ; and his refusal 
to subscribe the confession rendered his posi- 
tion precarious. He accordingly went to 
London in 1691, with a view to the Savilian 
chair of astronomy at Oxford, then about to 
be vacated by Dr. Edward Bernard [q. v.], and 
was introduced to Newton, whose intimate 
friend he became. Newton recommended him 
to Flamsteed as ' a very ingenious person and 
good mathematician worth your acquaint- 
ance,' and spoke of him as a probable suc- 
cessor in the reform of planetary theories 
(BAILY, Flamsteed, p. 129). Chosen Savilian 
professor before the close of the year through 
the combined influence of Newton and Flam- 
steed, he took the degrees of M.A. and M.D. 
at Oxford on 6 and 18 Feb. 1692 respectively, 
and became a master commoner of Ballibl 
College. He was elected a fellow of the Royal 
Society on 30 Nov. 1692. 

His 'Catoptricae et Dioptrics Elementa' 
(Oxford, 1695), purposely adapted to under- 
graduates, contained the substance of lectures 
delivered at Edinburgh in 1684. A con- 
cluding remark (p. 98), as to the possibility 
of counteracting colour-aberration in lenses, 
by combining in them media of different 
densities, gave the first hint of the achromatic 
telescope. The treatise was reprinted at Edin- 
burgh in 1713, and translated into English by 
Sir William Browne [q. v.] in 1715 (2nd ed., 
with appendix by Desaguliers, London, 1735). 
Gregory married, in 1695, Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of Mr. Oliphant, of Langtoun in Scot- 
land, and had by her four children. He se- 
cured in 1699, through his interest with 
Bishop Burnet, the appointment of mathe- 
matical tutor to William, Duke of Gloucester, 
whose early death forestalled his instructions. 
His success was viewed with some bitterness 
by Flamsteed, who had aspired to the post. 

Gregory's principal work, 'Astronomic 
Physics et Geometries Elementa,' was pub- 
lished, with a dedication to Prince George of 
Denmark, at Oxford in 1702. It was the 
first text-book composed on gravitational 
principles, and remodelling astronomy in 
conformity with physical theory (Phil. Trans. 
xxiii. 1312 ; Acta Eruditorum, 1703, p. 452). 
Newton thought highly of the book, and 
communicated, for insertion in it (p. 332), 
his ' lunar theory,' long the guide of practical 




astronomers in determining the moon's mo- 
tions. The discussion in the preface, in which 
the doctrine of gravitation was brought into 
credit on the score of its antiquity, likewise 
emanated from Newton. The materials for 
it were found in his handwriting among 
Gregory's papers (Edinburgh Phil. Trans. 
xii. 64) . Flamsteed complained that Gregory 
4 had two or three flings at him,' the chief 
cause of offence being the doubt thrown on 
the reality of his supposed parallax for the 
pole-star (BAILY, Flamsteed, p. 203; Astr. 
Elementa, p. 275). His hostility was not 
soothed by Gregory's nomination, in 1704, as 
one of the committee charged by Prince 
George with the inspection and printing of 
the Greenwich observations. 

In pursuance of Dr. Bernard's scheme for 
printing the works of ancient mathemati- 
cians, Gregory brought out in 1703, through 
the University Press, a splendid edition in 
Greek and Latin, accompanied by an elaborate 
preface, of all the writings attributed, with 
any show of authority, to Euclid. He next 
undertook, with Halley, a joint edition of 
Apollonius, which, however, he did not live 
to complete. He was chosen in 1705 an hono- 
rary fellow of the Royal College of Physi- 
cians of Edinburgh, and took his seat at the 
board on 4 Oct. In 1708 he was attacked 
with consumption, and repaired to Bath for 
the waters. On his return to London, ac- 
companied by his wife, he was stopped by an 
accession of illness at Maidenhead in Berk- 
shire, and, hoping to continue his journey 
next morning, sent to Windsor for his friend 
Dr. Arbuthnot, who found him at the last 
extremity. He died on 10 Oct. 1708, at the 
Greyhound Inn, and was buried in the 
churchyard of Maidenhead. His widow 
erected a marble monument to him in St. 
Mary's Church, Oxford. At the time of his 
death his three sons lay sick and his only 
daughter dead of small-pox in London. His 
eldest son David (1696-1767) [q. v.] was 
afterwards dean of Christ Church. 

Gregory appears to have been of an amiable 
disposition, and was much regretted by his 
friends. He was a skilful mathematician, 
but owed his reputation mainly to his promp- 
titude and zeal in adopting the Newtonian 
philosophy. Flamsteed's description of him 
as a * closet astronomer ' is not inapt. His 
only recorded observation is of the partial 
eclipse of the sun on 13 Sept. 1699 (Phil. 
Trans, xxi. 330). He left manuscript treatises 
on fluxions, trigonometry, mechanics, and 
hydrostatics. A tract, < De Motu,' was printed 
posthumously (in Eames and Martyn's 
1 Abridg. Phil. Trans.' vi. 275, 1734), and a 
transcript of his * Notae in Isaaci Newtoni 

Principia Philosophica,' in three hundred 
closely written quarto pages, is preserved in 
the library of the university of Edinburgh. 
Composed about 1693, it is said at Newton's 
request, these laborious annotations were 
submitted to Huygens for his opinion with 
unknown result. A proposal for printing 
them, set on foot at Oxford in 1714, fell 
through (RiGAUD, Corresp. of Scientific Men, 
i. 264). Their compilation suggested Gre- 
gory's 'Astronomy.' Of this work English 
editions appeared in 1713 and 1726, and a 
reprint, revised by C. Huart, at Geneva, in 
1726. A treatise embodying Gregory's ma- 
thematical lectures was published in an Eng- 
lish translation by Maclaurin as ' A Treatise 
of Practical Geometry,' Edinburgh, 1745. Its 
usefulness as a university text-book carried 
it into several editions, the ninth appearing in 
1780. The following papers were communi- 
cated by Gregory to the Royal Society : ' So- 
lutio Problematis Florentini ' (< Phil. Trans.' 
xviii. 25) ; ' Refutations of a charge of Pla- 
giarism against James Gregory ' (ib. p. 233, 
xxv. 2336) ; ' Catenaria ' (ib. xix. 637, and 

* Miscellanea Curiosa,' vol. ii. 1706), contain- 
ing demonstrations of various properties of 
the catenary curve, with the suggestion that 
its inversion gave the true form of the arch ; 

* Responsio ad Animadversionem ad Davidis 
Gregorii Catenariam ' (< Phil. Trans.' xxi. 419, 
and ' Acta Erudit.' 1700, p. 301) ; De Orbita 
Cassiniana ' (' Phil. Trans.' xxiv. 1704). 

[Biog. Brit. iv. 1757; Sir Alexander Grant's 
Story of the University of Edinburgh, ii. 296 ; 
General Diet. v. 1737; Wood's Fasti Oxon. 
(Bliss), ii. 394; Irving's Lives of Scottish Writers, 
ii. 239 ; Letters written by Eminent Persons, i. 
176, 1813 ; Button's Mathematical Diet. (1815) ; 
Delambre's Hist, de 1'Astr. au XVIII 6 Siecle, p. 
60; Bailly's Hist, de 1'Astr. Moderne, ii. 632, 
655; Marie's Hist, des Sciences, vii. 148; Weidler's 
Hist. Astronomic, p. 580 ; Watt's Bibl. Brit. ; 
Notes and Queries, 7th ser., iii. 147 ; Works of 
Dr. John Gregory, i. 12, 1788; Eigaud MSS. in 
Bodleian Library.]^K A. M. C. 

GREGORY, DAVID (1627-1720), in- 
ventor, son of the Rev. John Gregory, parish 
minister of Drumoak, on the Kincardineshire 
border, and elder brother of James Gregory 
(1638-1675) [q. v.], was born in 1627. He 
was apprenticed by his father to a mercantile 
house in Holland. He returned to his native 
country in 1655, and succeeded, on the death 
of an elder brother, to the estate of Kinardie, 
some forty miles north of Aberdeen. Here 
he resided for many years, and was the father 
of no less than thirty-two children by two 
wives. Three of his sons, David (1661-1708) 
[q. v.], Charles, and James, were good mathe- 
maticians. A daughter was the mother of 

Gregory, David (1661-1708). viii. 537^. 
Add to list of authorities : W. G. Hiscock's 
The War of the Scientists ; new light on 




Thomas Reid [q. v.], who recorded most of 
what is known of his grandfather's career. 

Gregory was ridiculed by his neighbours 
for his ignorance of farming, but regarded as 
an oracle in medicine. lie had a large gra- 
tuitous practice among the poor, and was 
often called in by people of standing also, 
but would never accept a fee. Being much 
occupied by his practice by day, he retired 
to bed early, rose about 2 or 3 A.M., shut 
himself in with his books and instruments 
for several hours, and then had another hour's 
rest before breakfast. He was the first man 
about Aberdeenshire to possess a barometer, 
and it is said that his forecasts of weather 
exposed him to suspicions of witchcraft or 
conjuration. About the beginning of the 
eighteenth century he removed to Aberdeen, 
and during the wars of Queen Anne turned 
his attention to the improvement of artillery. 
With the help of an Aberdeen watchmaker 
he constructed a model of improved cannon, 
and prepared to take it to Flanders. Mean- 
while he forwarded his model to his son David 
(1661-1708) [q. v.], the Savilian professor, and 
to Newton. Newton held that it was only cal- 
culated for the diabolical purpose of increasing 
carnage, and urged the professor to break up , 
the model, which was never afterwards found. 
During the rebellion of 1715 Gregory went a 
second time to Holland, returning when the 
trouble had subsided to Aberdeen. He ap- 
pears to have been discouraged from further 
invention, and devoted the later years of his 
long life to the compilation of a history of his 
time and country which was never published. 
He died in 1720. 

[Dr. Reid's additions to the Lives of the Gre- 
gorys in Button's Mathematical Diet.] J. B-Y. 

GREGORY, DAVID (1696-1767), dean 
of Christ Church, Oxford, was the son of Dr. 
David Gregory (1661-1708) [q. v.], Savilian 
professor at Oxford. Two years after his 
father's death Gregory was admitted a queen's 
scholar of Westminster School,whence in 1714 
he was elected to Christ Church. He graduated 
B.A. 8 May 1718, and M.A. 27 June 1721, and 
on 18 April 1724 became the first professor of 
modern history and languages at Oxford. He 
soon afterwards took orders and was appointed 
rector of Semley, Wiltshire ; proceeding B.D. 
13 March 1731 and D.D. in the following 
year (7 July 1732). He continued to hold 
his professorship till 1736, when he resigned 
it on his appointment to a canonry in Christ 
Church Cathedral (installed 8 June). Twenty 
years later he was promoted to the deanery 
(installed 18 May 1756), and 15 Sept. 1759 
was also appointed master of Sherborne Hos- 
pital, Durham. In 1761 he was prolocutor 

of the lower house of convocation. He 
died at the age of seventy-one, 16 Sept. 1767, 
and was buried under a plain slab with a 
short Latin inscription in the cathedral ; his 
picture hangs in the college hall. He was 
son-in-law to the Duke of Kent, having 
married Lady Mary Grey, who died before 
him (in 1762, aged 42), and lies in the same 
grave. Gregory was a considerable bene- 
factor both to his college and Sherborne 
Hospital. While canon (1750) he repaired 
and adorned Christ Church Hall, and pre- 
sented to it busts of the two first kings of 
the house of Hanover. Under his directions 
when dean the upper rooms in the college 
library were finished (1761), and he is said 
to have raised the terrace in the great quad- 
rangle. At Sherborne he began by cutting 
down a wood on the hospital estates, and 
with the proceeds from the sale of the tim- 
ber erected a new building for the poorer 
brethren, twenty rooms with a common hall 
in the centre. A eulogy of Gregory written 
by an anonymous author (Essay on the Life of 
David Gregory, late Dean of Christ Church, 
London, 1769, 4to) says that before his time 
the brethren of Sherborne were huddled to- 
gether in wretched little huts. Gregory em- 
ployed his leisure in writing Latin verses, 
and testified his loyalty by Latin poems on 
the death of George I and the accession of 
George II, lamenting also in verse the death 
of the latter, and congratulating George III 
when he succeeded his grandfather. 

[Welch's Alumni Westm. pp. 252, 262; Cat. of 
Oxford Graduates, 1659-1750, p. 274 ; Gutch's 
Hist, and Antiq. of the University of Oxford, iii. 
442, 457, 460, 479, Append. 282 ; Cole MS. xxvii. 
246-7 ; Surtees's Durham, i. 143.] E. T. B. 

GREGORY, DONALD (d. 1836), anti- 
quary, was secretary to the Society of Anti- 
quaries of Scotland and to the lona Club, 
and was a member of the Ossianic Society of 
Glasgow and the Royal Society of the Anti- 
quaries of the North at Copenhagen. About 
1830 he announced his intention of publish- 
ing a work on the Western Highlands and 
Isles of Scotland (which he frequently visited) 
and received help and information from -many 
quarters. The book was published at Edin- 
burgh in 1836, 8vo, as < History of the Wes- 
tern Highlands and Isles of Scotland from 
. . . . 1493 to ... 1625 ; with an intro- 
ductory sketch from A.D. 80 to 1493' (re- 
viewed in 'The Athenaeum ' for 18 March 
1837, p. 188 f.) A second edition was pub- 
lished in 1881, 8vo. Gregory died at Edin- 
burgh on 21 Oct. 1836. 

[Gent. Mag. 1836, pt. ii. p. 668; Gregory's 
Western Highlands.] 


9 6 



SON (1813-1844), mathematician, born at 
Edinburgh in April 1813, was the youngest 
son of James Gregory (1753-1821) [q. v.], .pro- 
fessor of medicine in the university of Edin- 
burgh. Till he was nine years old he was 
taught entirely by his mother; in October 
1825 he was sent to the Edinburgh Academy, 
and after two years there spent a winter at a 
private academy at Geneva. As a child he 
displayed great powers in acquiring know- 
ledge, as weU as ingenuity in mechanical 
contrivances (such as making an orrery), 
and at Geneva his mathematical talent at- 
tracted attention. On his return he attended 
classes at the Edinburgh University, work- 
ing at chemistry, making experiments in 
polarised light, and advancing in the higher 
parts of mathematics, under the tuition of 
Professor Wallace. In October 1833 he com- 
menced residence at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, where he took the degrees of B. A. in 
1838 and M.A. in 1841 ; he came out as fifth 
wrangler in the.tripos of 1837, and was elected 
fellow of Trinity in October 1840. He served 
the office of moderator in 1842, and was ap- 
pointed assistant tutor of his college. Soon 
after taking his degree he was one of the pro- 
]ectors and the first editor of the l Cambridge 
'Mathematical Journal,' and many of the most 
valuable of its papers are from his pen. These 
have been collected in a volume, under the 
title ' The Mathematical Writings of D. F. 
Gregory,' edited by his friend Mr. W.Walton, 
Cambridge, 1865. In 1841 he published his 
* Examples of the Processes of the Differential 
and Integral Calculus,' a work which pro- 
duced a great change for the better in the 
Cambridge mathematical books. It is the 
first in which constant use is made of the 
method known by the name of the separation 
of the symbols of operation, and the author 
has enlivened its pages by occasionally in- 
troducing historical notices of the problems 
discussed. A second edition appeared after his 
death in 1846 under Mr. Walton's editorial 
care. His other mathematical work was 'A 
Treatise on the Application of Analysis to 
Solid Geometry,' which was left unfinished at 
his death, and was completed and published by 
Walton in 1845. This is the first treatise in 
which the system of solid geometry is deve- 
loped by means of symmetrical equations, 
and is a great advance on those of Leroy and 
Hymers. A second edition appeared in 1852. 
Though his time was chiefly employed on 
mathematical subjects, this was by no means 
his only branch of study; he was an able 
metaphysician, a good botanist, and was so 
well acquainted with chemistry that he occa- 
sionally gave lectures on chemical subjects, 

and acted for some time as assistant to the 
professor of chemistry. He was at one time a 
candidate for the mathematical chair at Edin- 
burgh ; in 1841 he refused that at Toronto. 
His health gave way in 1842, and after great 
suffering he died at Canaan Lodge, Edinburgh, 
on 23 Feb. 1844. 

[Biographical Memoir of D. F. Gregory by 
K. L. Ellis, prefixed to Walton's edit, of his ma- 
thematical writings, Cambr. 1865; Gent. Mag. 
1844, pt. i. p. 657.] H. R. L. 

GREGORY, EDMUND (Jl. 1646), 
author, born about 1615, was the son of 
Henry Gregory, rector of, and benefactor 
to, Sherrington, Wiltshire (HoAEE, Modern 
Wiltshire, ' Heytesbury,' p. 239). He en- 
tered Trinity College, Oxford, in 1632, and 
proceeded B. A. on 5 May 1636 (Wooo, Fasti, 
ed. Bliss, i. 487). He wrote : ' An Historical 
Anatomy of Christian Melancholy, sym- 
pathetically set forth, in a threefold state of 
the soul. . . . With a concluding Meditation 
on the Fourth Verse of the Ninth Chapter 
of St. John,' 8vo, London, 1646. To this 
interesting little work, which contains some 
verse of more than average merit, is prefixed 
a portrait of the author in his thirty-first 
year, engraved by W. Marshall. As he is 
not depicted in the habit of a clergyman of 
the church of England, Wood is probably 
wrong in his conjecture that he was episco- 
pally ordained (Athence Oxon. ed. Bliss, iii. 
207-8). An Edmund Gregory, a resident 
of Cuxham, Oxfordshire, and described as an 
* esquire,' died at Walton-on-Thames, Surrey, 
in 1691 (Administration Act Book, P. C. C., 
1691, fol. 230). 

[Granger's Biogr. Hist, of England, 2nd edit, 
ii. 198.] G. G. 

GREGORY, FRANCIS, D.D. (1625 ?- 
1707), divine and schoolmaster, born about 
1625, was a native of Woodstock, Oxford- 
shire. He was educated at Westminster 
under Busby, who, as he afterwards said, 
was not only a master but a father to him, 
and in 1641 was elected to a scholarship at 
Trinity College, Cambridge, graduating M.A. 
in 1648. He returned to Westminster School 
as usher till he was appointed head-master 
of the grammar school at W T oodstock. He 
was a successful teacher, and numbered among 
his pupils several sons of noble families. An 
ardent royalist he was chosen to preach the 
thanksgiving sermon for the Restoration at 
St. Mary's, Oxford, 27 May 1660, and after- 
wards published it under the title of ' David's 
Return from Banishment.' He also published 
1 Votivum Carolo, or a Welcome to his sacred 
Majesty Charles II from the Master and 




Scholars of Woodstock School/ a volume of 
English and Latin verses composed by Gre- 
gory and his pupils. Shortly afterwards he 
became head-master of a newly founded school 
at Witney, Oxfordshire, and 22 Sept. 1661 he 
was incorporated D.D. of Oxford University 
from St. Mary Hall. He was appointed a 
chaplain to the king, and in 1671 was -pre- 
sented by Earl Rivers to the living of Ham- 
bleden, Buckinghamshire. He kept this post 
till his death in 1707. He was buried in the 
church, where a tablet was erected to his me- 

Gregory published : 1. ' 'Eru/zoAoyiKoi> 
fj-LKpov, sive Etymologicum parvum ex magno 
illo Sylburgii. Eustathio Martinio, aliisque 
magni nominis auctoribus excerptum/ 1654, 
practically a Greek-Latin lexicon. 2. l In- 
structions concerning the Art of Oratory, for 
the Use of Schools,' 1659. 3. ''Oi>o/zttu<6i/ 
Ppaxv, sive Nomenclatura brevis Anglo- 
Latino-Grseca,' 1675, a classified vocabulary, 
which reached a thirteenth edition in 1695. 
Each of these works was published for use at 
Westminster School. 4. 'The Triall of Re- | 
ligions, with cautions against Defection to 
the Roman,' 1674. 5. ' The Grand Presump- 
tion of the Romish Church in equalling their 
own traditions to the written word of God,' 
1675, dedicated to his friend Thomas Bar- 
low, bishop of Lincoln. 6. ' The Doctrine 
of the Glorious Trinity not explained but as- 
serted by several Texts,' 1695. 7. 'A modest 
Plea for the due Regulation of the Press.' He 
also printed several sermons, including ' Tears 
and Blood, or a Discourse of the Persecution 
of Ministers . . . set forth in two Sermons,' 
Oxford, 1660 ; f The Gregorian Account, or 
Spiritual Watch,' 1673, preached at St. 
Michael's, Cornhill ; and ' The Religious Vil- 
lain,' 1679, preached before the lord mayor 
at St. Mary-le-Bow Church, was printed be- 
cause the preacher was l rather seen than 
heard by reason of the inarticulate noise of 
many through catarrhs and coughs drowning 
the voice of one.' 

[Welch's Alumni Westmon. pp. 117, 303; 
Lipscombe's Buckinghamshire, iii. 573 ; Lysons's 
Buckinghamshire, p. 569 ; Wood's Fasti Oxon. 
ed. Bliss, ii. 258-9 ; Cole's MSS. vol. xlv. f. 265 ; 
Brit. Mus. Cat.] A. V. 

1808), divine and man of letters, son of an 
Irish clergyman, was educated at Liverpool 
for the counting-house. For several years 
he was clerk to Alderman C. Gore, merchant 
of Liverpool, but took more interest in lite- 
rature and the drama than in his employ- 
ment, and was director of a small private 
theatre, for which he wrote several farces 
and plays. Resolving to give up business, 


he studied at the university of Edinburgh, 
and was ordained in the established church. 
He was admitted to the degree of D.D. in 
1792. Gregory settled in London in 1782, 
and became evening preacher at the Found- 
ling Hospital. In 1802 he was presented 
to the living of West Ham, Essex, a prefer- 
ment said to have been given him by Ad- 
dington for his support of the administration. 
He became prebendary of St. Paul's in 1806, 
and at the time of his death was also chaplain 
to the Bishop of LlandafF. Gregory was a 
hard-working parish priest, and an energetic 
member of the Royal Humane Society. He 
died on 12 March 1808. 

Gregory was for the most part self-edu- 
cated, and acquired a very creditable amount 
of erudition. His first work was a volume 
of 'Essays Historical and Moral' (1st ed. 
published anonymously 1783, 2nd 1788). In 
1787 he published a volume of sermons to 
which are prefixed 'Thoughts on the Com- 
position and Delivery of a Sermon ' (2nd edi- 
tion, 1789). He was also the author of a 
'Translation of Bishop Lowth's Lectures on 
the Poetry of the Hebrews ' (2 vols. 8vo, 
1st ed. 1787, last 1847); 'The Life of T. 
Chatterton' (1789, a reprint from Kippis's 
'Biog. Brit.,' iv. 573-619); 'An History of 
the Christian Church' (1790, 2nd ed. 1795) ; 
a revised edition of Dr. Hawkesworth's trans- 
lation of Fenelon's ' Telemaque ' (1795) ; 
' The Economy of Nature Explained and Il- 
lustrated on the Principles of Modern Philo- 
sophy ' (1796, 2nd ed. 1798, 3rd 1804) ; ' The 
Elements of a Polite Education, carefully 
selected from the Letters of Lord Chester- 
field' (1800, new ed. 1807); 'Letters on 
Literature, Taste, and Composition ' (1808) ; 
and ' A Dictionary of the Arts and Sciences ' 
(1808). On the death of Dr. Kippis in 1795 
Gregory was appointed editor of the ' Biogra- 
phia Britannica,' but he made little progress 
with the work, and the sixth volume, to which 
he had contributed a preface, was burnt in 
the warehouse of Nichols & Son on 8 Feb. 
1808. He was also for some years editor of 
the ' New Annual Register,' a publication 
started by Kippis in opposition to the 'Annual 
Register ' in 1780, probably as successor to 
Kippis. Gregory changed its politics from 
whig to tory during the premiership of Ad- 

[Gent. Mag. 1808, Ixxviii. pt. i. pp. 277, 386 ; 
Brit. Mus. Cat.] L. C. S. 

GREGORY, GEORGE (1790-1853), 

Physician, grandson of John Gregory (1724- 
773) [q.v.J, and second son of the Rev. Wil- 
liam Gregory, one of the six preachers of Can- 
terbury Cathedral, was born at Canterbury on 


9 8 


16 Aug. 1790. After his father's death in 1803 
he lived with his uncle, Dr. James Gregory 
(1753-1821 )[q.v.], in Edinburgh, and studied 
medicine in 1806-9 in Edinburgh Univer- 
sity, and afterwards at St. George's Hospital, 
London, and the Windmill Street School of 
Medicine. He graduated M.D. Edinb. in 1811, 
became M.R.C.S. Engl. in 1812, and in 1813 
was sent as assistant-surgeon to the forces in 
the Mediterranean, where he served in Sicily 
and at the capture of Genoa. At the close 
of the war he retired on half-pay, and com- 
menced to practise in London, giving lec- 
tures on medicine at the Windmill Street 
School, and later at St. Thomas's Hospital. 
He was physician to the Small-pox and Vac- 
cination Hospital from 1824, and to the Gene- 
ral Dispensary, was a fellow of the Royal 
Society, and was elected a licentiate (30 Sept. 
1816) and a fellow (30 Sept. 1839) of the 
Royal College of Physicians. He died at 
Camden Square, London, on 25 Jan. 1853. 
Gregory wrote largely in the medical jour- 
nals, and was a contributor to the ' Cyclo- 
paedia of Practical Medicine ' and to the 
* Library of Medicine.' His principal works 
are : 1. ' Elements of the Theory and Practice 
of Physic/ 1820, 2 vols. ; 6th ed. 1846 ; 3rd 
American ed. 1831. 2. ' Lectures on the 
Eruptive Fevers,' 1843. 

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. iii. 152; Gent. Mag. 
1853, new ser. xxxix. 444.] G-. T. B. 

GREGORY, JAMES (1638-1675), ma- 
thematician, was born at the manse of Drum- 
oak, twelve miles from Aberdeen, in Novem- 
ber 1638. His father, the Rev. John Gregory, 
minister of Drumoak, was fined, deposed, and 
imprisoned by the covenanters, and died in 
1653 (HEW SCOTT, Fasti Ecclesice Scoticance, 
in. ii. 497). His maternal grandfather, David 
Anderson of Finyhaugh, nicknamed ' Davie- 
do-a'-thing,' was said to have constructed the 
spire of St. Nicholas, and removed ' Knock 
Maitland ' from the entrance to the harbour 
of Aberdeen. By the marriage of his daugh- 
ter, Janet, with John Gregory, the hereditary 
mathematical genius of the Andersons was 
transmitted to the Gregorys and their de- 
scendants. James Gregory's education, begun 
at the grammar school of Aberdeen, was com- 
pleted at Marischal College. His scientific 
talent was discovered and encouraged by his 
elder brother David (1627-1720) [q. v.], and 
he published at the age of twenty-four ' Op- 
tica Promota' (London, 1663), containing the 
first feasible description of a reflecting tele- 
scope, his invention of which dated from 1661. 
It consisted essentially of a perforated para- 
bolic speculum in which the eye-piece was in- 
serted with a small elliptical mirror, placed in 

front to turn back the image. Gregory went 
to London and ordered one of six feet from 
the celebrated optician Reive, but the figure 
proved so bad that the attempt was aban- 
doned. The first Gregorian telescope was pre- 
sented to the Royal Society by Robert Hooke 
[q. v.] in February 1674, and the same form 
was universally employed in the eighteenth 

From 1664 to 1667 Gregory prosecuted his 
mathematical studies at Padua, and there 
printed in 1667 one hundred and fifty copies 
of ' Vera Circuli et Hyperbolae Quadratura,' in 
which he showed how to find the areas of 
the circle, ellipse, and hyperbola by means 
of converging series, and applied the same 
new method to the calculation of logarithms. 
The validity of some of his demonstrations 
was impugned by Huygens, and a contro- 
versy ensued, the warmth of which, on Gre- 
gory's side, was regretted by his friends 
(Journal des Sqavans, July and November 
1668: Phil. Trans, iii. 732, 882; HUGENII 
Op. Varia, ii. 463, 1724). The work, how- 
ever, gained him a high reputation ; it was 
commended by Lords Brouncker and Wallis, 
and analysed by Collins in the ' Philosophical 
Transactions ' (iii. 640). Reprinted at Padua 
in 1668, he appended to it ' Geometriee Pars 
Universalis,' a collection of elegant theorems 
relating to the transmutation of curves and 
the mensuration of their solids of revolution 
(ib. p. 685). He was the first to treat the 
subject expressly ; and his originality, at- 
tacked by the Abb6 Gallois in the Paris 
' Memoirs ' for 1693 and 1703, was success- 
fully vindicated by his nephew, David Gre- 
gory (1661-1708) [q. v.] (Phil. Trans, xviii. 
233, xxv. 2336). 

On his return to England Gregory was 
elected, on 11 June 1668, a fellow of the Royal 
Society, and communicated on 15 June 
an ' Account of a Controversy betwixt 
Stephano de Angelis and John Baptist Ric- 
cioli,' respecting the motion of the earth (ib. 
iii. 693). He shortly after published < Exer- 
citationes Geometricae ' (London, 1668), in 
which he extended his method of quadratures 
to the cissoid and conchoid, and gave a geo- 
metrical demonstration of Mercator's quadra- 
ture of the hyperbola. In the preface he com- 
plained of ' unjust censures ' upon his earlier 
tract, and replied to some of Huygens's out- 
standing objections. Appointed, late in 1668, 
professor of mathematics in the university of 
St. Andrews, he thenceforth imparted his in- 
ventions only by letter to Collins in return for 
some of Newton's sent to him. Through the 
same channel he carried on with Newton in 
1672-3 a friendly debate as to the merits of 
their respective telescopes, in the course of 




which he described burning mirrors composed 
of 'glass leaded behind,' which afterwards 
came into general use (KiGAUD, Coir, of Scien- 
tific Men, ii. 249). The theory of equations 
and the search for a general method of quadra- 
tures by infinite series occupied his few leisure 
moments. He complains to Collins (17 May 
1671) of the interruptions caused by his lec- 
tures and the inquiries of the ignorant (ib. p. 
224). In the same year some members of the 
French Academy were desirous to obtain a 
pension for him from Louis XIV, but the pro- 
ject fell through. Gregory had never believed 
it serious, and easily resigned himself to its 
failure. Under the pseudonym of l Patrick 
Mathers, Arch-Bedal of the university of St. 
Andrews/ he attacked Sinclair, ex-professor 
of philosophy at Glasgow, in ' The Great and 
New Art of Weighing Vanity ' (Glasgow, 
1672), worth remembering only for a short 
appendix, ' Tentamina qusedam Geometrica 
de Motu Penduli et Projectorum,' giving the 
first series for the motion of a pendulum in 
a circular arc. Sinclair in his reply reproached 
Gregory with want of skill in the use of as- 
tronomical instruments which he had erected 
at St. Andrews. 

Gregory was the first exclusively mathe- 
matical professor in the university of Edin- 
burgh. He was elected on 3 July 1674, and 
delivered his inaugural address before a 
crowded audience in November. One night 
in the following October, while showing 
Jupiter's satellites to his students, he was 
struck blind by an attack of amaurosis, and 
died of apoplexy three days later, before he 
had completed his thirty-seventh year. He 
had till then enjoyed almost unbroken health. 
He married at St. Andrews in 1669 Mary, 
daughter of George Jameson [q. v.] the painter, 
and widow of Peter Burnet of Elrick, Aber- 
deen, and had by her two daughters and a 
son, James, afterwards professor of physic in 
King's College, Aberdeen (d. 1731). 

Gregory's genius was rapidly developing, 
and the comparative simplicity of his later 
series showed the profit derived by him from 
Newton's example. Among his discoveries 
were a solution by infinite series of the Kep- 
lerian problem, a method of drawing tangents 
to curves geometrically, and a rule, founded 
on the principle of exhaustions, for the direct 
and inverse method of tangents. He inde- 
pendently suggested, in a letter to Olden- 
burg of 8 June 1675, the differential method 
of stellar parallaxes (RiGAUD, Corresp. of 
Scicnt. Men, ii. 262 ; BIRCH, Hist. Roy. Soc. 
iii. 225) ; pointed out the use of transits of 
Mercury and Venus for ascertaining the dis- 
tance of the sun (Optica Promota, p. 130), 
and originated the photometric mode of esti- 

mating the distances of the stars, concluding 
Sirius to be 83,190 times more remote than the 
sun (Geom. Pars Universalis, p. 148). The 
word ' series ' was first by him applied to 
designate continual approximations (Com- 
mercium Epistolicum, No. LXXV). Leibnitz 
thought highly of his abilities (ib. No. LIII), 
and by his desire Collins drew up an account 
of the inventions scattered through his cor- 
respondence (ib. No. XLVII). The collection 
of ' Excerpta ' thus formed was sent by 
Oldenburg to Paris on 26 June 1676, and 
eventually found its way to the archives of 
the Royal Society. Most of the series sent by 
Gregory to Collins were included in his nephew 
David Gregory's ' Exercitatio,' and his cor- 
respondence with Newton about the reflect- 
ing telescope was reprinted as an appendix 
to the same writer's ' Elements of Catoptrics ' 
(ed. 1735). His l Optica Promota ' and 'Art 
of Weighing Vanity 'were republished at the 
expense of Baron Maseres in 1823 among 
' Scriptores Optici.' Open and unassuming 
with his friends, Gregory was of warm tem- 
per, and keenly sensitive to criticism. He 
was devoid of ambition, and found ready 
amusement in the incidents of college life. 
A portrait of him in Marischal College shows 
a refined and intellectual countenance. 

[Biog. Brit. iv. 1757 ; General Diet. v. 1737; 
D. Jrving's Lives of Scottish Writers, ii. 239 ; 
Sir Alex. Grant's Story of the University of 
Edinburgh, i. 215, ii. 295; Alex. Smith's New 
Hist, of Aberdeenshire, i. 171, 492-3 ; Rigaud's 
Correspondence of Scient. Men in the Seventeenth 
Cent. ii. passim ; Commercium Epistolicum, 
1712, 1722, 1725, passim ; Grant's Hist, of Phys. 
Astronomy, pp. 428, 526, 547; Button's Mathe- 
matical Diet. (1815) ; Bailly's Hist, de 1'Astr. 
Moderne, ii. 254, 570; Montucla's Hist, des Math. 
ii.86, 376, 503; Thomson's Hist. Roy. Society, p. 
289 ; Wolf's Gesch. der Astronomic, p. 583 ; 
Marie's Hist, des Sciences, v. 119; H. Servus's 
Gesch. desFernrohrs,p. 126; Notes and Queries, 
7th ser.,iii. 147 ; Chambers's Edinb. Journ.v. 223, 
1846 (Gregory Family) ; Watt's Bibl. Brit.] 

A. M. C. 

GREGORY, JAMES (1753-1821), pro- 
fessor of medicine at Edinburgh University, 
son of John Gregory (1724-1773) [q.v.], was 
born at Aberdeen in January 1753. He was 
educated at Aberdeen and Edinburgh, and 
also studied for a short time at Christ Church, 
Oxford. He gained considerable classical 
knowledge, wrote Latin easily and well, and 
was always ready with apt Latin quotations, 
which often served him well in controversy. 
In the winter of 1773-4 he studied at St. 
George's Hospital. London. While he was 
still a student of medicine at Edinburgh 
Gregory's father died suddenly during the 

H 2 




winter session of 1773, and he, by a great 
effort, completed his father's course of lec- 
tures. His success was such that while 
Cullen succeeded to the father's chair, the 
professorship of the institutes of medicine 
was kept open for the son. He took his 
M.D. in 1774, and spent the next two years 
in studying medicine on the continent. 

In 1776, at the age of twenty-three, he 
was appointed professor, and in 1777 he began 
giving clinical lectures at the infirmary. In 
1780-2 the publication of his ( Conspectus ' 
established his position in medicine, and in 
1790 he succeeded Cullen in the chair of the 
practice of medicine. From this time he was 
the chief of the Edinburgh Medical School, 
and had the leading consulting practice in 
Scotland until his death on 2 April 1821 ; 
he was buried on 7 April in the Canongate 
churchyard, Edinburgh. By his second wife, 
a Miss McLeod, whom he married in 1796, 
he had eleven children, of whom five sons 
and two daughters survived him. His sons 
Duncan and William (1803-1858) are noticed 

Gregory did little original work in medicine 
of permanent value. His ' Conspectus' was 
most valuable for its therapeutics, and was 
very widely read both in this country and on 
the continent. As a lecturer and teacher he 
won great influence by his ready command 
of language, his excellent memory for cases 
he had seen, his outspokenness and command- 
ing energy, and the humour of his frequent 
illustrations. Sir R. Christison termed him 
the most captivating lecturer he ever heard. 
His teaching was very practical ; he dis- 
trusted premature theorising. Diagnostic 
and prognostic symptoms and the action of 
remedies were his favourite subjects, but his 
advocacy of the lowering treatment of in- 
flammatory diseases showed his influence to 
be retarding, though not retrograde. His dis- 
couragement of meddlesome medicine, when 
there was no real prospect of success, was a 
better feature. But it must be confessed 
that he was an advocate of temperance, of 
bodily exertion without fatigue, and of mental 
occupation without anxiety, who by no means 
followed his own prescription. 

In his ' Philosophical and Literary Essays,' 
published in 1792, but largely written be- 
fore 1789, Gregory states with considerable 
ability the argument against the necessita- 
rians. Priestley, to whom he communicated 
the essays, declared that a reply would be 
as superfluous as the defence of a proposition 
in Euclid. Gregory's main argument is con- 
tained in the second volume, entitled ' An 
Essay on the Difference between the relation 
of Motive and Action and that of Cause and 

Effect in Physics, on physical and mathe- 
matical principles.' An unfinished and un- 
published work of 512 pages by Gregory, 
entitled 'An Answer to Messrs. Crombie, 
Priestley, and Co./ is in the Edinburgh Uni- 
versity Library. His essay on ' The Theory 
of the Moods of Verbs,' in the second volume 
of the ' Transactions ' of the Royal Society 
of Edinburgh, 1790, is another example of 
Gregory's versatility. 

Gregory wasted his great powers on tem- 
porary and irritating controversies. He was 
keen-witted, sarcastic, and bitterly personal, 
though probably from pleasure in the exercise 
of his powers rather than from malice. His 
first important controversy, with Drs. Alex- 
ander and James Hamilton (1749-1835) 
[q. v.], led him to give the latter a severe beat- 
ing with a stick. Gregory was fined 100/. and 
costs by the commissary court for defamation 
in this case. He afterwards attacked, with 
considerable justice, in his ' Memorial to the 
Managers,' the prevailing practice of allow- 
ing all the surgeons in Edinburgh to officiate 
at the infirmary in turn. In this he denies 
that he was either an empiric or a dogmatist, 
as he disbelieves in most of the facts and 
theories alleged by both schools. He ad- 
mitted (p. 222) that he was irascible and 
obstinate, and would willingly see some of 
his medical enemies hanged. He held that 
each age had much more trouble to unlearn 
the bad than to learn the good bequeathed to 
it by preceding ages, but he preferred laughter 
to anger. 

A committee of the Edinburgh College of 
Physicians, of which Gregory was at one time 
president, had recommended it to relax its 
regulations against the dispensing of medi- 
cines by members. Gregory opposed this vio- 
lently. His pamphlets (mostly large books) 
on the subject are very bitter and personal. 
He was charged before the college with vio- 
lation of his oath not to divulge its proceed- 
ings, and with having made false statements 
on his solemn declaration. After a long con- 
troversy, he was pronounced guilty by the 
college on 13 Sept. 1808. Having failed to 
take public measures to vindicate his cha- 
racter, he was suspended from the rights 
and privileges of the fellowship of the col- 
lege on 13 May 1809. These controversies, 
and others arising out of them, are dealt 
with at length in the publications of John 
Bell [q. v.] and Dr. Andrew Duncan, senior 
[q. v.J, mentioned below. 

Lord Cockburn (Memorials, p. 105) de- 
scribes Gregory as ' a curious and excellent 
man, a great physician, a great lecturer, a 
great Latin scholar, and a great talker, vigo- 
rous and generous, large of stature, and with 




a strikingly powerful countenance.' He says 
that Gregory's popularity was increased by 
his controversies. He was never selfish nor 
entirely wrong in them ; and the public pre- 
ferred the best laugher, though with the 
worst cause. Gregory, in fact, won general 
regard among all classes of people outside 
his profession. He was frequently very gene- 
rous, especially to his pupils. 

Gregory's principal writings are: 1. 'De 
morbis cceli mutatione medeiidis,' 1774. 
2. i Conspectus medicinae theoretic*,' 1 780-2 ; 
many editions and translations into English 
were published. 3. 'Philosophical and Lite- 
rary Essays,' 2 vols. 1792. 4. 'Answer to 
Dr. James Hamilton, jun.,' 152 pp., 1793. 
5. ' Memorial to the Managers of the Royal 
Infirmary ' (Edinburgh), 260 pp. 4to, 1800 : 
2nd ed. 483 pp. 1803. 6. 'Additional Me- 
morial to the Managers of the Royal Infir- 
mary,' pp. xxx, 513, 4to. 7. ' Review of the 
Proceedings of the Royal College of Phy- 
sicians in Edinburgh from 1753 to 1804,' 
32 pp. 1804. 8. 'Censorian Letter to the 
President and Fellows of the Royal College 
of Physicians in Edinburgh,' 142 pp. 4to, 
1805. 9. ' Defence before the Royal College 
of Physicians, including a postscript protest 
and relative documents,' 700 pages 8vo, 1808. 

10. ' Historical Memoirs of the Medical War 
in Edinburgh in the years 1805, 6, & 7.' 

11. ' Epigrams and Poems,' Edinburgh, 1810. 
John Bell's ' Answer for the Junior Mem- 
bers,' &c., 1800, and his ' Letters on Profes- 
sional Character and Manners,' 1810 ; the 
' Narrative of the Conduct of Dr. J. G. to- 
wards the Royal College of Physicians of 
Edinburgh. Drawn up and published by 
order of the College,' 1809; and Dr. Andrew 
Duncan senior's ' Letter to Dr. Gregory,' 
1811 give detailed accounts of Gregory's 
quarrel with the physicians. 

[London Medical Repository, 1821, xv. 423-9 ; 
Life of Sir R. Christian, i. 338, 339; Cockburn's 
Memorials, p. 105; Life of Sir Astley Cooper, i. 
160-4; Gregory's writings.] G. T. B. 

GREGORY, JOHN (1607-1646), orien- 
talist, w r as born at Amersham, Buckingham- 
shire, of humble parentage, on 10 Nov. 1607. 
He became a servitor of Christ Church, Ox- 
ford, in 1624, being placed along with his 
' master,' Sir William Drake of Amersham, 
under the tuition of George Morley, after- 
wards bishop of Winchester. For several 
years he spent sixteen hours a day in study. 
After graduating in arts B.A. 11 Oct. 1628, 
M.A. 22 June 1631 (WooD, Fasti O.ron. 
ed. Bliss, i. 438, 460), he took orders. Brian 
Duppa [q. v.], then dean of Christ Church, 
made him chaplain of the cathedral, and, 011 
becoming a bishop, his own domestic chap- 

lain. Gregory was not, however, as Gurgany 
and Wood assert, preferred by Duppa to any 
prebendal stall. The civil war deprived him 
of patron and stipend. He retired to an ob- 
scure alehouse on the green at Kidlington, 
near Oxford, kept by one Sutton, the father 
of a boy whom Gregory had bred up to at- 
tend on him. There he died on 13 March 1646, 
and, ' by the contribution of one or more 
friends, his remains were carried to Oxford 
and buried on the left side of the grave of 
William Cartwright, in the aisle adjoining 
the south side of the choir of Christ Church 
Cathedral. Wood calls Gregory 'the miracle 
of his age for critical and curious learning/ 
and speaks of his ' learned elegance in Eng- 
lish, Latin, and Greek,' his ' exact skill in 
Hebrew, Syriac, Chaldee, Arabic, Ethiopic, 
&c.,' and his knowledge of the mathematical 
sciences and rabbinical and other literature. 
His only guide was John Dod [q. v.], who 
directed his Hebrew studies during one vaca- 
tion at his benefice in Northamptonshire 
(WooD, Athence O.ron. ed. Bliss, iii. 205-7). 
Collective editions of his writings appeared 
as follows : 1. ' Gregorii Posthuma : or cer- 
tain learned Tracts : written by John Gre- 
gorie. . . . Together with a short Account of 
the Author's Life ; and Elegies on his much- 
lamented Death,' published by his dearest 
friend J[olm] G[urganv],4to, London, 1649. 
Some copies bear the date 1 650 on the title- 
page. There are eight separate tracts, each 
with a separate title-page, but the whole is 
continuously paged. One of them, entitled 
' Discours declaring what time the Nicene 
Creed began to bee sung in the Church,' con- 
tains a brief notice of early organs (FETis, 
Bioff. Univ. des Musicien*, iv. 97). The dedi- 
cation states that Sir Edward Bysshe [q. v.] 
had been a patron of Gregory and Gurgany. 
2. 'Gregorii Opuscula : or, Notes & Observa- 
tions upon some Passages of Scripture, with 
other learned Tracts : ' the second edition 
(' Gregorii Posthuma,' &c.), 4to, London, 
1650. 'Works,' in two parts, include the 
preceding, 4to, London, 1665; another edi- 
tion, 2 pts. 4to, London, 1671 ; 4th edition, 
2 pts. 4to, London, 1684-83. Two of his trea- 
tises were published separately: 1. 'Notes' 
on Sir Thomas Ridley's 'View of the Civile 
and Ecclesiasticall Law. . . . The second edi- 
tion, by J. G[regory], r 4to, Oxford, 1634 ; 
other editions were issued in 1662, 1675, and 
1676. 2. 'Notes and Observations upon some 
Passages of Scripture. By I. G.,' &c., 4to, 
Oxford, 1646, inscribed to Bishop Duppa. 
Translated into Latin by Richard Stokes and 
inserted in Pearson's ' Critici Sacri ' (vol. ix. 
edit, 1660 ; vol. viii. edit. 1698). Gregory 
assisted Augustine Lindsell, bishop of Here- 




ford, in preparing an edition of ' Theophy- 
lacti in D. Pauli Epistolas Commentarii,' 
1636. He left in manuscript ' Observationes 
in Loca quasdam excerpta ex Job. Malalro 
Chronographia,' and a treatise on adoration 
to the east entitled ' Al-Kibla,' both of which 
are now in the Bodleian Library. The latter 
manuscript, which Gurgany supposed to be 
lost when he wrote the brief memoir of Gre- 
gory, is among Bishop Tanner's books. It 
was purchased of Gurgany's widow by Arch- 
bishop Saricroft. Gregory also translated 
from Greek into Latin: 1. 'Palladius de 
Gentibus Indiae & Brachmanibus.' 2. ' S. 
Ambrosius de Moribus Brachmanorum.' 
3. < Anonymus de Brachmanibus,' which 
translations passed after his death to Edmund 
Chilmead [q. v.], and subsequently to Sir 
Edward Bysshe, who published them under 
his own name in 1665. 

[Authorities in the text.] G. Gr. 

GREGORY, JOHN (1724-1773), pro- 
fessor of medicine at Edinburgh University, 
the youngest son of James Gregory, professor 
of medicine in King's College, Aberdeen (d. 
1731), and grandson of James Gregory (1638- 
1675) [q. v.], was born at Aberdeen on 3 June 
1724, his mother, Anne Chalmers, being his 
father's second wife. He was educated at 
Aberdeen under the care of his elder brother, 
James Gregory, who had succeeded his father, 
and also under the influence of his cousin, 
Thomas Reid the metaphysician. In 1741 
he entered upon medical study at Edinburgh, 
and attended the lectures of Monro primus, 
Sinclair, and Rutherford. He formed here 
a warm friendship with Akenside. After 
completing his medical course at Edinburgh 
Gregory studied at Leyden in 1745-6, under 
Albinus. The degree of M.D. was conferred 
upon him at Aberdeen in his absence, and 
on his return in 1746 he was elected pro- 
fessor of philosophy there, and lectured for 
three years on mathematics and moral and 
natural philosophy. In 1749 he resigned the 
professorship in order to devote himself to 
medical practice, and in 1752 he married 
Elizabeth, daughter of Lord Forbes, a lady 
of beauty, wit, and fortune. As Aberdeen 
did not afford sufficient practice for him and 
his elder brother, he removed in 1754 to Lon- 
don. He already knew Wilkes and Charles 
Townshend,and now became acquainted with 
George, lord Lyttelton,and Lady Mary Wort- 
ley Montagu. He had been elected fellow 
of the Royal Society, and was on the way to 
success when his elder brother died, and he 
was recalled to Aberdeen to succeed him. 
He practised and lectured on medicine at 
Aberdeen till 1764, when he removed to 

Edinburgh with a view to gaining a more 
lucrative chair, which fell to him in 1766 
on the resignation of Rutherford, whose pre- 
ference for Gregory prevailed against Cullen's 
candidature [see CULLEN, WILLIAM]. The 
same year he was appointed physician to the 
king in Scotland, in succession to Whytt. 
At first he lectured solely on the practice of 
physic, but in 1768, Cullen having succeeded 
to Whytt's chair of the institutes of physic 
(mainly a physiological one), an arrangement 
was made by which Gregory and Cullen lec- 
tured in alternate years on the institutes and 
practice of physic. As a lecturer he was 
successful without being brilliant, his style 
being simple and direct. His medical writings 
were of no great importance. His general 
character was that of good sense and benevo- 
lence. He was an intimate friend of David 
Hume, Lord Monboddo, Lord Kaimes, Dr. 
Blair, the elder Tytler, and James Beattie, 
whose affection for him is testified in the 
closing stanzas of ' The Minstrel.' He died 
suddenly of gout on 9 Feb. 1773, aged 49. 
He left three sons (James (1753-1821) [q.v.], 
his successor ; William, who became one of 
the six preachers in Canterbury Cathedral, 
and was father of George Gregory (1790- 
1854) [q. v.]; and John, d. 1783) and two 
daughters, the elder, Dorothea, married to the 
Rev. Archibald Alison. He was rather tall 
and heavy-looking, but his manners and con- 
versation were prepossessing. 

Gregory wrote : 1. ' A Comparative View 
of the State and Faculties of Man with those 
of the Animal World,' 1766 ; 7th edition, 
1777. 2. ' Observations on the Duties and 
Offices of a Physician, and on the Method of 
prosecuting Enquiries in Philosophy/ 1770 
(afterwards issued under the title of ' Lec- 
tures on the Duties,' &c., 1772). A revised 
edition by his son James, was published in 
1805. 3. ' Elements of the Practice of Phy- 
sic,' 1772 (2nd edition, 1774). 4. < A Father's 
Legacy to his Daughters,' 1774 ; very many 
editions were published, often together with 
Mrs. Chapone's ' Letters on the Improvement 
of the Mind ; ' an edition was published as 
late as 1877. Numerous French editions also 
appeared. His works were issued in four 
volumes in 1788, with a life prefixed. The 
library of the surgeon-general's office, Wash- 
ington, U.S., contains a manuscript volume 
of Gregory's lectures, 1768-9, and another 
volume of notes of his clinical lectures, 1771, 
besides two engraved portraits of him. 

[Life prefixed to Gregory's Works, by Lord 
Woodhouselee ; Life by W. Smellie, in his Lite- 
rary and Characteristical Lives, 1800; Ramsay's 
Scotland and Scotsmen in the Eighteenth Cen- 
tury, pp. 477-82.] G. T. B. 




LL.D. (1774-1841), mathematician, was 
born of humble parents at Yaxley, Hunt- 
ingdonshire, on 29 Jan. 1774. He got his 
schooling in his native village, and at an 
early age was placed with Richard Weston, 
the Leicester botanist. Weston trained him 
in mathematics, with such good effect that 
at the age of nineteen he published (1793) 
a. small volume of i lessons, astronomical and 
philosophical.' Weston also introduced him 
as a contributor (1794) to the ' Ladies' 
Diary.' He drew up a treatise on the use 
of the sliding rule ; though not published, 
it brought him to the notice of Charles 
Hutton, LL.D. [q. v.], who became his cor- 
respondent and patron. About 1796he settled 
in Cambridge, obtained a situation as sub- 
editor on the ' Cambridge Intelligencer,' 
under Benjamin Flower [q.v.], which he did 
not keep long, opened a bookseller's shop about 
1798, and taught mathematics. His teach- 
ing became profitable, so he closed his shop 
and devoted himself to tutorial work. In 
1802 he published a treatise on astronomy, 
dedicated to Hutton, which brought him 
into notice. 

He edited the ' Gentleman's Diary ' for the 
Stationers' Company from 1802 to 1819, and 
the ' Ladies' Diary ' from 1819 to 1840. In 
1802 he became mathematical master at the 
Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, through 
the influence of Hutton. In 1804 or 1805 he 
obtained the degree of A.M. from Aberdeen. 
On Button's resignation (1807) he was ap- 
pointed his successor in the mathematical 
chair at Woolwich. In 1808 he was made 
LL.D. of Aberdeen. His treatise (1806) on 
mechanics and his experiments (1823) to 
determine the velocity of sound were his 
most important contributions to physical 
science. He appeared also as a theologian 
in a work (1811) on Christian evidences and 
doctrines, which is included in Bonn's 
Standard Library. In preparing it he had an 
eye to the religious instruction of his chil- 
dren ; his daughter (Mrs. Haddock) became 
an ardent Unitarian. Gregory was one of 
the projectors of the London University (now 
University College) ; his name was inscribed 
on the foundation-stone laid in Gower Street 
on 30 April 1827. He rendered further ser- 
vices to literature by his biographies of John 
Mason Good [q. v.] and Robert Hall (1764- 
1831) [q. v.] Gregory retired from his chair 
in 1838, but continued to live at Woolwich, 
where he died on 2 Feb. 1841. His son, 
Charles Hutton Gregory, is the eminent en- 
gineer. Of his separate publications, the 
following are the chief : 1. ' Lessons, Astro- 
nomical and Philosophical,' &c., 1793, 12mo; 

1 4th edit, 1811, 12mo. 2. 'A Treatise on 
Astronomy,' &c., 1802, 8vo. 3. < A Treatise 
of Mechanics,' &c., 1806, 8vo, 3 vols. ; 2nd 
edit. 1807, 8vo. (The ' Account of Steam 
Engines ' was separately reprinted, 1807 and 
1809.) 4. ' Letters ... on the Evidences, 
Doctrines, and Duties of the Christian Re- 
ligion,' &c., 1811, 8vo, 2 vols.; 9th edit. 
1857, 8vo, 1 vol. 5. 'Elements of Plane 
and Spherical Trigonometry,' &c., 1816, 
12mo. 6. * Mathematics for Practical Men,' 
&c., 1825, 8vo ; 3rd edit. 1848, 8vo. 7. ' Me- 
moirs of ... John Mason Good, M.D.,' &c., 
1828, 8vo. 8. < Memoir of the Rev. Robert 
Hall,' &c., prefixed to < Works,' 1832, 8vo; 
also separately, 1833, 8vo, and prefixed to 
' Miscellaneous Works,' 1846, 8vo. 9. ' Aids 
and Incentives to the Acquisition of Know- 
ledge,' London, 1838, a farewell address on 
resigning his chair. 10. 'Hints to the Teachers 
of Mathematics,' &c., 1840, 8vo ; 3rd edit. 
1848, 8vo. He translated Ren6-Just Haiiy's 
1 Elementary Astronomy,' 1807, 8vo, 2 vols. ; 
contributed to, and partly edited, ' The Pan- 
tologia,' a dictionary of arts and sciences, 
completed 1813, 8vo, 12 vols.; was a con- 
tributor to t Nicholson's Journal ' between 
1802 and 1813, and to a volume of ' Disserta- 
tions ' on the trigonometrical survey,1815,8vo. 

[Biog. Diet, of Living Authors, 1816, p. 137; 
Knight's Biography, 1866, iii. 193 sq. ; Watt's 
Bibl. Brit. ; private information.] A. Gr. 

GREGORY, WILLIAM (d. 1467), chro- 
nicler, was the son of Roger Gregory of Mil- 
denhall, Suffolk, and must have been born 
late in the fourteenth or early in the fifteenth 
century. He was a member of the Skinners' 
Company, and was lord mayor of London in 
1451-2. A city chronicle under this date 
speaks of the papal indulgence that came 
from Rome in that year as ' the greatest par- 
don that ever come to England, from the Con- 
quest unto this time of my year being mayor 
of London.' And, though the chronicle in 
question is continued in the only known ma- 
nuscript (in Brit. Mus.) two years beyond 
Gregory's death, this passage leaves no doubt 
that he was the author down to the year of 
his mayoralty. He was a wealthy man, and in 
1461 founded a chantry in the parish church 
of St. Anne and St. Agnes, Aldersgate, out of 
the rents of some property in the parish which 
he had purchased of a widow named Margaret 
Holmehegge and two other persons. On 6 Nov. 
1465 he made his will, by which it appears 
that he had been three times married (his 
wives were named Joan, Julian, and Joan re- 
spectively), and had nine grandchildren, seven 
by one daughter and two by another. Be- 
sides providing for these and other relations 
he left liberal bequests to various hospitals 




and churches and other charities in the city, 
including one to the high altar of St. Mary 
Aldermary, in which parish he then resided, 
and also for an obit in Mildenhall Church. To 
this will he added a codicil on 2 Jan. 1466-7, 
and he must have died a day or two after, as 
the will was proved on the 23rd of the same 
month. He was buried in St. Anne's Church, 
Aldersgate. His chronicle has been printed in 
1 Collections of a London Citizen ' (Camd. Soc.) 

[Stow's Survey of London, ii. 121 (Strype's 
ed.) ; Herbert's Livery Companies, ii 318 ; Stowe 
MS. 958 in Brit, Mus ] J- Gr. 

GREGORY, WILLIAM (/. 1520), Car- 
melite, was a Scotchman who studied at 
Montagu College, Paris, and in 1499 became 
a Carmelite of the congregation of Albi ; he 
afterwards became prior of his order succes- 
sively at Melun, Albi, and Toulouse, and 
vicar-general of the congregation at Albi. 
He was made (28 Dec. 1516) a doctor of the 
Sorbonne, and confessor to Francis I. Bale 
says he was living at Toulouse in 1518. 
Numerous works, chiefly theological, are as- 
cribed to him ; the first words of some of them 
are given by Bale and other writers. Accord- 
ing to De Villiers, one of his works, ' Funerale 
& Processionale secundum usum Carmelita- 
rum,' 8vo, was printed at Toulouse in 1518. 

[Bale, xiv. 62; Harl. MSS. 1918 and 3838 
(Bale s Collections) ; Tanner's Bibl. Brit. p. 
343 ; C. De Villiers's Bibliotheca Carmelitarum, 
i 599- Le Long's Biblia Sacra, ed. 1723, p. 753.] 

C. L. K. 

GREGORY, WILLIAM (d. 1663), com- 
poser, became violinist and wind-instrument 
musician in the household of Charles I in 
1626, and held the same position in the house- 
hold of Charles II from 1661 to 1663. His 
compositions include an almain, coranto, sara- 
bande, and jigge in Playford's ' Court Ayres ' 
(1655), and vocal numbers for one or more 
voices in the * Treasury of Musick ' (1669), 
1 Musical Companion ' (1673), and ' Ayres 
and Dialogues' (1676 to 1683). Hawkins 
quotes the anthems, ' Out of the deep,' and 
' O Lord, thou hast cast us out,' as the best 
known of Gregory's works. He died in 
August or September 1663, bequeathing sums 
to be paid from his wages due out of the trea- 
sury to his wife Mary, to two daughters Mary 
G. and Elizabeth Starke, to a daughter-in-law, 
and to a granddaughter. The residue was to 
go tD his son, Henry Gregory, a member of the 
king's band in 1662 and 1674. A < John Gre- 
gory, singing man,' was buried at Westmin- 
ster Abbey in 1617. Prince Gregory was gen- 
tleman of the Chapel Royal from 1740 to 1755. 

[State Papers, Dom. Ser. Charles I, 21 Feb. 
1626, Charles II, 1661, 26 Aug. 1662, 24 July 

and September 1663 ; J. Playford's publications 
as quoted above ; Registers of Wills, P. C. C. 
114, Juxon; Wood's MS. Lives (Bodleian); 
Hawkins's History of Music, p. 713; Burney's 
History of Music, iii. 465 ; Diet, of Musicians, 
1827, p. 299; Rimbault's Memoirs of Roger 
North, p. 98; Harleian Society's Publications, x. 
114; Rimbault's Old Cheque Book, p. 53; Gent. 
Mag. 1755, p. 572.] L. M. M. 

1696), judge, was the second and only sur- 
viving son of the Rev. Robert Gregory, vicar 
of Fownhope and rector of Sutton St. Nicho- 
las, Herefordshire, by his wife Anne, daugh- 
ter of John Harvey of Broadstone, Glou- 
cestershire. He was born 1 March 1624, and 
was educated at Hereford Cathedral school. 
There appears to be no foundation for the 
statement that he became a member of All 
Souls' College, Oxford, and was elected a 
fellow as his father had been before him. He 
entered the society of Gray's Inn in 1640, and 
in 1650 was called to the bar. He joined the 
Oxford circuit, on which, as at Westminster, 
he soon obtained an extensive practice. He 
acquired several lucrative stewardships of 
manors in his native county, became recorder 
of Gloucester in 1672, and in the following 
year was elected a bencher of Gray's Inn. In 
1677 he was made serjeant-at-law, and at a 
by-election in 1678 he was returned member 
of parliament for Weobly, Herefordshire. 
He was re-elected to the new parliament of 
1679, and, after the king had three times re- 
fused to confirm the election of Edward 
Seymour as speaker, was proposed for that 
office by Lord Russell. Gregory begged the 
house to select a more experienced member, 
but when led to the chair by his proposer and 
seconder offered no resistance. As speaker 
he is stated to have been firm, temperate, and 
impartial, but he held the post for a few 
months only, as on the death of Sir Timothy 
Littleton in April 1679 he was appointed to 
his place as a baron of the exchequer, and 
was knighted. The trial of Sir Miles Staple- 
ton for high treason took place before Gregory 
and Sir William Dolben [q.v.]inl681. In Mi- 
chaelmas term 1685 Gregory was discharged 
from his office for giving a judgment against 
the king's dispensing power, and in the next 
year was removed by royal mandate from his 
recordership. He was returned by the city 
of Hereford as a member of the convention of 
1689, but gave up hig seat on being appointed 
a judge of the king's bench. As a judge he 
was distinguished for his firmness and in- 
tegrity. In his later years he was greatly 
afflicted with stone, which in the winter of 
1694 confined him to his room for three 
months. He died in London 28 May 1696, 




and was buried in the parish church of his 
manor of How Capel, Herefordshire. Gregory 
had purchased this manor in 1077 and built 
the southern transept of the church, known 
as the Gregory Chapel, as a burying-place for 
himself and his family. He also bought the 
manor and advowson of Solers Hope, and the 
manor of Fownhope, but he resided chiefly 
in London. Besides largely rebuilding the 
church at How Capel, he gave a garden in 
Bowsey Lane. Hereford, for the benefit of 
the Lazarus Hospital. In 1653 Gregory be- 
came the third husband of Katharine Smith, 
by whom he was father of two children: 
James, who married Elizabeth Rodd and 
died 1691, and Katharine, who died in in- 
fancy. His descendants in the male line 
failed in 1789. 

[Foss's Judges of England, vii. 318; Cooke's 
additions to Duncumb's Herefordshire, ii. 355, 
359, 361, iii. 102, 139, 229 ; Manning's Speakers, 
p. 374 ; North's Examen, p. 460 ; Kennett's Hist, 
of England, iii. 372, 528; Cobbett's Parlia- 
mentary History, iv. 1112, v. 312; Luttrell's 
Diary, i. 9, 10, 166, 255, ii. 277, 379, iv. 64; Sir 
John Bramston's Autobiography (Camel. Soc. 
publications), p. 221 ; Pearce's Inns of Court, p. 
344.] A. V. 

GREGORY, WILLIAM (1803-1858), 
chemist, fourth son of James Gregory (1753- j 
1821) [q. v.], professor of medicine in the uni- 
versity of Edinburgh, was born at Edinburgh 
on 25 Dec. 1803. After a medical education j 
he graduated at Edinburgh in 1828, but he j 
had already shown a strong bent for chemis- ! 
try, and he soon decided to make it his spe- 
cialty. In 1831 he introduced a process 
for making the muriate of morphia, which 
came into general use. After studying for 
some time on the continent he established him- 
self as an extra-academical lecturer on chemis- j 
try at Edinburgh. He successively lectured 
on chemistry at the Andersonian University, 
Glasgow, and at the Dublin Medical School, \ 
and in 1839 was appointed professor of me- 
dicine and chemistry in King's College, Aber- 
deen. In 1844 he was elected to the chair 
of chemistry at Edinburgh in succession to 
his old master Charles Hope. He was a suc- 
cessful expository lecturer, but in his later ! 
years suffered much from painful disease, and j 
died on 24 April 1858, leaving a widow and j 
one son. 

Having been a favourite pupil of Liebig j 
at Giessen, Gregory did much to introduce 
his researches into this country, translating j 
and editing several of his works. His own j 
chemical works were useful in their day, 
especially from the prominence they gave to 
organic chemistry. He was skilled in Ger- 
man and French, and kept well abreast of 

chemical advances on the continent. A list 
of forty chemical papers by him is given in 
the Royal Society's ' Catalogue of Scientific 
Papers.' Being compelled to adopt a seden- 
tary life, he spent much time in microscopical 
studies, chiefly on the diatoms, and wrote a 
number of careful papers on the subject. His 
character was simple, earnest, and amiable. 
Some thought him much too credulous in re- 
gard to animal magnetism and mesmerism. 
His views have much in common with the 
recent theory of telepathy. Besides editing 
the English editions of Liebig's l Animal 
Chemistry,' ' Chemistry in its Applications to 
Agriculture and Physiology,' ' Familiar Let- 
ters on Chemistry,' ' Instructions for Chemi- 
cal Analysis of Organic Bodies,' ' Agricul- 
tural Chemistry,' ( Chemistry of Food,' and 
' Researches on the Motion of the Juices in 
the Animal Body,' Gregory translated and 
edited Reichenbach's ' Researches on Mag- 
netism, Electricity, Heat, &c., in their rela- 
tion to Vital Force,' 1850. He also, with 
Baron Liebig, edited Edward Turner's ' Ele- 
ments of Chemistry.' 

His own works were: 1. 'Outlines of 
Chemistry,' 1845; 2nd edition, 1847 ; divided 
subsequently into two volumes, ' The Hand- 
book of Inorganic ' and * Organic Chemis- 
try' respectively, 1853; the latter was issued 
in Germany, edited by T. Gerding, Bruns- 
wick, 1854. 2. ' Letters to a Candid In- 
quirer on Animal Magnetism,' 1851. 

[Edinb. New Philosophical Journal. 1858, new 
ser. viii. 171-4; Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinb. iv. 121.] 

G-. T. B. 

GREGSON, MATTHEW (1749-1824), 
antiquary, son of Thomas Gregson, ship- 
builder, of Liverpool, previously of Whalley, 
Lancashire, was born at Liverpool in 1749. 
He was many years in business as an uphol- 
sterer, and when he retired in 1814 had 
amassed considerable property. Although 
of deficient education he took a deep interest 
in literature and science, and especially de- 
voted attention to the collection of documen- 
tary and pictorial illustrations of the history 
of Lancashire. These he used in compiling his 
' Portfolio of Fragments relative to the His- 
tory and Antiquities of the County Palatine 
and Duchy of Lancaster,' which he brought out 
in 1817 in three folio parts. The second and 
enlarged edition is dated 1824, and the third, 
edited and indexed by John Harland, came 
out in 1867. This work led to his election 
as a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, and 
to his honorary membership of the Newcastle- 
on-Tyiie Society of Antiquaries. He was 
offered knighthood by the prince regent on 
presenting a copy of the book, but declined 




the dignity. The ' Portfolio of Fragments ' 
remains a standard work of reference for 
local history and genealogy. He wrote often 
on antiquarian subjects in the l Gentleman's 

He played an energetic part in developing 
the public institutions of his native town, 
especially the Blue Coat School, the Liver- 
pool Library, the Royal Institution, Botanic 
Gardens, and Academy of Art. He intro- 
duced the art of lithography into Liverpool, 
and used it in his ' Fragments.' 

He was elected in 1801 a member of the 
Society of Arts, and in 1803 received the 
gold medal of that society ' for his very great 
attention to render useful the articles re- 
maining after public fires.' He had shown 
that paint, varnish, and printers' ink could 
be produced from burnt grain and sugar 
(Trans, of Soc. of Arts, xxii. 185). 

He was a most charitable and hospitable 
man, and his house, ever open to his acquaint- 
ances, acquired the title of ' Gregson's Hotel.' 
He was twice married, first to Jane Foster ; 
and secondly, to Anne Rimmer of Warring- 
ton, and he left several children. He died 
on 25 Sept. 1824, aged 75, after a fall from 
a ladder in his library. A monument to his 
memory was afterwards placed in St. John's 
churchyard, Liverpool. 

[Baines's Lancashire (Harland), ii. 381; Gent. 
Mag. 1824, pt. ii. p. 378, 1829, pt. ii. p. 652; 
Smithers's Liverpool, 1825, p. 410 ; Local 
Gleanings (Earwaker), 1875, i. 63, 87, 113; 
Picton's Memorials of Liverpool, 1875, ii. 311 ; 
Fishwick's Lancashire Library, p. 57-1 

C. W. S. 


(1775-1845), admiral in the Russian service, 
son of Sir Samuel Greig [q. v.], was born 
at Cronstadt on 18 Sept. 1775. As a reward 
for the services of his father, he was en- 
rolled at his birth as a midshipman in the 
Russian navy. He first distinguished him- 
self in the war between Russia and Turkey 
in 1807, at which time he had attained the 
rank of rear-admiral. After the engagement 
off Lemnos in that year, in which the Turks 
suffered a severe defeat, he was sent by Ad- 
miral Seniavin in pursuit of some ships which 
had escaped to the gulf of Monte Santo ; 
Greig blockaded the Turkish capitan-pasha 
so closely that he was compelled to burn his 
vessels and retreat overland. He greatly dis- 
tinguished himself in the next war between 
Russia and Turkey (1828-9). While Field- 
marshal Wittgenstein invaded the latter 
country by land, Greig was entrusted with 
the task of attacking the fortresses on the 
coast of Bulgaria and Roumelia, and the 
eastern shore of the Black Sea. He appeared 

off Anapa on 14 May ; on 24 June the place 
capitulated, and Greig received the rank of 
full admiral. In conjunction with the Rus- 
sian land forces he laid siege to Varna, but 
the place was not taken till two months and 
a half had elapsed (11 Oct.) During the 
operations the Emperor Nicholas visited the 
fleet and stayed on board the Paris, the ad- 
miral's ship. After the war was concluded 
(by the peace of Adrianople 14 Sept. 1829), 
Greig devoted himself with great earnest- 
ness to the organisation of the Russian navy. 
To him the Russians are indebted for the 
formation and development of their Black 
Sea fleet. He died on 30 Jan. 1845 at St. 
Petersburg, and was buried in the Smolensk 
cemetery in that city. He was created admi- 
ral in attendance on the czar, member of the 
imperial council, and knight of the order 
of St. George of the second class, together 
with other decorations. A monument was 
erected to his memory at Nicolaev. One of 
his sons greatly distinguished himself at the 
siege of Sebastopol. 

[Morskoi Sbornik (Naval Miscellany), for 1801 
No. 12, 1873 No. 3, 1882 Nos. 11 and 12 ; Bro- 
nevski's Zapiski Morskago Ofitzera (Memoirs of 
a Naval Officer), St. Petersburg, 1836 ; Ustrialov's 
Russkaya Istoria (Russian History), vol. ii.] 

W. R. M. 

GREIG, JOHN (1759-1819), mathema- 
tician, died at Somers Town, London, 19 Jan. 
1819, aged 60 (Gent. Mag. 1819, i. 184). He 
taught mathematics and wrote: 1. 'The 
Young Lady's Guide to Arithmetic,' London, 
1798 ; many editions, the last in 1864. 2.' In- 
troduction "to the Use of the Globes/ 1805 ; 
three editions. 3. l A New Introduction to 
Arithmetic,' London, 1805. 4. ' A System 
of Astronomy on the simple plan of Geo- 
graphy,' London, 1810. 5. * Astrography, 
or the Heavens displayed,' London, 1810. 
6. 'The World displayed, or the Charac- 
teristic Features of Nature and Art,' Lon- 
don, 1810. 

[Watt's Bibl. Brit. i. 441 ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] 

C. L. K. 

GREIG, SIR SAMUEL (1735-1788), ad- 
miral of the Russian navy, son of Charles 
Greig, shipowner of Inverkeithing in Fife- 
shire, and of his wife, Jane, daughter of the 
Rev. Samuel Charters of Inverkeithing, was 
born at Inverkeithing on 30 Nov. 1735. After 
serving some years at sea in merchant ships 
he entered the royal navy as master's mate 
on board the Firedrake bomb, in which he 
served at the reduction of Goree in 1758. He 
afterwards served in the Royal George during 
the blockade of Brest in 1759, and in her, 
carrying Sir Edward Hawke's flag, was pre- 




sent in the decisive action of Quiberon Buy. 
In 1761 he was acting lieutenant of the Al- 
bemarle armed ship, and was admitted to 
pass his examination oh 25 Jan. 1762. His 
rank, however, was not confirmed, and he 
was still serving as a master's mate at the 
reduction of Havana in 1762. On the con- 
clusion of the peace in 1763 he was one of a 
small number of officers permitted to take 
service in the navy of Russia, in which, in 
17G4, he w r as appointed a lieutenant. In a 
very short time he was promoted to the rank 
of captain, and in 1 769 was appointed to com- 
mand a division of the fleet which sailed for 
the Mediterranean under Count OrloiF, and, 
being reinforced by a squadron which went 
out under Rear-admiral John Elphinston 
[q. v.], destroyed the Turkish fleet in the Bay 
of Chesme on 7-8 July 1770. Greig's share 
in this success was no doubt important ; but 
it has been perhaps exaggerated in common 
report by his later celebrity. The British 
officers all did well, but the special command 
of the decisive operations was vested in El- 
phinston. Greig was at once promoted to be 
rear-admiral, and continued with Orloff, 
while Elphinston was detached on an in- 
dependent expedition to the Dardanelles. 
During the following years the war by sea 
was for the most part limited to destroying 
Turkish magazines and stores ; but on 10 Oct. 
1773 a Turkish squadron of ten ships was 
met and completely defeated by a Russian 
squadron of slightly inferior force. At the 
end of 1773 Greig returned to St. Petersburg, 
in order to attend personally to the fitting 
out of reinforcements ; in command of which, 
with the rank of vice-admiral, he sailed in 
February 1774, and joined Count Orloff 
at Leghorn, whence he pushed on to join 
the fleet in the Archipelago. Peace was, 
how r ever, shortly afterwards concluded, and 
Greig returned to Russia, where, during the 
succeeding years, he devoted himself to the 
improvement and development of the Rus- 
sian navy. His services were acknowledged 
by the empress, who appointed him grand 
admiral, governor of Cronstadt, and knight 
of the orders of St. Andrew, St. George, St. 
Vladimir, and St. Anne, and on 18 July 1776 
paid him a state visit on board the flagship, 
dined in the cabin, reviewed the fleet, and re- 
turned after placing on the admiral's breast 
the star of St. Alexander Newski. At this 
time, and in his efforts for the improvement 
of the Russian navy, Greig dreAv into it a very 
considerable number of British officers, prin- 
cipally Scotchmen, with a result that was 
certainly of permanent benefit to the navy, 
but proved at the time the cause of some em- 
barrassment to the country, as rendering its 

foreign policy dependent on the good will of 
the aliens in its service. In 1780 the ' armed 
neutrality ' was reduced virtually to an ' armed 
nullity ' by the fact that the navy Avas not 
available for service against England (Diaries 
and Correspondence of the First Earl of 
Malmesbury, i. 306). On the outbreak of the 
war with Sweden in 1788 Greig took com- 
mand of the fleet in the Gulf of Finland, and 
on 17 July fought a very severe but indeci- 
sive action with the Swedes off the island of 
Ilogland. Greig felt that he had not been 
properly seconded by the superior Russian 
officers under his command, and sent seven- 
teen of them prisoners to St. Petersburg, 
charged with having shamefully abandoned 
the rear-admiral, and being thus guilty of 
the loss of his ship. They were all, it is said, 
condemned to the hulks. The force displayed 
by the Russians was, however, an unpleasant 
surprise to the Swedes, who had counted on 
having the command of the sea, and were 
now obliged to modify their plans, and to act 
solely on the defensive. Through the autumn 
Greig held them shut up in Sveaborg; but 
his health, already failing, gave way under 
the continued strain, and he died on board 
his ship on 15-26 Oct. His memory w r as 
honoured by a general mourning, and a state 
funeral in the cathedral at Reval, where ' a 
magnificent monument has since been erected 
to mark the place where he lies.' 

Greig's services to the Russian navy con- 
sisted in remodelling the discipline, civilising 
and educating the officers, and gradually form- 
ing a navy which enabled Russia to boast of 
some maritime strength. He left two sons: 
Alexis [q. v.], afterwards an admiral in the 
Russian service ; and Samuel, who married 
his second cousin, Mary, daughter of Sir Wil- 
liam George Fairfax [q. v.] and wife, by her 
second marriage, of Dr. William Somerville. 

[Gent, Mag. 1788 pt. ii. p. 1125, 1789 pt. i. 
p. 165; Dublin Univ. Mag. xliv. 156.] J. K. L. 

GREISLEY, HENRY (1615 r-1678), 
translator, born about 1615, was the son of 
John Greisley of Shrewsbury. In 1634 he 
was elected from Westminster School to a 
studentship at Christ Church, Oxford, as a 
member of w r hichhe proceeded B.A. 11 April 
1638, M. A. 8 July 1641 . For refusing to sub- 
scribe the engagement ' according to act of 
parliament' he was ejected from his student- 
ship in March 1651 (Register of Visitors of 
Univ. of Oaf., Camd. Soc., pp. 329,486). On 
28 Sept. 1661 he received institution to the 
rectory of Stoke-Severn, Worcestershire, and 
was installed a prebendary of Worcester on 
19 April 1672 (W r iLLis, Survey of Cathedrals, 
ii. 669). He was buried at Stoke-Severn,having 




died on 8 June 1678, at the age of sixty-three. 
A memorial of him and of his wife Eleanor, 
daughter of Gervase Buck of Worcestershire, 
who died 17 Jan. 1703, aged 64, is in Stoke- 
Severn Church. Greisley translated from 
the French of Balzac ' The Prince ... [by 
H. G.],' 12mo, London, 1648; and from the 
French of Senault 'The Christian Man ; or 
the Reparation of Nature by Grace' [anon.], 
4to, London, 1650. ' Besides which transla- 
tions,' says Wood, ' he hath certain specimens 
of poetry extant, which have obtained him 
a place among those of that faculty.' He 
contributed a copy of English verses to the 
Christ Church collection entitled ' Death re- 
peal'd ' on the death of Paul, viscount Bayn- 
ing of Sudbury, in June 1638 (pp. 14-15) ; 
another in Latin is in the ' Horti Carolini 
Rosa Altera,' after the queen had given birth 
to a son, Henry, in 1640. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), iii. 1167-8, 
1244; Wood's Fasti Oxon. (Bliss), i. 468, 500, 
ii.3 ; Welch's Alumni Westmon. (1852), pp. 105, 
107 ; Nash's Worcestershire, ii. 345, 347 ; Walker's 
Sufferings of the Clergy (1714), pt. ii. p. 108.] 

G. G. 

GREISLEY, SIB ROGER, bart. (1801- 

1837), author. [See GRESLEY.] 

GRELLAN, SAINT (ft. 500), of Craebh- 
Grellain, in the south-east of the barony of 
Boyle, co. Roscommon, was the son of Cuillin, 
son of Cairbre Red-ear, king of Leinster. In 
the time of Lughaidh, son of Leogaire (483- 
508), great peals of thunder were heard, which 
St. ^Patrick interpreted as announcing Grel- 
lan's birth and future eminence as a saint. 
When of age to travel he abandoned his right 
of succession to the throne, and accompanied 
St. Patrick to Ath Cliath Duibhlinne (now 
Dublin). On this occasion Patrick is said to 
have composed a poem upon Grellan's future 
fame (given in Grellan's 'Life'). They went 
from Dublin to Duach Galach, king of Con- 
naught, whose wife was delivered of a dead 
child in the night. It was miraculously re- 
stored to life by the saints. As a reward 
for this Duach granted a tribute to be paid 
thenceforward by the descendants of the 
infant to Grellan, and bestowed on him the 
plain where the miracle was performed, then 
called Achadh Finnabrach, but afterwards 
Craebh-Grellain (the Branch of Grellan), 
from the branch given to him in token of 
possession by Duach and Patrick. 

Grellan, travelling further, settled at Magh 
Senchineoil (the Plain of the Old Tribe), then 
the dwelling-place of Cian, king of the Fer 
Bolgs, who were the inhabitants of that 
territory. Cian waited on Grellan at Cill 
Cluana, now Kilclooney, north-west of Bal- 

linasloe, in the barony of Clonmacnowen, co. 
Galway, where Grellan afterwards erected a 
church. The Fer Bolgs were attacked by a 
tribe from Clogher under Maine the Great, but 
Grellan intervened and made peace on condi- 
tion that Maine should deliver l thrice nine ' 
nobles as hostages to Cian. Cian meditated a 
treacherous slaughter of the hostages, when, 
at Grellan's prayers, a quagmire opened and 
swallowed up him and his forces. Grellan 
then handed over the territory to Maine, 
and in return received the following tribute. 
He was to have a screpall (3d.) out of every 
townland, the first-born of every family was 
to be dedicated to him; he was also to 
have the firstlings of pig, sheep, and horse, 
and the race of Maine were never to be sub- 
dued as long as they held his crozier. This 
crozier was preserved for ages in the family of 
O'Cronelly, who were the ancient comharbas, 
or successors of the saint. It was in existence 
as late as 1836, when it was in the possession 
of John Cronelly, the senior representative of 
the saint's successors, but it is not known 
what has since become of it. 

Grellan's day is 10 Nov., but the year of 
his death is not mentioned. Colgan says 
he was a disciple of St. Finnian of Clonard, 
and flourished in 590, but this is not con- 
sistent with the facts mentioned in the Irish 
life, for St. Patrick, with whom he is asso- 
ciated, died, according to the usual opinion, 
in 493, or, according to Mr. Whitley Stokes, 
in 463. 

[Betha Grellain MS 23-0.41, Royal Irish Aca- 
demy ; Martyrology of Donegal, p. 303 ; O'Dono- 
van's Tribes and Customs of Hy-many ; Colgan's 
Acta Sanct. p. 337.] T. 0. 

GRENE, CHRISTOPHER (1629-1697), 
Jesuit, son of George Grene, by his wife Jane 
Tempest, and brother of Father Martin Grene 
[q. v.], was born in 1629 in the diocese of 
Kilkenny, Ireland, whither his parents, who 
were natives of England, and belonged to 
the middle class, had retired on account of 
the persecution. He made his early studies 
in Ireland; entered in 1642 the college of the 
English Jesuits at Liege, where he lived for 
five years ; was admitted into the English 
College at Rome for his higher course in 1647; 
was ordained priest in 1653; and sent to 
England in 1654. He entered the Society 
of Jesus 7 Sept. 1658, and was professed of 
the four vows 2 Feb. 1668-9. He became 
English penitentiary first at Loreto, and 
afterwards at St. Peter's, Rome. In 1692 he 
was appointed spiritual director at the Eng- 
lish College, Rome, and he died there on 
11 Nov. 1697. 

He rendered great service to historical 




students by collecting 1 the scattered records 
of the English catholic martyrs, and by pre- 
serving materials for the history of the times 
of persecution in this country. An account 
of those portions of his manuscript collec- 
tions which are preserved at Stonyhurst, 
Oscott, and in the archiepiscopal archives of 
Westminster is given in Morris's ' Troubles 
of our Catholic Forefathers,' vol. iii. 

[Foley's Eecords, iii. 499, vi. 369, vii. 317; 
Gillow's Bibl. Diet. ; Morris's Troubles of our 
Catholic Forefathers, iii. 3-7, 118, 315; Oliver's 
Jesuit Collections, p. 106.] T. C. 

GRENE, MARTIN (1616-1667), Jesuit, 
son of George Grene, probably a member of 
one of the Yorkshire families of the name, by 
his wife Jane Tempest, is said by Southwell to 
have beenborn in 1616 at Kilkenny in Ireland, 
to which country his parents had retired from 
their native land on account of the persecu- 
tion ; but the provincial's returns of 1642 and 
1655 expressly vouch for his being a native 
of Kent. lie was the elder brother of Chris- 
topher Grene [q. v.] After studying humani- 
ties in the college of the English Jesuits at 
St. Omer, he was admitted to the society in 
1638. In 1642 he was a professor in the col- 
lege at Liege, and he held important offices in 
other establishments belonging to the Eng- 
lish Jesuits on the continent. In 1653 he was 
stationed in Oxfordshire. He was solemnly 
professed of the four vows on 3 Dec. 1654. 
After passing twelve years on the mission he 
was recalled to Watten. near St. Omer, to take 
charge of the novices. He died there on 
2 Oct. 1667, leaving behind him the reputa- 
tion of an eminent classic, historian, philo- 
sopher, and divine. 

His works are : 1. l An Answer to the Pro- 
vincial Letters published by the Jansenists, 
under the name of Lewis Montalt, against 
the Doctrine of the Jesuits and School Di- 
vines,' Paris, 1659, 8vo. A translation from 
the French, but with considerable improve- 
ments of his own, and with a brief history of 
Jansenism prefixed. 2. 'An Account of the 
Jesuites Life and Doctrine. By M. G.,' Lon- 
don, 1661, 12mo. This book was a great 
favourite with the Duke of York, afterwards 
James II. 3. ( Vox Veritatis, sen Via Regia 
ducens ad veram Pacem,' manuscript. This 
treatise was translated into English by his 
brother, Francis Grene, and printed at Ghent, 
1676, 24mo. 4. 'The Church History of 
England,' manuscript, commencing with the 
reign of Henry VIII. The first volume of 
this work was 'ready for the press when the 
author died. Grene, who was an accom- 
plished antiquary, communicated to Father 
Daniello Bartoli much information respect- 

ing English catholic affairs, which is embodied 
inBartoli's 'IstoriadellaCompagniadi Giesu- 
L'Inghilterra,' 1667. 

, [Cath. Miscell. ix. 35 ; De Backer's Bibl. des 
Ecrivains de la Compagnie de Jesus; Foley's 
Records, iii. 493, vii. 317 ; Gillow's Bibl. Diet, 
iii. 50 ; Oliver's Jesuit Collections, p. 106 ; South- 
well's Bibl. Scriptorum Soc. Jesu, p. 586 ; Ware's 
Writers of Ireland (Harris), p. 158.] T. C. 

1869), admiral in the Brazilian navy, born 
at Battersea on 20 Sept. 1800, was a son of 
J. G. Grenfell and probably nephew of Pascoe 
Grenfell [q. v.] When eleven years old he 
entered the service of the East India Com- 
pany ; but after having made several voyages 
to India, in 1819 he joined the service of the 
Chilian republic under Lord Cochrane [see 
DONALD], was made a lieutenant, and took 
part in most of Cochrane's exploits in the war 
of Chilian independence, and notably in the 
cutting out of the Esmeralda, when he was 
severely wounded. In 1823 he accompanied 
Cochrane to Brazil, with the rank of com- 
| mander, and served under his orders in the 
war with Portugal, specially distinguishing- 
himself in the reduction of Para. Afterwards, 
under Commodore Norton, in the action oft" 
Buenos Ayres on 29 July 1826, he lost his 
right arm. He then went to England for the 
re-establishment of his health, but returned 
to Brazil in 1828. In 1835-6 he commanded 
the squadron on the lakes of the province of 
Kio Grande do Sul against the rebel flotillas, 
which he captured or destroyed, thus com- 
pelling the rebel army to surrender. In 1841 
he was promoted to be rear-admiral. In 1846 
he was appointed consul-general in England, 
to reside in Liverpool, and in August 1848, 
while superintending the trial of the Alfonzo, 
a ship of war built at Liverpool for the Bra- 
zilian government, assisted in saving the lives 
of the passengers and crew of the emigrant 
ship Ocean Monarch, burnt off the mouth of 
the Mersey. For his exertions at this time 
he received the thanks of the corporation and 
the gold medal of the Liverpool Shipwreck 
Society. In 1851, on Avar breaking out be- 
tween Brazil and the Argentine republic, he 
returned to take command of the Brazilian 
navy, and in December, after a sharp conflict, 
forced the passage of the Parana. After the 
peace he was promoted to be vice-admiral, 
and later on to be admiral ; but in 1852 he 
returned to Liverpool, and resumed his func- 
tions as consul-general, holding the office until 
his death on 20 March 1869. He married, at 
Monte Video in 1829, Dona Maria Dolores 
Masini, and left issue ; among others, Harry 
Tremenheere Grenfell, a captain in the royal 




navy, who on 13 Feb. 1882, while shooting in 
the neighbourhood of Artaki, in the Sea of 
Marmora, was severely wounded in a chance 
affray with some native shepherds ; he nar- 
rowly escaped with his life, his companion, 
Commander Selby, being killed. An elder 
son, John Granville Grenfell, commissioner 
of crown lands in New South Wales, was 
killed while defending the mail against an 
attack of bushrangers on 7 Dec. 1866 (Sydney 
Morning Herald, 11, 21 Dec. 1866). 

[Times, 22 March 1869; Illustrated London 
News, 4 Dec. 1852 ; Mulhall's English in South 
America, p. 210; Armitage's Hist, of Brazil; in- 
formation from the family.] J. K. L. 

GRENFELL, PASCOE (1761-1838), 
politician, was born at Marazion in Cornwall, 
and baptised at St. Hilary Church 24 Sept. 
1761. His father, Pascoe Grenfell, born in 
1729, after acting as a merchant in London, 
became commissary to the States of Holland, 
and died at Marazion 27 May 1810, having 
married Mary, third child of William Tremen- 
heere, attorney, Penzance. The son went to 
the grammar school at Truro in 1777, where he 
was contemporary with Richard Pol whele, the 
historian, and Dr. John Cole, rector of Exeter 
College, Oxford. Afterwards proceeding to 
London he entered into business with his 
father and uncle, who were merchants and 
large dealers in tin and copper ores. In course 
of time he became the head of the house and 
realised a considerable fortune. His acquisi- 
tion of Taplow Court, near Maidenhead, as a 
residence led to his election for Great Marlow, 
Buckinghamshire, for which place he sat from 
14 Dec. 1802 to 29 Feb. 1820. He represented 
Penryn in Cornwall from 9 March 1820 to 
2 June 1826. In parliament he was a zealous 
supporter of William Wilberforce in the de- 
bates on slavery, besides being a vigilant ob- 
server of the actions of the Bank of England 
in its dealings with the public, and a great au- 
thority on all matters connected with finance. 
On the latter subject he made many speeches, 
and it was chiefly through his efforts that the 
periodical publication of the accounts of the 
bank was commenced (Hansard, vols. xxii. 
xxx-xxxvii.) Two of his speeches were re- 
printed as pamphlets : (1) Substance of a 
speech, 28 April 1814, on applying the sink- 
ing fund towards loans raised for the public 
service, 1816 ; (2) Speech, 13 Feb. 1816, on 
certain transactions between the public and 
the Bank of England, 1816. He was governor 
of the Royal Exchange Insurance Company, 
and a commissioner of the lieutenancy for 
London. He died at 38 Belgrave Square, 
London, 23 Jan. 1838. He married, first, 
his cousin, Charlotte Granville, who died in 

1790, and secondly, on 15 Jan. 1798,Georgiana 
St. Leger, seventh and youngest daughter of 
St. Leger St. Leger, first viscount Doneraile. 
She died 12 May 1868. 

[Gent. Mag. April 1838, p. 429; D. Gilbert's 
Cornwall, ii. 216; Polwhele's Reminiscences 
(1836), i. 12, 110; Lipscombe's Buckingham- 
shire, i. 304 ; Boaseand Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. 
pp. 189, 1205; Duke of Buckingham's Memoirs 
of Court of George IV (1859), i. 282-3.] 

G. C. B. 


^GRENVILLE, SIB BEVIL (1596-1643), 

royalist, son of Sir Bernard Grenville and 
Elizabeth, daughter of Philip Bevil of Kelly- 
garth, Cornwall, was born 23 March 1595- 
1596 at Brinn, in St. Withiel, Cornwall 
(ViviAisr, Visitation of Cornwall, p. 192; Bi- 
bliotheca Cornubiensis, iii. 1206), matriculated 
at Exeter College, Oxford, 14 June 1611, and 
took the degree of B.A. 17 Feb. 1613-14 
(BoASE, Exeter College Registers, p. xxx). 
In a letter to his son Richard, written in 
1639, Grenville gives an account of his own 
studies : 1 1 was left to my own little discre- 
tion when I was a youth in Oxford, and so 
fell upon the sweet delights of reading poetry 
and history in such sort as I troubled no other 
books, and do find myself so infinitely de- 
fective by it, when I come to manage any occa- 
sions of weight, as I would give a limb it were 
otherwise' (Academy, 28 July 1877). Gren- 
ville represented Cornwall in the parliaments 
of 1621 and 1624, and Launceston in the first 
three parliaments of Charles I (Return of 
Names of Members of Parliament, 1878). 
During this period he sided with the popular 
party, and was the friend and follower of Sir 
John Eliot. Grenville's letters to his wife 
in 1626 show with what anxiety he regarded 
Eliot's brief imprisonment in that year (FoRS- 
TER, Life of Cromivell, p. 99). In 1628 Gren- 
ville was very active in securing the return 
of Eliot and other opposition candidates to 
parliament, in spite of the fact that his father, 
Sir Bernard, took the side of the government 
(FoRSTER, Life of Eliot, 1865, i. 108, 110). 
During Eliot's final imprisonment he had no 
stauncher friend than Grenville; he signs 
himself to Eliot ( one that will live and die 
your faithfullest friend and servant.' When, 
in 1632, there were rumours of a fresh parlia- 
ment, Grenville wrote an affectionate letter 
to Eliot asserting that he should ' be sure of 
the first knight's place whensoever it happen ' 
(ib. ii. 529, 708). Grenville's reasons for 
abandoning the opposition are obscure. In 
1639, when the king raised an army against 
the Scots, he manifested the greatest alacrity 
in his cause. ' I go with joy and com- 





fort,' he wrote, ' to venture a life in as good 
a cause and with as good company as ever 
Englishman did ; and I do take God to wit- 
ness, if I were to choose a death it should be 
no other but this ' ( Thurloe State Papers, i. 
2 ; cf. NUGENT, Life of Hampden, ii. 193). 
In the Long parliament Grenville again re- 
presented the county of Cornwall, but took 
no part in its debates. Heath represents him 
as a determined opponent of the attainder of 
the Earl of Strafford, but his name does not ap- 
pear in the list of those who voted against the 
bill (HEATH, Chronicle, ed. 1663, p. 33; RUSH- 
WORTH, Trial of Strafford, p. 59). From the 
beginning of the war lie devoted himself to 
the king's service, and as he was, according to 
Clarendon, ' the most generally loved man ' in 
Cornwall, his influence was of the greatest 
value. On 5 Aug. 1642 Grenville and others 
published the king's commission of array and 
his declaration against the militia at Launces- 
ton (Journals of the House of Lords, v. 275). 
The parliament thrice sent for him as a de- 
linquent and ordered his arrest (ib. pp. 271, 
294, 315). The representatives of the two 
parties signed, on 18 Aug. at Bodmin. an agree- 
ment for a truce, but the arrival of Hopton in 
September revived the conflict (ib. \. 315 ; 
CLARENDON, vi. 239). The royalists esta- 
blished their headquarters at Truro, and suc- 
ceeded in inducing the grand jury of Corn- 
wall to find an indictment against their 
opponents for riot and unlawful assembly 
(CLARENDON, vi. 241). Grenville was deter- 
mined ' to fetch those traitors out of their 
nest at Launceston, or fire them in it ' (FoRS- 
TER, Life of Cromwell, i. 97). The posse 
comitatus was raised, Launceston was trium- 
phantly occupied, and the parliamentary 
forces were driven out of the county. On 
19 Jan. 1643 Colonel Ruthven and the parlia- 
mentarians were defeated at Bradock Down, 
near Liskeard, with the loss of twelve hun- 
dred prisoners and all their guns. ' 1 had the 
van,' writes Grenville, ' and so, after solemn 
prayers at the head of every division, I led my 
part away, who followed me with so great 
a courage, both down the one hill and up the 
other, that it struck a terror into them ' 
(NUGENT, Hampden, ii. 368 ; CLARENDON, vi. 
248). Against Grenville's judgment Hopton 
then besieged Plymouth, but before the end 
of February he was forced to raise the siege, 
and on 5 March a cessation of arms was con- 
cluded between the counties of Devon and 
Cornwall (CLARENDON, vi. 254 ; FORSTER, Life 
of Cromwell, i. 106). In May Henry Grey 
[q. v.], earl of Stamford, marched into Corn- 
wall with an army of 5,400 foot and 1,400 
horse. Hopton and Grenville, though their 
forces hardly amounted to half that number, 

attacked Stamford's camp at Stratton on 
16 May, and completely routed him. As at 
Bradock Down, Grenville was again con- 
spicuous for his personal courage (CLAREN- 
DON, vii. 89) . In June the Cornish army j oined 
that under Prince Maurice, and the Marquis 
of Hertford advanced into Somersetshire and 
attacked Sir William Waller at Lansdowne, 
near Bath (5 July 1643). Grenville was killed 
as he led his Cornish pikemen up the hill 
against Waller's entrenchments. ' In the face 
of their cannon and small shot from their 
breastworks, he gained the brow of the hill, 
having sustained two full charges from the 
enemy's horse ; but in their third charge, his 
horse failing and giving ground, he received, 
after other wounds, a blow on the head with 
a poleaxe, with which he fell ' (ib. vii. 106). 
In his pocket was found the treasured letter of 
thanks which Charles had sent him in the pre- 
ceding March (Biographia Britannica, 1757, 
p. 2295). He was buried at Kilkhampton on 
26 July (ViviAN, p. 192). Lord Nugent prints 
an admirable and touching letter of con- 
dolence addressed to Lady Grenville by John 
Trelawney (Life of Hampden, ii. 381), but the 
letter of Anthony Payne on the same subject 
quoted by Mr. Hawker does not appear to be 
genuine (HAWKER, Footprints of Former 
Men, 1870, p. 39). Grenville was a very 
great loss to the king's cause. ' His activity, 
interest, and reputation was the foundation 
of all that had been done in Cornwall ; his 
temper and affection so public that no 
accident which happened could make any 
impression on him, and his example kept 
others from taking anything ill, or at least 
seeming to do so.' Grenville's influence over 
his Cornish followers ' restrained much of the 
license and suppressed the murmurs and 
mutiny to which that people were too much 
inclined ' (CLARENDON, vii. 108, 82 n.) In the 
following year a collection of poems was pub- 
lished at Oxford, entitled ' Verses on the 
Death of the right Valiant Sir Bevill Gren- 
vill, knight/ containing elegies by William 
Cartwright, Jasper Mayne, and others. 
Memorial verses are also to be found in 
Heath's ' Clarastella,' 1650, p. 6, and Sir 
Francis Wortley's ' Characters and Elegies,' 

1646, p. 44. Best known are the oft-quoted 
lines of Martin Lluellin : 

Where shall th' next famous Grenville's ashes 

stand ? 
Thy grandsire fills the seas and thou the land ! 

Grenville married Grace, daughter of Sir 
George Smith of Exeter, by whom he had 
seven sons and five daughters. Lady Gren- 
ville was buried at Kilkhampton on 8 June 

1647. Of his sons the most notable were 




John Grenville, first earl of Bath [q. v ] ; Ber- 

[J taf^Sea 
iam (ViYiAN p. 192). Monuments 
ville's memory were erected by his grandson, 
lord Lansdowne, at Stratton, at Lansdowne 
and at Kilkhamptor ^(WABipffi History of 
Bath, 1801, p. 84 ; Gent. Mag 1845, pt. n. 
p 35). A portrait of Grenville, from a minia- 
ture in the possession of Thomas Grenville 
a v 1 is engraved in Lord Nugent's < Life of 
Hamp'den,' ed. 1832. 

[Clarendon's History of the Rebel ion, ed. 
Macrav the narratives on which Clarendon 
founded' his history of the western campaign 
are ClarendonMS. 1738 (Nos. 1 2) Letters by 
Grenville are printed in Nugent s Life of Harnp- 
"orster'3 P Life of Cromwell, 1838 and 
Forster's Life of Eliot, 1865; the originals of 
some of these are among the Forster MSS. at 
South Kensington; others are mentioned in 
Barino; Gould's Life of K. S. Hawker, ed. 1876, 
36 288 Lives of Grenville are contained in 
Lloyd's Memoirs of Excellent Personages 1668, 
Wood's Fasti Oxon. ed. Bliss, ii. 352, and Biog. 
Brit 1750 A pedigree of the Grenville family 
is eiven inVivian's Visitations of Cornwall ; see 
also Boase and Courtney's Bibl. Cornub. i. 190 in. 
1206 1 

GRENVILLE, DENIS (1637-1703) 
Jacobite divine, youngest son of Sir Bevil 
Grenville [q. v.], was born 13 Feb 1637 and 
baptised at Kilkhampton, Cornwall, 26 Feb. | 
He was probably educated for some time at 
a grammar school in his native county, and 
at Eton. He was matriculated as a gentle- 
man-commoner of Exeter College, Oxford, 
22 Sept. 1657, according to Boase (Register 
of Exeter, p. xxxi), or, according to the uni- 
versity records, on 6 Aug. 1658 He was 
created M.A. in convocation 28 Sept. 1660, 
and proceeded D.D. on 28 Feb. 1671. About 
1660 he married Anne, fourth and youngest 
daughter of Bishop Cosen. He was then pre- 
paring, according to his panegyrists, to cast 
' a lustre upon the clergy,' adding the < emi- 
nency of birth ' to ' virtues, learning, and piety. 
Bishop Sanderson ordained him in 1661, and 
on 10 July in the same year he succeeded, on 
the presentation of his eldest brother, Sir John 
Grenville [q. v.], earl of Bath.>o the family 
living of Kilkhampton. Lord Bath also ob- 
tained for him a promise of the next vacant 
fellowship at Eton College. Sheldon, arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, resisted this arrange- 
ment, but the king sent a peremptory man- 
date directing that it should be strictly ful- 
filled. Before the next vacancy (in 1669) 
Grenville exchanged the reversion for the 
prebendal stall of Langtoft in York Cathe- 

dral, held by Timothy Thriscrosse. He was 
collated to the first stall in Durham (his father- 
in-law's) Cathedral on 18 Sept. 1662. He was 
appointed to the archdeaconry of Durham, 
with the rectory of Easington annexed, in 
September 1662,' and in 1664 to the rectory of 
Elwick Hall. He resigned Elwick Hall in 
1667 upon his institution to the rich rectory 
of Sedgefield, and in 1668 he surrendered the 
first for the second stall, being installed on 
16 Feb. 1668. With the assistance of Bishop 
Nathaniel Crew [q. v.] he obtained, in spite 

_ J? A _ "Ulv! !* ^.-^ C!rt -r* rt-*/-v-A- 'o rkTk-nncTf i r\T\ i*.nP VPTV 

1 CLtllClIllCJL VyJIOVV I M* J vr^v ,^j ~ j. 

of Archbishop Sancroft's opposition, the very 
lucrative deanery of Durham, to which he 
was instituted on 9 Dec. 1684. Sancroft ex- 
claimed that ' Grenville was not worthy of 
the least stall in Durham Cathedral,' and his 
diocesan retorted that 'he would rather 
choose a gentleman than a silly fellow who 
knew nothing about [? but] books.' Grenville 
then vacated his stall, but held at the same 
time the deanery and archdeaconry of Dur- 
ham, and the rectory of Sedgefield, described 
in his own words as ' the best deanery, the 
best archdeaconry, and one of the best livings 
in England.' He managed, however, to get 
into debt, and while archdeacon of Durham 
and one of the king's chaplains in ordinary 
he was openly arrested within the cloisters 
of the cathedral and imprisoned, though 
claiming his privileges. The matter was 
brought before the king in council, when he 
was freed, and the offending officials were 
severely punished. His wife suffered from ' oc- 
casional attacks of mental excitement,' aggra- 
vated, if not created, by these debts, and by her 
husband's consequent estrangement from her 
father and her sister, Lady Gerrard. During 
1678 and 1679 he retired with his sister, Lady 
Joanna Thornhill, and her family to Tour 
d'Aigues, a small town in Provence. 

Grenville was a strong churchman, and he 
laboured all his time at Durham to promote 
a weekly communion in the cathedral ; he 
confessed to Dugdale in 1683 that he had 
been compelled to play * a very hard game 
these twenty years in maintaining y e exact 
order w ch Bpp. Cosins set on foot.' As dean 
he also endeavoured to make ' the cathedral 
the great seminary of young divines for the 
diocese, and to this end to invite ingenuous 
young men to be minor canons,' with right 
of succession to the chapter livings. He was 
a zealous adherent of James II, and upon 
William's landing raised 700/. from the pre- 
bendaries of Durham for the king, giving 
100Z. himself. He addressed the clergy of his 
archdeaconry on behalf of James, and even 
after Durham had been surprised by Wil- 
liam's followers (Sunday, 9 Dec.) Grenville 
delivered f a seasonable loyall sermon.' At 



midnight on 11 Dec. he fled to Carlisle, and 
a tew days later was seized on the borders 
while hastening to Scotland, and was robbed 
ot his horses and money. These were re- 
covered by him when he had been brought 
back to Carlisle, and after a short stay at 
Durham he succeeded in escaping to Edin- 

1 , - ^u^ilig i u JJJUIU- 

burgh and landing at Honfleur (19 March 
M). His wife was left destitute in Eng- 
land, and by an order of the chapter of Dur- 
ham she received an allowance of < twenty 
pounds quarterly.' His goods at Durham 
were distrained upon by the sheriff for debts 
when Sir George Wheler purchased for 221 / 
the dean s library, which was rich in bibles 
and common-prayer books. Through his 
brothers influence Grenville retained the 
revenues of his preferment for some time ; but 
as he declined to take the oaths of allegiance 
to the new sovereigns he was deprived of 
them from 1 Feb. 1691. Except in Febru- 
ary 1690, when he came incognito into Eno-- 
land, but was recognised by < an impertinent 
andmalitious postmaster' at Canterbury and 
a second visit in April 1695, he remained in 
ranee. James nominated him for the arch- 
bishopric of York on the death of Lampluo-h 
and he was always kindly treated by the ex- 
kmg s wife. Sums of money were occasion- 
ally sent to him from England, especially by 
Sir George Wheler and Thomas Higgons his 
nephew who were threatened with prosecu- 
tion m 1698 by Sir George's son-in-law, an 
attorney with whom he had quarrelled 
Grenville was the chief ecclesiastic who ac- 
companied James into exile, but was not al- 
lowed to perform the Anglican service His 
conversion was vainly attempted, at one time 
by restraint, at another by argument He 
lived first at Rouen, from 1698 to 1701 at 
Iremblet, and afterwards at Corbeil onthe 
f?n\ "f s ickened at Corbeil on the night 
n To JP nl l ' 3 ' was taken to p ans, and died 
on 18 April. His body was buried privately 
at night at the lower end of the consecrated 
ground of the Holy Innocents churchyard in 
-raris. Ihe funeral was at the cost of Mary 
the widow of James II, who had often helped 
him from her scanty resources. His wife 
died in October 1691, and was buried in Dur- 
ham Cathedral on 14 Oct. 

Grenville when an undergraduate at Ox- 
ford contributed verses to the university col- 
lection of loyal poems printed in 1660, with 
the title of < Britannia Rediviva.' On his 
?PI i ^)T nt - t0 the archd eaconry of Durham 
- he issued and reissued in the next 
year Article of Enquiry concerning Matters 
Ecclesiastical ' for the officials of every parish 
m the diocese. In 1664 he printed a sermon 
and a letter, entitled < The Compleat Confor- 


mist, or Seasonable Advice concerning strict 
Conformity and frequent Celebration of the 
Holy Communion/ He addressed to his ne- 
phew Thomas, son of his sister, Bridget Gren- 
, ville, by Sir Thomas Higgons, in 1685, an 
anonymous volume of ' Counsel and Direc- 
tions, Divine and Moral, in Plain and Fa- 
miliar Letters of Ad dee.' When in exile at 
Rouen he printed twenty copies of ' The Re- 
signed and Resolved Christian and Faithful 
and Undaunted Royalist in two plain fare- 
well Sermons and a loyal farewell Visitation 
bpeech. ^ Whereunto are added certaine let- 
! ters to his relations and freinds in England.' 
, A copy of this very scarce production is in 
the Bodleian Library, and another in the 
i Grenville collection ; both contain portraits 
| of the dean after Beaupoille, engraved by 
j Ldelmck. Numerous letters from him are 
printed in Comber's 'Life of Thorn as Comber/ 
pp. 139-334 ; many more remain imprinted 
among the Rawlinson MSS. at the Bodleian 
Library. Locke when in France in 1678 wrote 
three letters to Grenville. Two of them are 
m Addit. MS. 4290 at the British Museum, 
and are printed, together with the third, in 
*ox Bourne's ' John Locke,' i. 387-97. A 
narrative of his life was composed by a 
clergyman named Beaumont, residing in the 
diocese of Durham. Two collections of his 
remains have been distributed by the Surtees 
Society. The former (pt, i. of vol. xxxvii. of 
their < Transactions ') was taken from a book 
mthe Durham Cathedral library, consisting of 
letters and other documents collected by Dr. 
Hunter, the well-known antiquary of that 
county. The latter (vol. xlvii. of the Surtees 
Society) was based on the papers at the Bod- 
leian Library. Granville, lord Lansdowne 
pronounced a high eulogy upon his apostolic 
virtues in an often-quoted passage. 

[Lord Lansdowne's Works, ii. 283-5; Duo-- 
dale's Diary, pp. 428-32 ; Surtees's Durham, i. 
12-13, 175, ii. 373-4, iii. 32-6 ; Maxwell Lyte's 
Eton College, pp. 269-70 ; Luttrell's Relation, 
iv. 369-71 ; Zoucli's Sudbury and Sir George 
Wheler in Zouch's Works, ii. 80-1, 158-9, 167- 
171 ; Boase's Exeter College, p. xxxi ; Gilling's 
Ltfe of Trosse, pp. 123-5 ; Wood's Athense Oxon. 
(Bliss), iv. 497-8; Wood's Fasti, ii. 229, 326- Le 
Neve's Fasti, iii. 300-10 ; Boase and Courtney's 
Bibl. Cornub. i. 191-2, iii. 1206.] W. P. C. 

GRENVILLE, GEORGE (1712-1770) 
statesman, was the second son of Richard 
Grenville (1678-1728) of Wotton Hall, 
Buckinghamshire, by his wife Hester, second 
daughter of Sir Richard Temple, bart,, of 
Stowe, near Buckingham, and sister and co- 
heiress of Richard, viscount Cobham of Stowe. 
He was born on 14 Oct. 1712 ; was educated 
at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford (where he 



matriculated on 6 Feb 1730), and was ad- 
mitted a student of the Inner Temple m 1729. 
It appears that he was also admitted to Lin- 
coln^ Inn on 21 Feb. 1733. He was, however, 
called to the bar at the Inner Temple m 1 / o5, 

m-ovided for the speedy and punctual payment 
Kamen's wages, after considerable opposi- 
the lords, became law during the se - 



and at the general election m May 1741 
returned to the House of Commons for the 
borough of Buckingham, a constituency which 
he represented until his death. 

Grenville began his political career among 
the < Boy Patriots/ who opposed Sir Kobert 
Walpole's policy, and on 21 Jan. 1742 took 
part in the debate on Pulteney's motion for 
a secret committee on the conduct of the war 
(WALPOLE, Letters, i. 119). In, December 
1742 he spoke in the debate on Sir William 
Yonge's motion for a grant in payment of the 
Hanoverian troops and voted .^h Pitt 
against the motion (Parl. Hist. xn. 1051-d). 
In December 1744 he was appointed a lord of 
the admiralty in Pelham's administration. 
In the following year, though in office, he 
engaged with Pitt and his brother Richard 
(afterwards Lord Temple) in opposing the 
measures of the government until the former 
obtained preferment (Grenville Papers, i. 
424) On 23 June 1747 Grenville became a 
lord of the treasury. On the death of Henry 
Pelham Grenville was appointed treasurer ot 
the navy in the Duke of Newcastle's admi- 


In February 1761 he was admitted to the 
cabinet, while still holding the office of trea- 
surer of the navy. Upon Pitt's resignation 
n Ocfober 1761, the seals of secretary ot 
state were offered to Grenville, who refused 
them. At the king's desire, Grenville, how- 
I ever gave up the thoughts which he had 
1 entertained of succeeding Onslow as the 
sneaker and consented to remain treasurer of 
the nav, and to take the lead in the House 

ine iitivj AH vi 

nistration, and was sworn a member ot the 
privy council on 21 June 1754. By untiring 
industry Grenville had already made a mark 
in the House of Commons. Pitt, writing to 
the Earl of Hardwicke in the previous April, 
says : * Mr. Grenville is universally able m 
the whole business of the house, and after 
Mr. Murray and Mr. Fox is certainly one of 
the very best parliament men in the house ' 
(CHATHAM, Correspondence, i. 106). When 
parliament met in November 1755 Grenville 
attacked the foreign policy of the govern- 
ment in a speech which, according to Horace 
Walpole, * was very fine, and much beyond 
himself ; and very pathetic ' (Letters, ii. 484). 
and on 20 Nov. was dismissed from his office. 
In November 1756, on the formation of the 
Duke of Devonshire's administration, Gren- 
ville returned to his former post of treasurer 
of the navy, in succession to Dodington, but 
on 9 April in the following year resigned 
it, in consequence of the dismissal of Pitt 
and Temple from the government. In June 
1757, however, Grenville once again became 
treasurer of the navy, and on 24 Jan. 1758 
reintroduced his Navy Bill, which had been 
thrown out in the previous year (Parl. Hist. 
xv. 839-70). This useful measure, which 

the Duke of Newcastle resigne, m ay , 
Grenville was appointed secretary of state for 
the northern department, m the place of Lord 
Bute who became first lord of the treasury. 
Duriigthe summer, while the negotiations for 

peace were going on, Grenville had consider- 
able differences with Bute upon the terms of 
the treaty Grenville strongly insisted upon 
the retention of Guadaloupe, or upon obtaining 

an equivalent for giving it up ; but while he 
was in bed, owing to a temporary illness, Bute 
took the opportunity of summoning a council, 
by which it was surrendered. Grenville was 
however, successful in compelling Bute to 
exact compensation from Spam for the ces- 
sion of Havannah. Hitherto Grenville had 
had an easy task as leader of the house, since 
Pitt had abstained from any violent ^opposi- 
tion but he by no means relished the pro- 
spect of having to take the leading part in the 
commons in the defence of the treaty. Bate, 

place of Lord Halifax, who succeeded Gren- 
ville as secretary of state on 18 Oct. 1762. 

house that the profusion with which L the late 
war had been -Tried on necessitated t* , im 
position of new taxes. "He wished genUe- 
men would show him where to lay them. 
Eepeating this question in his querulous, 



languid, fatiguing tone, Pitt, who sat oppo- 
site to him, mimicking his accent aloud, re- 
peated these words of an old ditty, " Gentle 
shepherd, tell me where ! " and then risino- 
abused Grenville bitterly. He had no sooner 
finished than Grenville started up in a trans- 
port of rage, and said, if gentlemen were to 
be treated with that contempt - Pitt was 
walking out of the house, but at that word 
turned round, made a sneering bow to Gren- 
ville, and departed. . . . The appellation of 
the Gentle Shepherd long stuck by Gren- 
ville. He is mentioned by it in many of the 
writings on the Stamp Act, and in other 
pamphlets and political prints of the time ' 
(WALPOLE, Memoirs of Georye III, i. 2ol). 
Fox, in his memorandum dated l{ March 
1763, urged Bute to remove Grenville from 

*^.u-i.wvo vj icii vine nom 

the government, stating that, in his opinion, 
Grenville was ' and will be, whether in the 
ministry or in the House of Commons, an 
hindrance, not a help, and sometimes a very 
great inconvenience to those he is joined 
with ' (LORD E. FITZMATJRICE, Life of Wil- 
liam, Earl of Shelburne, i. 189). 
^ Bute had other plans, and on his resigna- 
tion of office Grenville was appointed firs 
lord of the treasury and chancellor of the 
exchequer on 10 AprirT763. Grenville 
afterwards practically avowed that he tool 
office to secure the king from the danger o 
foiling into the hands of the whigs. < I tolc 
his majesty/ he says in a letter to Lore 
Strange, ' that I came into his service to pre- 
serve the constitution of my country, and to 
prevent any undue and unwarrantable force 
being put upon the crown 1 (Grenville Papers, 
" 106 )- A- few days after his assumption oi 
office the session came to an end. The kind's 
speech identified the foreign policy of the new 
ministry with the old one, and referred to 
' the happy effects ' of the recently concluded 
peace, ' so honourable to the crown, and so 
beneficial to my people' (Parl. Hist xv 
1321-31). On '23 April the famous No/45 
of the ' North Briton ' appeared, in which the 
speech was severely attacked, and on the 30th 
W ilkes was arrested on the authority of a 
general warrant, There can be little doubt 
that Bute had hoped to make Grenville his 
tool, but he soon found out his mistake. 
Grenville resented his interference, and com- 
plained that the ministry had not the full 
confidence of the king. 'Negotiations were 
commenced, with a view to displacing Gren- 
ville, in July with Lord Hardwicke, and 
afterwards m August with Pitt. Upon the 
failure of the second attempt the king was 
compelled to ask Grenville to remain in office, 
which he consented to do on receiving an 
assurance that Bute should no longer exer- 

cise any secret influence in the closet. In 
September the ministry, which had been 
weakened by the death of Lord Egremont in 
the preceding month, was strengthened by 
the accession of the Bedford party, the duke 
becoming the president of the council, while 
Sandwich, Hillsborough, and Egmont were 
given important offices. On 9 March 1764 
Grenville introduced his budget, speaking 
< for two hours and forty minutes ; much of 
it well, but too long, too many repetitions, 
and too evident marks of being galled by re- 
ports, which he answered with more art than 
sincerity ' (WALPOLE, Letters, iv. 202). On 
the following day his proposals for the impo- 
sition of duties on several articles of Ameri- 
can commerce were carried without any re- 
sistance, as well as a vague resolution that 
it may be proper to charge certain stamp 
duties in the said colonies and plantations ' 
Journal of the House of Commons, xxix.. 
3o). On 7 Feb. 17C5 a series of fifty-five 
resolutions, imposing on America nearly the 
same stamp duties which were then esta- 
)lished in England, were unanimously agreed 
o in the commons. The bill embodying 
these resolutions met with little opposition in 
either house, and quickly became law. Upon 
the recovery of the king from his severe ill- 
ness the Regency Bill was introduced into 
the House of Lords, and by a curious blunder 
of the ministry the name of the Princess 
Dowager of Wales was excluded from it. 
This was eventually rectified in the commons 
but not until Grenville had suffered great 
discomfiture. The king had long been tired 
of his minister's tedious manners and over- 
bearing temper. < When he has wearied me 
for two hours,' complained the king on one 
occasion, < he looks at his watch, to see if he 
may not tire me for an hour more ' (WALPOLE, 
George III, ii. 160) ; and on another occasion 
the king declared that ' when he had any- 
thing proposed to him it was no longer as 
counsel, but what he was to obey ' ( Grenville 
Papers, iii. 213). Negotiations were again 
opened with Pitt, this time through the Duke 
of Cumberland, but failed, owing to the ac- 
tion of Lord Temple, with whom Grenville 
bad been^ lately reconciled. Upon Lord 
Lyttelton's refusal to form a ministry the king 
was compelled to retain Grenville in office 
The latter, however, insisted that the king 
should promise that Bute should no longer 
)articipate in his councils, and that Bute's 
)rother, James Stuart Mackenzie, and Lord 
rlolland should be dismissed from their re- 
spective offices of privy seal of Scotland and 
paymaster-general. The king reluctantly 
onsented to these terms, but after the Duke 
:>f Bedford's celebrated interview with him 

i 2 




on 12 June determined to rid himself of the 
ministry at all hazards. After another in- 
effectual negotiation with Pitt, the Marquis 
of Rockingham was appointed first lord of 
the treasury, and Grenville was dismissed 
on 10 July 1765. 

When parliament met in December follow- 
ing, Grenville at once attacked the ministerial 
policy with regard to America (Chatham 
Papers, ii. 350-2), and in January 1766, after 
an able defence of the Stamp Act, boldly de- 
clared that ' the seditious spirit of the colonies 
owes its birth to the factions in this house ' 
(Par/. Hist. xvi. 101-3). When Conway 
brought forward his bill for the repeal of the 
Stamp Act, Grenville opposed it with all his 
might. In the session of 1767 Grenville and 
Dowdeswell defeated the ministry on the bud- 
get, by carrying an amendment reducing the 
land tax from 4s. to 3s. in the pound the first 
instance, it is said, since the revolution of the 
defeat of a money bill (ib. p. 364). In 1768 
appeared ' The Present State of the Nation ; 
particularly with respect to its Trade, Fi- 
nances, &c. &c. Addressed to the King and 
both Houses of Parliament,' Dublin, 8vo. 
This pamphlet, the authorship of which was 
attributed to Grenville, was written by Wil- 
liam Knox with Grenville's assistance ( Gren- 
ville Papers, iv. 395). It contained many 
dreary prognostications, and accused the 
Rockingham party of ruining the country, 
but is chiefly remarkable for having elicited 
from Burke in reply his ' Observations on a 
late publication intituled the Present State 
of the Nation' (Works, 1815, ii. 9-214). 
Though Grenville had taken a prominent part 
in the early measures against Wilkes, he op- 
posed his expulsion from the House of Com- 
mons on 3 Feb. 1769, in probably the ablest 
speech that he ever made (Parl. Hist. xvi. 
546-75). In spite of the fact that his health 
was already failing him, Grenville obtained 
leave on 7 March 1770 to bring in his bill to 
regulate the trial of controverted elections 
(ib. pp. 902-24). This excellent measure of re- 
form, which transferred the trial of election 
petitions from the house at large to a select 
committee empowered to examine witnesses 
upon oath, received the royal assent on 
12 April (10 Geo. Ill, c. xvi.) Grenville 
continued to attend to his parliamentary 
duties to the end of the session, and made his 
last speech in the House of Commons on 
9 May 1770 in the debate on Burke's motion 
for an inquiry into the causes of the disturb- 
ances in America (CAVENDISH, Debates, ii. 
33-7). He died at his house in Bolton 
Street, Piccadilly, on 13 Nov. 1770, in his 
fifty-ninth year, and was buried at Wotton. 

Grenville was an able but narrow-minded 

man, of considerable financial ability, un- 
flagging industry, and inflexible integrity, 
both in private and public life. Burke, in his 
speech on American taxation, in April 1774, 
paid a remarkable tribute to Grenville's de- 
votion to parliamentary work. * He took 
public business, not as a duty which he was 
to fulfil, but as a pleasure he was to enjoy ; 
and he seemed to have no delight out of this 
house, except in such things as some way re- 
lated to the business that was to be done 
within it. If he was ambitious, I will say 
this for him, his ambition was of a noble and 
generous strain. It was to raise himself, not 
by the low pimping politics of a court, but 
to win his way to power, through the labo- 
rious gradations of public service ; and to 
secure himself a well-earned rank in parlia- 
ment, by a thorough knowledge of its constitu- 
tion, and a perfect practice in all its business ' 
(Speeches, 1816, i. 205). Stern, formal, and 
exact, with a temper which could not brook 
opposition, and an ambition which knew no 
bounds, Grenville neither courted nor ob- 
tained popularity. Utterly destitute of tact, 
obstinate to a degree, and without any gene- 
rous sympathies, he possessed few of the 
qualities of a successful statesman. His ad- 
ministration was a series of blunders. The 
prosecution of Wilkes led to the discredit of 
the executive and the legislature alike. His 
ill-considered attempts to enforce the trade 
laws, to establish a permanent force of some 
ten thousand English soldiers in America, and 
to raise money by parliamentary taxation of 
the colonies, in order to defray the expense 
of protecting them, produced the American 
revolution; while the incapacity which he 
showed in the management of the Regency 
Bill damaged his reputation in the commons, 
and angered the king beyond measure. The 
king never forgave the treatment he received 
from Grenville while prime minister, and is 
said to have declared to Colonel Fitzroy, ' I 
would rather see the devil in my closet than 
Mr. Grenville ' (LORD ALBEMARLE, Memoirs 
of the Marquis of Rockingham, ii. 50). As 
a speaker, Grenville was fluent and verbose, 
and though at times his speeches were im- 
pressive, they were seldom or never eloquent. 
Grenville married, in May 1749, Elizabeth, 
daughter of Sir William Wyndham, bart., 
and sister of Charles, first earl of Egremont, 
by whom he had, besides five daughters, four 
sons, viz. Richard Percy, who died an infant 
in July 1759; George, who succeeded his 
uncle Richard as second Earl Temple, and was 
created Marquis of Buckingham ; Thomas, 
the owner of the famous Grenville Library ; 
and William Wyndham, who was created 
Baron Grenville ; the last three are separately 




noticed. His wife died at Wotton on 5 Dec. 
1769. Several pamphlets have been attri- 
buted to Grenville without sufficient autho- 
rity. Three letters addressed to Grenville, 
and written by Junius in 1768, were pub- 
lished for the first time in the ' Grenville 
Papers.' Junius, who positively asserted that 
he had no personal knowledge of Grenville, 
appears to have felt more esteem for him 
than for any other politician of the day. A 
portrait of Grenville, painted by Sir Joshua 
Reynolds in 1764, was exhibited at the second 
Loan Exhibition of National Portraits in 1867 
(Catalogue, No. 465). An earlier portrait of 
Grenville, by W. Hoare, has been engraved 
by Houston and James Watson. 

[The following authorities, among others, may 
be consulted : Grenville Papers (1852-3); Chat- 
ham Correspondence (1838-40) ; Correspondence 
of the Duke of Bedford (1842-6) ; Walpole's Me- 
moirs of the Keign of George II (1847); Wai pole's 
Memoirs of the Keign of George III (1845); 
Walpole's Letters (1857) ; Lord Albemarle's Me- 
moirs of the Marquis of Rockingham (1852); 
Lord Mahon's History of England (1858), vols. 
iv. v. ; Lecky's History of England 0882), vol. 
iii.; Lord Macaulay's Essays (1885), pp. 744-91 ; 
Collins's Peerage (1812), ii. 410, 415-19 ; Lips- 
combe's History of Buckinghamshire (1847), i. 
600-1, 614; Haydn's Book of Dignities (1851); 
Foster's Alumni Oxonienses, pt. ii. p. 562 ; Official 
Eeturn of Lists of Members of Parliament, pt. ii. 
pp. 85, 98, 109, 123, 137; Masters of the Bench 
of the Inner Temple (1883), p. 78 ; Lincoln's Inn 
Registers.] G. F. R. B. 

(1753-1813), second son of George Grenville 
. v.], by his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Sir 
r illiainWyndham,bart.,wasbornon 17 June 
1753. He was educated at Eton, and on the 
death of the Earl of Macclesfield, in March 
1764, became one of the tellers of the ex- 
Chequer, a post of great profit, the reversion 
of which had been granted him by patent 
dated 2 May 1763. Grenville matriculated 
at Christ Church, Oxford, on 20 April 1770, 
but did not take a degree. At the general 
election in October 1774 he was elected one 
of the members for Buckinghamshire. In 
March 1775 his motion for leave to bring in 
a bill to enable members of parliament to 
vacate their seats was negatived by 173 to 
126 (Parliamentary Hist, xviii. 421). In 
February 1776 he supported Lord North in 
the debate on the German treaties for the 
hire of troops, asserting that he had ' no doubt 
of the right of parliament to tax America, 
and consequently must concur in the coercive 
measures' (ib. 1179). During the debate in 
February 1778 on Fox's motion on the state 

of the British forces in America, Grenville in 
an animated speech condemned the conduct 
of the American war, and declared for the 
recall of Chatham (ib. xix. 721-3). In No- 
vember 1778, while opposing the address of 
thanks, Grenville insisted that the removal 
of the ministry was ' an indispensable pre- 
liminary to any overtures for a reconciliation 
with America' (ib. 1369). In March 1779 
he supported Fox's motion on the state of the 
navy, and declared that the measures respect- 
ing America had been wrong at the outset 
(ib. xx. 231-2). Grenville succeeded his uncle 
Richard [q. v.] as second Earl Temple on 
11 Sept. 1779, and in the following month 
obtained the royal license to take ' the names 
and arms of Nugent and Temple in addition 
to his own, and also to subscribe the name 
of Nugent before all titles of honor' (Lon- 
don Gazette, 1779, No. 12036). In February 
1780 Temple made his maiden speech in the 
House of Lords in support of Shelburne's 
motion for a committee of inquiry into the 
public expenditure, and explained at some 
length the reasons which had governed his 
political conduct in the House of Commons 
(Parl Hist. xx. 1354-7). On the downfall of 
Lord North's administration he became lord- 
lieutenant and custos rotulorum of Bucking- 
hamshire (30 March 1782), and on 31 Julyl782 
was appointed lord-lieutenant of Ireland in 
the place of the Duke of Portland, being ad- 
mitted a member of the English privy council 
on the same day. It was not, however, until 
15 Sept. that temple took up his duties at 
Dublin. In his early letters to Shelburne 
soon after his arrival he expressed the greatest 
alarm at the state of affairs in Ireland, and 
urged the government to immediately sum- 
mon a new parliament, in order to counteract 
the influence of the volunteers. Though at first 
Temple emphatically declared that 'simple 
repeal comprised complete renunciation, he 
considered that after Lord Mansfield's de- 
cision on an Irish case,which had been removed 
into the king's bench prior to the passing of 
the act (22 Geo. Ill, c. 53j, a renunciation bill 
had become a political necessity. In accord- 
ance with his advice the Irish Judicature Bill 
was introduced into the English parliament 
early in 1783; it passed without difficulty 
through both houses, and formed ' the coping- 
stone of the constitution of 1782' (LECKT, 
History of England, vi. 313). On 5 Feb. 1783 
a royal warrant was addressed to the lord- 
lieutenant, authorising him to cause letters 
patent to be passed under the great seal of 
Ireland for the creation of the new order of 
St. Patrick. Though no letters patent appear 
to have been executed (SiK N. H. NICOLAS, 
History of the Orders of British Knighthood^ 

iv 8), the statutes of the order received 
the royal signature on 28 Feb., and the .first 
chapter was held by Temple on 11 March 
1783 when he invested himself grand master. 
Shelburne resigned on 24 Feb. 1783 and early 
in March Temple determined to follow his 
example. Owing, however, to the ministerial 
interregnum and the delay in appointing as 
his successor Lord Northington, Temple did 
not leave Ireland until early in June. During 
the short time that he was in office he intro- 
duced several economical reforms into the 
administrative department, and was success- 
ful in punishing several cases of official pecu- 
lation. The proposed scheme for establish- 
ing a colony of emigrants from Geneva at 
Passage, co. Waterford, subsequently tell to 
the ground (PLOWDEN, Historical Review, 
ii. pt. i. 23-7). Upon his return to England 
Temple was frequently consulted by the king 
on the question how he was to get rid of the 
coalition ministry. In the debate on the ad- 
dress at the opening of parliament in Novem- 
ber 1783, Temple denounced the ministry 
(Parliamentary Hist, xxiii. 1127-30). Upon 
the introduction of Fox's East India Bill into 
the House of Lords on 9 Dec. following, he 
seized ' the first opportunity of entering his 
solemn protest against so infamous a bill' (ib. 
xxiv. 123). On the llth he was authorised 
by the king to oppose the bill in his name, 
and at the same time was given a letter in 
which it was stated that 'his majesty al- 
lowed Earl Temple to say that whoever voted 
for the India Bill were not only not his 
friends, but he should consider them as his 
enemies. And if these words were not strong 
enough, Earl Temple might use whatever 
words he might deem stronger, or more to 
the purpose ' (ib. xxiv. 207). This famous in- 
terview is spiritedly described in ' The Kol- 
liad' (1799, p. 123), in the lines commencing 
thus : 

On the great day, when Buckingham by pairs 
Ascended, Heaven impell'd, the k 's back-stairs ; 
And panting breathless, strain'd his lungs to show 
From Fox's bill what mighty ills would flow. 

In consequence of this unconstitutional pro- 
ceeding the bill was thrown out by a ma- 
jority of nineteen. On the 19th Temple was 
appointed a secretary of state, while Pitt was 
charged with the formation of a new minis- 
try. On the 22nd Temple suddenly resigned 
the seals. The real reason of his resignation 
is obscure. According to some it was because 
he had been refused a dukedom ; according 
to others, because Pitt resisted his proposal 
of an immediate dissolution. The reason 
publicly given in the House of Commons was 
that ' he might not be supposed to make his 

situation as minister stand in the way of, or 
serve as a protection or shelter from, inquiry 
and from justice' (z&.xxiv. 238), a resolution 
having been passed in the House of Commons 
declaring that the circulation of the opinion 
of the king ' upon any bill or other proceed- 
ing depending in either house of parliament, 
with a view to influence the votes of mem- 
bers, was a high crime and misdemeanour.' 
On 4 Dec. 1784 Temple was created Marquis 
of Buckingham, and on 2 June 1786 was 
elected and invested a knight of the Garter, 
being installed by dispensation on 29 May 
1801. Buckingham was again appointed lord- 
lieutenant of Ireland on 2 Nov. 1787 (in the 
place of the Duke of Rutland, who had died 
in the previous month), and arrived at Dublin 
on 16 Dec. On the death of his father-in- 
law on 14 Oct. 1788, he succeeded to the 
Irish earldom of Nugent, in accordance with 
the limitation in the patent. On 6 Feb. 1789, 
during the debate on the address, Grattan 
entered a protest against ' the expensive ge- 
nius of the Marquis of Buckingham in the 
management of the public money' (GRATTAN, 
Speeches, ii. 100). In consequence of Buck- 
ingham's refusal to transmit the address of 
the two houses of parliament to the Prince 
of Wales, desiring him to exercise the royal 
authority during the king's illness, votes of 
censure were passed on the lord-lieutenant in 
both houses. On the recovery of the king, 
Buckingham dismissed from office many of 
those who had opposed the government on the 
regency question, and in order to strengthen 
his administration resorted to a system of 
wholesale corruption. Buckingham had now 
become very unpopular, and his health be- 
ginning to "gi ve way he resigned office on 
30 Sept. 1789, and returned to England in 
the following month. After his return from 
Ireland Buckingham practically retired from 
political life, and took but little part in the 
debates in the House of Lords. On 14 March 
1794 he received the rank of colonel in the 

army (during service), and during the insur- 
rection of 1798 served in Ireland as colonel 
of the Buckinghamshire militia regiment. In 
moving the address to the House of Lords 
on 24 Sept. 1799, Buckingham spoke strongly 
in favour of the proposed union with Ireland, 
being 'confident that the happiest effects 
would result from it' (PLOWDEST, Historical 
Review, ii. pt. ii. 978). He died at Stowe, 
Buckinghamshire, on 11 Feb. 1813, aged 59, 
and was buried at Wotton. Buckingham 
was a man of considerable industry and some 
financial ability ; but his overbearing manner, 
his excessive pride, and his extreme prone- 
ness to take offence unfitted him for political 
life. Horace Walpole describes him as having 



' many disgusting qualities, as pride, obsti- 
nacy, and want of truth, with natural pro- 
pensity to avarice' (Journals of Geo. Ill, 
1771-83, 1859, ii. 622). He married, on 
16 April 1775, the Hon. Mary Elizabeth Nu- 
gent, elder daughter and coheiress of Robert, 
viscount Clare, afterwards Earl Nugent, by 
his third wife, Elizabeth, countess dowager of 
Berkeley. There were four children of the 
marriage, viz. Richard, first duke of Bucking- 
ham [q. v.], George Nugent, baron Nugent 
[q.v.], Mary, who died an infant on 10 April 
1782, and Mary Anne, who, born on 8 July 
1787, was married on 26 Feb. 1811 to the Hon. 
James Everard Arundell, afterwards tenth 
Baron Arundell of Wardour, and died with- 
out issue on 1 June 1854. On 29 Dec. 1800 
the marchioness was created Baroness Nugent 
of Carlanstown, co. Westmeath, in the peer- 
age of Ireland, with remainder to her younger 
son. She died at Buckingham House, Pall 
Mall, on 16 March 1812, aged 53, and was 
buried at Wotton. A portrait of the mar- 
quis, painted by Gainsborough in 1787, was 
exhibited at the Loan Collection of National 
Portraits in 1867 (Catalogue, No. 657). 

[Memoirs of the Court and Cabinet of Geo. Ill 
(1 853-5), 4 vols. ; Memoirs of the Court of Eng- 
land during the Regency (1 806), i. 273, ii. 16-23 ; 
Memoirs of Sir N. W. Wraxall (1884), ii. 359-60, 
iii. 186-99, iv. 63-5, v. 34-5; Lord Stanhope's 
Life of Pitt (1862), vols. i. ii. ; Plowden's His- 
torical Review of the State of Ireland (1803), 
vol. ii. ; Lecky's Hist, of England, iv. 279-84, 
294-5, vi. 309-25, 413-31 ; Sir N. H. Nicolas's 
Hist, of the Orders of British Knighthood (1842), 
vols. ii. iv. ; Lipscombe's Hist, of Buckingham- 
shire (1847), i. 601, 614 ; Doyle's Official Baron- 
age of England (1886), i. 262-3, iii. 519-20; 
Collins's Peerage (1812), ii. 420-1 ; Burke's Ex- 
tinct Peerage (1883), p. 405 ; Burke's Peerage 
(1888), pp. 199, 200; Foster's Alumni Oxonienses. 
pt. ii. p. 562 ; Gent. Mag. (1775) xlv. 206, (1812) 
Ixxxii. pt. i. 292-3, (1813) Ixxxiii. pt. i. 189-90 ; 
Haydn's Book of Dignities (1851) ; London Ga- 
zettes.] G. F. R. B. 

BARON NUGENT of Carlanstown, co. West- 
meath (1788-1850), younger son of George 
Nugent-Temple, first marquis of Buckingham 
[q. v.], by Lady Mary Elizabeth Nugent, only 
daughter and heiress of Robert, earl Nugent, 
was born on 30 Dec. 1788. His mother was 
created a baroness of the kingdom of Ireland 
in 1 800, with remainder to her second son ; and 
onherdeath (16 March 1813) he consequently 
succeeded to the peerage. Nugent was edu- 
cated at Brasenose College, Oxford, and in 
1810 received the honorary degree of D.C.L. 
from the university. At the general election 
of 1812 he was returned to parliament for the 

borough of Aylesbury; but in 1818 he was 
in some danger of losing his seat in conse- 
quence of his brother, the Marquis of Buck- 
ingham, having joined the ministry. Nugent 
stood in his own interest, however, and was 
returned. He fought a second successful 
contest in 1831, and remained one of the 
members for Aylesbury until the dissolution 
in 1832. In November 1830 Nugent was 
made one of the lords of the treasury, but he 
resigned this position in August 1832 in 
order to proceed to the Ionian Islands as 
lord high commissioner. This office he re- 
tained for three years, returning to England 
with the reward of the grand cross of St. 
Michael and St. George. He again offered 
himself for Aylesbury in 1837 and 1839, but 
was defeated on both occasions ; and in 1843, 
when he stood, in conjunction with the re- 
former George Thompson, for Southampton, 
he sustained a third defeat. On reappearing 
at Aylesbury in 1847 he was returned. Nu- 
gent was an extreme whig, or a whig-radical, 
in politics. He was a zealous supporter of 
Queen Caroline, and he visited Spain as a 
partisan of the Spanish patriots. In the ses- 
sion of 1848 Nugent moved for leave to bring 
in a bill abolishing the separate imprison- 
ment in gaols of persons committed for 
trial, but the motion was lost. During the 
same session he advocated the abolition of 
capital punishment. In 1849 he voted for 
limiting the powers of the Habeas Corpus 
(Ireland) Suspension Bill, and also supported 
a measure for the further repeal of enact- 
ments imposing pains and penalties on Roman 
catholics on account of their religious obser- 

Nugent was a man of refinement and of 
literary tastes. He published in 1812 ' Por- 
tugal, a Poem.' ' Oxford and Locke ' (1829) 
defended the expulsion of Locke from the 
university of Oxford against the censures of 
Dugald Stewart. In 1832 Nugent published 
his sympathetic ' Memorials of John Hamp- 
den.' The work was favourably reviewed by 
Macaulay in the 'Edinburgh ' and adversely 
by Southey in the ' Quarterly.' Nugent re- 
plied to Southey in a letter to Murray the 
publisher. After a time Southey replied in 
another letter < touching Lord Nugent.' In 
1845-6 Nugent issued in two volumes his 
' Lands Classical and Sacred,' embodying the 
results of travel. He was also the author of 
' Legends of the Library at Lillies ' (the seat 
of his family) t by the Lord and Lady thereof ' 
(1832), and of a number of pamphlets on 
political, social, and ecclesiastical subjects. 

Nugent married, 6 Sept. 1813, Anne Lucy, 
second daughter of Major-general the Hon. 
Vere Poulett, but as she died without issue 




in 1848, the barony became extinct on the 
death of Nugent, on 26 Nov. 1850, at his resi- 
dence in Buckinghamshire. In private life 
Nugent was highly esteemed. He delighted 
in the society of literary men, and had a con- 
siderable fund of anecdote derived both from 
books and from a knowledge of the world. 

[Ann. Eeg. 1850; Gent. Mag. 1851, pt. i. 
p. 91 ; Nugent's Works.] G. B. S. 

(1628-1701), born on 29 Aug. and baptised 
on 16 Sept. 1628 at Kilkhampton, Cornwall, 
was the third but eldest surviving son of Sir 
Bevil Grenville (1595-1643) [q. v.] of Stowe 
in that parish, by his wife Grace (d. 1647), 
daughter of Sir George Smith or Smythe, 
knt., of Matford in Heavitree, Devonshire 
(ViviAN, Visitations of Cornwall, 1887, pp. 
192, 195). He held a commission in his 
father's regiment, was knighted at Bristol, 
3 Aug. 1643 (METCALFE, A Book of Knights, 
p. 200), and was severely wounded at the 
second battle of Newbury on 27 Oct. 1644 
(MONET, Battles of Newbury, 2nd edit., pp. 
160, 176, 253). After the downfall of the 
monarchy he retired to Jersey, whence he 
sailed in February 1649 to assume, at the 
request of Charles, the governorship of the 
Scilly Islands (Cal. Clarendon State Papers, 
ii. 1). In April 1650 a plot for his murder 
and the seizure of the islands was discovered 
on the very day appointed for its execution 
(ib. ii. 53). Grenville's stubborn defence of 
Scilly caused the parliament considerable 
anxiety. The council of state, on 26 March 
1651, sent instructions to Major-general John 
Desborough [q. v.] to imprison Grenville's 
relations in Cornwall until Grenville had 
liberated some merchants then in his hands. 
Desborough was to treat with Grenville before 
taking action (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1651, 
p. 111). Meanwhile, three days previously, 
articles of agreement for the delivery of the 
Scilly Islands on the ensuing 2 June had 
been arranged between Grenville and Ad- 
miral Robert Blake and Lieutenant-colonel 
John Clarke. 

Grenville had leave to visit Charles and 
return to England within twelve months 
following the surrender. In case the king 
should not take him into his service he had 
also power to raise a regiment of fifteen hun- 
dred Irish for service abroad (ib. 1651, pp. 
214-17). Grenville decided to stay in Eng- 
land and disarm suspicion by submissive con- 
duct. By an order in parliament made 1 1 July 
1651 the council of state granted him leave ' to 
pass up and down in England, without doing 
anything prejudicial to the state' (ib. 1651, 
p. 285). He was occasionally able to assist 

Charles with money (Cal. Clarendon State- 
Papers, ii. 361, 362). He gave the living of 
Kilkhampton to his kinsman, Dr. Nicholas 
Monck, and employed him to influence his- 
brother the general in favour of Charles. On 
26 July 1659 the council, after receiving his 
parole for peaceable submission, allowed him 
to return to Cornwall, and ordered the re- 
lease of his servants and horses (Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1659-60, pp. 38, 43). Having- 
succeeded in his negotiations with Monck, 
Grenville delivered to both houses of parlia- 
ment, 1 May 1660, the king's letters from 
Breda; and four days afterwards was voted by 
the commons 500/. to bay a jewel in token of 
his services (ib. 1659-60, pp. 428, 430, 559). 
In June 1660 he received a grant of the office 
of steward of the duchy of Cornwall, and the 
borough of Bradninch, Devonshire ; also of 
steward of all the castles and other offices 
belonging to the said duchy, and rider and 
master of Dartmoor (ib. 1660-1, p. 73). By 
July he had become lord-lieutenant of Corn- 
wall, lord warden of the stannaries, and, a 
little later, groom of the stole (ib. 1660-1, 
pp. 150, 435). In August he accepted, on 
behalf of himself, his wife, and his brother 
Bernard, the office of housekeeper at St. 
James's Palace, keeper of the wardrobe and 
gardens, and bailiff of the fair, at the fee 
of Sd. a day and 80 J. a year (ib. 1660-1, p. 
213). With Sir Robert Howard and five 
others Grenville was commissioned on 26 Oct. 
to take compound for goods forfeited to the 
king before 25 May 1660, and discovered by 
them (ib. 1660-1, pp. 323, 607). On 20 April 
1661 he was created Earl of Bath, Viscount 
Lansdowne, and Baron Grenville of Kilk- 
hampton and Bideford, with permission to 
use the titles of Earl of Corboile, Thorigny, 
and Granville as his ancestors had done. At 
the same time he received the colonelcy of 
a regiment of foot. In May he was chosen 
captain and governor of Plymouth and St. 
Nicholas Island, with the castle and fort 
(ib. 1660-1, p. 605) ; in October he had a grant 
of 2,000/. a year and all other fees due to 
him as groom of the stole and first gentle- 
man usher of the bedchamber ; and in the 
same month a large grant of felon's goods, 
deodands, and treasure trove in certain manors 
in Cornwall and Devonshire (ib. 1661-2, 
pp. 131, 535). On 17 May 1662 he obtained a 
grant of the agency for issuing wine licenses, 
on 28 March 1663 he received a warrant for 
a grant of a lease for ten years of the duties 
on pre-emption and coinage of tin in Devon- 
shire and Cornwall, on rental of 1,200/. (ib. 
1661-2 pp. 95, 377, 1663-4 p. 90), which 
was subsequently changed to a perpetuity 
of 3,000/. a year out of the tin revenue to> 




him and his heirs for ever (id. Treas. 1708- 
1714, p. 271). He failed, however, to get 
the keepership of the privy purse, although 
backed up in his application by his near kins- 
man, the Duke of Albemarle (ib. Dom. 1664- 
1665, p. 438). He was accused of ingrati- 
tude by one Edward Rymill, who in peti- 
tioning the council in 1666 for the twenty- 
seventh time stated that he had stood bound 
in 1,000/. for Bath in the time of his direst 
need, who had allowed him to be impri- 
soned for want of the money. On his family 
petitioning the earl they were threatened to 
be whipped out of court (ib. Dom. 1665-6 
p. 162, 1666-7 p. 406). 

Bath was busily engaged in trying dis- 
affected people by offering them the new oath 
for military officers, and in settling the par- 
liament of tinners, in which he recovered for 
the crown by 27 Feb. 1662-3 a revenue of 
12,000/. lost during many years (ib. 1663-4, 
p. 57). In the Dutch invasions of 1066 and 
1667 he displayed eminent skill in the work 
of organising the militia both in Devon- 
shire and Cornwall ; while his abilities as a 
military engineer found full scope in strength- 
ening and enlarging the fortifications of Ply- 
mouth (ib. 1665-6 pp. 541-2, 1666-7 p. 355, 
1667 p. 219). Along with Lewis de Duras, 
earl of Feversham [q. v.], Bath was per- 
mitted to remain in the room when Charles re- 
ceived absolution on his deathbed (BuRNET, 
Own Time, Oxford edit., ii. 457). James II 
dismissed him as a protestant, in March 
1684-5, from the office of groom of the stole 
(LuTTRELL, Historical Relation, i. 336, 339). 
He did his utmost, however, to secure mem- 
bers of parliament to the king's mind in Corn- 
wall (BuRNET, iii. 15-16). During the same 
year James discovered, or affected to discover, 
some irregularities in the stannaries, by which 
he was defrauded of part of his dues. Bath 
wrote a long letter to the lord treasurer 
on 2 Nov. 1686, stating that he was ready 
immediately to come to London, but asked 
for the king's permission ( Cal. State Papers, 
Treas. 1556-1696, pp. 17-20). Ultimately 
he made his peace with the king, and in the 
middle of February 1687-8 was sent down 
into the west ' to see how the gentlemen there 
stood affected to taking of the penall lawes 
and tests ' (LUTTRELL, i. 432). Though he 
had been authorised to oft'er the removal of 
oppressive restrictions in the tin trade, all 
the justices and deputy-lieutenants of Devon 
shire and Cornwall declared that the pro 

testant religion was dearer to them than 
either life or property, and Bath added 
that any successors would make the same 
answer (MACAULAY, Hist, of England, ch. 
viii.) On the landing of the Prince of Orange, 

! Bath, who was then in command at Ply- 
! mouth, was for some time undecided. He 
; promised through Admiral llussel to join 
j the prince at once, but afterwards excused 
himself on the pretence that the garrison 
needed managing (BuRNET, iii. 311). Wil- 
liam had reached Exeter before Bath deemed 
it safe to declare in the prince's favour 
(cf. Bath's letter to Lord Godolphin, dated 
| 23 Oct. 1688, in Cal. State Papers, Treas. 
1556-1696, pp. 30-1, with that to William, 
' dated 18 Nov. 1688, in DALRYMPLE'S Me- 
moirs). He pretended to have discovered a 
, plot devised by Lord Huntingdon and the 
papists of the town to poison him and seize on 
the citadel; whereupon he secured and dis- 
armed them ( LUTTRELL, i. 480). In December, 
having summoned the deputy-lieutenants, 
justices, and gentlemen of Cornwall to meet 
him at Saltash, he read the prince's declara- 
tion to them, and they subscribed the asso- 
ciation (ib. i. 483). Bath was appointed a 
privy councillor in February 1688-9, and in 
the following March lord-lieutenant for Corn- 
wall and Devonshire (ib. i. 502, 512). He 
took considerable interest in promoting the 
East India trade, for which purpose two ships- 
were, in March 1691-2, in course of building 
by several Cornish gentlemen by virtue of a 
grant of Charles I, and with others sub- 
scribed to the amount of 70,000/. (ib. ii. 375). 
The next seven years of Bath's life were 
chiefly occupied in proving his title to the 
Albemarle estate, which he claimed under 
the will of the second duke, who died in 1688. 
The cost of the litigation was enormous, but 
he was successful in the actions brought by 
the Duchess of Albemarle and a Mr. Pride, 
the reputed heir-at-law, and to a great extent 
in those instituted by the Earl of Montague 
and a Mr. Monck. By 14 Jan. 1690-1 (LuT- 
TRELL, iii.77, says in April 1693) he had bought 
the rangership of St. James's Park of William 
Harbord, surveyor-general ( Cal.State Papers, 
Treas. 1556-1696, p. 156). In January 1693-4, 
acting on a hint received from the king, he 
handed over the colonelcy of his regiment to 
his nephew, Sir Bevil Grenville (d. 1706) 
[q. v.], and retired from the governorship of 
Plymouth (LUTTRELL, iii. 254, 275). He 
ceased to be lord-lieutenant of Cornwall and 
Devonshire in April 1696 ; and in May was 
requested by W T illiam to sell his office of lord 
warden of the stannaries and those connected 
with St. James's Palace and park (ib. iv. 45, 
62) ; the latter he disposed of in September 
1697 to Thomas Foley (ib. iv. 280, 281). 
Bath doubtless hoped by this pliancy to 
obtain the dukedom of Albemarle (cf. ib. ii. 
308-9), and was cruelly mortified when the 
king made Arnold van Keppel an earl by 




that very same title: he even entered a 
caveat in January 1696-7 against the patent 
passing (ib. iv. 176). Bath died on 21 Aug. 
1701, and was buried on 22 Sept. at Kilk- 
hampton. By his marriage with Jane, daugh- 
ter of Sir Peter Wyche, knt., he had two 
sons (Charles (1661-1701), second earl, who 
died a fortnight after his father by the dis- 
charge of his own pistol, and was buried on 
the same day at Kilkhampton ; and John 
(1665-1707), created, 9 March 1702, Baron 
Granville of Potheridge, Devonshire) and five 
daughters: Jane (6.1653), married Sir William 
Leveson-Gower, ancestor of the Duke of 
Sutherland ; Catherine, married Craven Pey- 
ton, warden of the mint: Grace (1654-1744), 
married Sir George Carteret, after svards Lord 
Carteret ; surviving her husband she was her- 
self elevated to the peerage as Viscountess 
Carteret and Countess Granville, 1 Jan. 1714; 
Mary (b. 1655), and Bridget (l>. 1656). The 
Countess of Bath died on 3 Feb. 1691-2 
(ib. ii. 349). The earldom became extinct 
by the death of William Henry Grenville, 
third earl, on 17 May 1711. In 1680 Bath 
pulled down the old house at Stowe, and 
built a magnificent mansion in its place, 
which was utterly demolished in 1720, and 
the materials disposed of by public auction. 
It has been said that almost every gentle- 
man's seat in Cornwall received some em- 
bellishment from Stowe. The cedar wains- 
cotting, which had been bought out of a 
Spanish prize, and used for fitting up the 
chapel, was purchased by Lord Cobham, and 
applied to the same purpose at Stowe, the 
seat of the Grenvilles in Buckinghamshire 
(Parochial Hist, of Cornwall, ii. 375-9). 
Burnet (i. 168) characterises Bath as ' a 
mean-minded man, who thought of nothing 
but of getting and spending money.' He got 
so much and apparently spent so little that 
the world was surprised to learn how poor 
he died. Both Burnet and Luttrell assert 
that the eldest son, on discovering the state 
of affairs, died not by accident but by his 
own hand. 

[Burke's Extinct Peerage ; Parochial Hist, of 
Cornwall, ii. 365, 368, 369, 375-9 ; Boase and 
Courtney's Bibl. Cormib. i. 192 ; Cal. State 
Papers, Treas. 1686-1708; will registered in 
P. C. C. 146, Dyer.] G. G. 

RICHARD (1541 P-1591), naval commander, 
of an old Cornish family, whose name has 
been spelt in a countless number of different 
ways, was the son of Sir Roger Greynvile, 
who commanded and was lost in the Mary 
Rose in 1545, and grandson of Sir Richard 
Greynvile (d. 1550), marshal of Calais under 

Henry VIII. There were other Rogers and 
Richards, as well as Johns and Diggorys, all 
closely related, and often confused one with 
the other (e.g. FKOTJDE, Hist, of England, 
cab. edit., iv. 436 n.') In early youth Greyn- 
vile is said to have served in Hungary under 
the Emperor Maximilian against the Turks, 
and to have won special distinction (ARBER, 
p. 10). On 28 April 1570 he made a declaration 
of his submission to the Act for Uniformity 
of Common Prayer and Service (Cal. State 
Papers, Dom.) In 1571, and again in 1584, 
he sat in parliament as one of the members 
for Cornwall, of which county he was also 
sheriff in 1577. He is said to have been 
knighted while holding this office, but it 
appears from a petition, 22 March 1573-4 (ib.}, 
that he was already a knight at that date. 
He was then interesting himself, in company 
with Sir Humphrey Gilbert, in <an enter- 
prize for the discovery of sundry rich and 
unknown lands,' but it does not appear that 
he himself undertook any such voyage till in 
May 1585 he had command of a fleet of seven 
ships which sailed from England for the 
colonisation of Virginia, acting in this, it 
would seem, as the representative of his 
cousin, Sir Walter Ralegh [q. v.] On his 
return voyage in October he fell in with a 
Spanish ship, homeward bound from St. Do- 
mingo, which attacked him, but was herself 
overpowered and captured ; Greynvile and a 
party of his men, not having any boat, going 
on board her on a raft hastily made of some 
old chests, which fell to pieces just as they 
reached the Spaniard. In 1586 he returned 
to Virginia with stores for the colonists, who, 
however, had left before his arrival [see 
his homeward voyage he landed at the Azores, 
where he pillaged the towns and carried off 
many Spaniards as prisoners. He had already, 
in 1583 and 1584, been employed as a com- 
missioner for the works at Dover harbour, 
and from the time of his return from Vir- 
ginia he was actively engaged in concerting 
measures for the defence of the western 
counties ; an important post, which he still 
held through the eventful summer of 1588 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom. 8 March 1587, 
14 Sept. 1588). 

In 1591, when a squadron of queen's ships 
and private men-of-war, with some victual- 
lers, under the command of Lord Thomas 
Howard [q. v.], was sent to the Azores to 
Icok out for the homeward-bound treasure 
fleet of Spain, Greynvile, as vice-admiral, or 
second in command, was appointed to the 
Revenge, a ship of 500 tons and 250 men, 
which had carried Drake's flag against the Ar- 
mada in the Channel three years before. As 




a defence against this or any other squadron 
the king of Spain fitted out a powerful fleet 
of ships of war, and despatched it to the 
Azores. The Earl of Cumberland, how- 
ever, then on the coast of Portugal, sent 
oft' a pinnace to warn Howard of the im- 
pending danger. The pinnace, being a good 
sailer, kept company with the Spanish fleet 
for three days, learning the details of its 
force and gaining assurance of its route ; then 
leaving the Spaniards, brought the intelligence 
to Howard on 31 Aug. Howard, then lying 
at anchor on the north side of Flores, had 
scarcely heard the news before the Spanish 
fleet was in sight. It is said to have num- 
bered fifty-three sail all told. Of English 
ships there were in all sixteen, six of which 
were queen's ships, but they were very sickly ; 
quite half the men were down with fever or 
scurvy, and the rest at the moment were 
busy watering. Howard determined at once 
that he was in no condition to fight a force 
so superior, and, hastily getting his men on 
board, weighed anchor and stood out to sea. 
It has been supposed that the Spanish fleet 
had passed to the southward of Mores, and 
thus came in on the English from the west ; 
that Greynvile, not knowing or not believing 
the news which the pinnace had just brought, 
was convinced that the ships coming round 
the western point were the long waited-for 
treasure ships, and therefore refused to follow 
Howard. Such seems to have been the 
opinion of Monson, a contemporary seaman, 
and of Linschoten, who was at the time 
actually at Vercera. On the other hand, 
Ralegh, writing, it must be remembered, as a 
cousin and dear friend, has stated that Greyn- 
vile was delayed in getting his sick men 
brought on board from the shore. But the 
other ships had also to get their sick men on 
board, and sickly as the Revenge was, she 
was no worse off than her consorts. It is 
quite certain, however, that by some cause 
the Revenge was delayed, and before she 
could weigh, the Spanish fleet had stretched 
to windward of her, cutting her off from the 
admiral and the rest of the squadron. Greyn- 
vile might still have got clear by keeping 
away large, and so, doubling on the enemy, 
have rejoined his friends. But he was not a 
seaman, nor had he any large experience of 
the requirements of actual war. Acting from 
what it is difficult to describe otherwise than 
as a false notion of honour, he scornfully and 
passionately refused to bear up, and with 
angry voice and gesture expressed his deter- 
mination to pass through the Spanish fleet. 
In attempting to do so, that happened which 
any seaman could have foretold. The Re- 
venge coming under the lee of some of the 

huge high-charged galleons was becalmed ; 
they were enabled to close with her, and she 
lost the advantage of the superior seamanship 

j and superior gunnery which in all other 
contests during that war told so heavily in 

' favour of the English. She was beset by 
numbers, boarded, and overpowered after a 
long and desperate resistance, the circum- 
stances of which, as related in the first in- 

| stance by Ralegh, have been enshrined in im- 
mortal verse by Tennyson. The Revenge was 
captured, and Greynvile, mortally wounded, 

i was taken on board the Spanish admiral's 
ship, the San Pablo, where he died a few 
days afterwards. His chivalrous courage has 
been very generally held to atone for the 
fatal error. The defence has been compared 

| to that of the three hundred at Thermopylae, 
and the lines in Campbell's famous ode were 
originally (Naval Chronicle, 1801, v. 427): 

Where Granville, boast of freedom, fell, 
Your manly hearts shall glow. 

It is therefore necessary to point out that, 
in the opinion of contemporaries well quali- 
fied to judge, the loss of his ship, of his men, 
and of his own life was caused by Greyn- 
vile's violent and obstinate temper, and a 
flagrant disobedience to the orders of his 
commanding officer. His ' wilful rashness,' 
according to Monson, ' made the Spaniards 
triumph as much as if they had obtained a 
signal victory, it being the first ship that ever 
they took of her majesty's, and commended 
to them by some English fugitives to be the 
very best she had.' Mr. Froude, on the other 
hand, tells us that the gallant defence 'struck 
a deeper terror, though it was but the action 
of a single ship, into the hearts of the Spanish 
people ; it dealt a more deadly blow upon 
their fame and moral strength than the de- 
struction of the Armada itself, and in the 
direct results which arose from it it was 
scarcely less disastrous to them ' (Short 
Studies, i. 494). For this statement there is 
no sufficient authority, and it maybe doubted 
whether in it, as in Ralegh's prose or Tenny- 
son's verse, there is not a good deal of poetic ex- 
aggeration. In the numbers there is certainly 
such, for of the fifty-three Spaniards a large 
proportion were victuallers intended for the re- 
lief of the Indian ships. Not more than twenty 
were ships of war, and of these not more 
than fifteen were engaged with the Revenge 
(BACON, Considerations touching a War uith 
Spain, in ARBEE, p. 8). That was sufficient. 
The truth in its simple grandeur needed no 
exaggeration. When we have before us the 
fact that 150 men during fifteen hours of 
hand-to-hand fighting held out against a 
host of five thousand, and yielded only when 




not more than twenty were left alive, and 
those grievously wounded, the story,' memor- 
able even beyond credit and to the height oi 
some heroical fable' (ib.), is not render 
more interesting, and scarcely more won- 
drous, by trebling the numbers of the host 
The circumstances of Greynvile's death cor- 

very severe, so that 

(LiNSCHOTEN,mAK B EE,p.91,butalsoaman 

of < great and stout courage,' who had per- 

formed many valiant acts, and was greatly 

fearedin these islands,' sc. the Azores. Greyn- 

vile married Mary, daughter and coheiress of 

Sir John St. Leger, and by her left issue four 

sons and three daughters. His eldest son, 

Sir Bernard Grenville (A 1636 , was father 

of Sir Bevil and Sir Richard (1600-16o8) 

both of whom are separately noticed, in 

spelling of the name Greynvile is that ot bi 

Richard's own signature, in a bold and clea 

handwriting. None of his descendants seem 

to have kept to the same mode, and at the 

present time four different families claiming 

to be descended from him spell it Granville 

Grenville, Grenfell, and Greenfield A por 

trait, supposed to be of Sir Richard Greynvil 

half-length, embossed armour, red trun 

hose, dated 1571, set. 29 was exhibited a 

South Kensington in 1866, lent by the Rev 

Lord John Thynne. 

I Visitation of Cornwall, 1620 (Harl. Soc. Pub- 
lications, ix. 85) ; Calendars of State Papers, 
Domestic and Colonial ; Monson's Naval Tracts, in 
Churchill's Voyages, iii. 155 ; Hakluyts Princi- 
pal Navigations, ii. 169, iii. 251 ; Linschotens 
Discours of Voyages. Many of these and other 
minor contemporary notices have been collected 
in one of Arber's English reprints, under the title 
' The Last Fight of the Revenge at Sea, also 
under the title ' The Last Fight of the Revenge, 
and the Death of Sir Richard Grenville, in the 
Bibliotheca Curiosa of Messrs. Goldsmid. A 
poem by Gervase or lervis Markham, ' The most 
honorable Tragedie of Sir Richard Grenvile, 
appeared with a dedication to Lord Mount] oy, 
London, 1595, 4 to. See also the bibliographical 
notice in Courtney and Boase's Bibl. Cornub. i. 
193, iii. 1208; Notes and Queries, 5th ser. ix. 
222; and an interesting and careful article in the 
Geographical Magazine, v. 233.] J. K. L. 
; 15> ., S >* GRENVILLE, SIR RICHARD (1600- 
1658), royalist, second son of Sir Bernard 
Grenville, and grandson of Sir Richard Gren- 


vile (1541 P-1591) [q.v.], wasbaptised26 June 
1600 at Kilkhampton, Cornwall ( VIVIAN, 

Visitations of Cornwall, pp. 192,639). In a 
ract in his oVvn vindication, written i m 1654 
Grenville states that he left England m 1618 
o take service in the wars in the Palatinate 
nd the Netherlands (< Sir Richard Grenville s 
Defence against all Aspersions of Malignant 
Persons/ reprinted in the *^.a f 
Grenville, Lord Lansdowne, 1732, i. 545). He 
erved as a captain in the expedition to Cadiz, 
and as sergeant-major in that to the Isle ot 
Rhe . Of the latter Grenville wrote an account, 
which is printed by Lord Lansdowne, who 
also assigns to him a share in the composi- 
tion of Lord Wimbledon's defence ot his 
conduct during the Cadiz expedition (ib. 
ii 247-337) Thanks to the favour of Buck- 
ingham, he was knighted on 20 June 1627, 
and obtained in the following year the com- 
mand of one of the regiments destined lor 
the relief of Rochelle (Cal. State Papers, Vom. 
p 162 ; METCALFE, Book of Knights, p. 187), 
Clarendon also attributes to Buckingham s 
'countenance and solicitation' Grenville s 
marriage with a rich widow, Mary, daughter 
of Sir John Fitz of Fitzford, Devonshire, and 
widow of Sir Charles Howard, which took 
place in October 1629 (Cal. State Papers, 
Dom 1639-40, p. 415). She had a fortune of 
700/. a year, and Grenville, being now a man 
of wealth, was created a baronet on 9 April 
1630 (Forty-seventh Report of the Deputy- 
keeper of the Public Records, p. 133). The 
marriage involved Grenville in a quarrel 
with the Earl of Suffolk, brother of his wife s 
last husband. According to Grenville, but- 
folk refused to pay money due to Lady Gren- 
ville, and, when a chancery decree was ob- 
tained against him, trumped up false charges 
aeainsthis opponent. Grenville was accused 
of terming the Earl of Suffolk ' a base lord, 
and sentenced by the Star-chamber to pay a 
fine of 4,OOOJ. to the king, 4,000/. damages 
to the Earl of Suffolk, and to be imprisoned 
during the king's pleasure. Six days later 
(9 Feb. 1631) judgment was given m a suit 
brought against him by Lady Grenville, who 
proved that he had treated her with the 
greatest barbarity, and obtained a separation 
and alimony to the amount of 8601. per an- 
num (Cases in the Courts of Star-chamber 
and High Commission, Camden Soc., pp. 108, 
265 ; cf. NELSON, Reports of Special Cases m 
the Court of Chancery). These two sentences 
ruined Grenville. ' I was necessitated, he 
says, ' to sell my own estate, and to empawn 
my goods, which by it were quite lost ' (LANS- 
DOWNE, i. 547 ). He was committed to the Fleet 
for the non-payment of his fine, whence he 
succeeded in escaping on 17 Oct. 1633 (ib.} In 
1639 he came back to England with the inten- 
tion of offering his services against the Scots, 




and at once began a new suit against his old 
enemy the Earl of Suffolk ( Cal. State Papers, 
Dom/1639-40, pp. 73, 414). He further peti- 
tioned the Long parliament against the Star- 
chamber sentence passed on him, and his 
case was referred to a committee ; but before 
it was heard the Irish rebellion broke out 
(CLARENDON, viii. 137). Grenville took ser- 
vice in the army destined for Ireland as 
major in the regiment of Lord Lisle (ib.) He 
landed in Ireland with four hundred horse 
in February 1641, distinguished himself at 
the battle of Kilrush (15 April 1642), and 
on the capture of Trim (8 May 1642) was 
appointed governor of that place (CARTE, 
Ormonde, ed. 1851, ii. 183, 247, 256). In 
January 1643 he successfully relieved the 
Earl of Clanricarde, then besieged in Athlone, 
and, during his return from this expedition, 
gained a victory over the Irish at Rathconnell 
(7 Feb. 1643). On 8 March following the 
king wrote to Ormonde to give Grenville his 
special thanks for his great services ' and 
singular constant affections ' (ib. ii. 312, 357, 
387, v. 408). At the battle of New Ross, 
however (18 March 1643), the cavalry of 
Ormonde's army ran away, and one eye-wit- 
ness gravely impugns Grenville's own con- 
duct (ib. ii. 432 ; MEEHAN, Confederation of 
Kilkenny, Creif/htorfs Narrative, p. 293). 
Grenville is said to have opposed the cessa- 
tion of arms concluded in the summer of 
1643, and left Ireland in August 1643, < im- 
portuned/ he says, ' by letters to come to 
England for his Majesty's service ' (LANS- 
DOWNE, ii. 548). He landed at Liverpool, 
but was immediately arrested by the parlia- 
mentary commander there, and sent up to 
London under a guard. On inquiry, how- 
ever, the House of Commons voted him free 
from any imputation on his faithfulness, 
thanked him for his services, passed an ordi- 
nance for the payment of his arrears, and 
voted that a regiment of five hundred horse 
should be raised for him, to form part of the 
army under Sir William Waller (Commons' 
Journals, iii. 223, 259, 347). 

Grenville's adoption of the parliamentary 
cause was merely a stratagem to obtain his 
pay. On 8 March 1644 he arrived at Oxford, 
bringing with him thirty-six of his troop, 600/. 
advanced to him to raise his regiment, and 
news of an intended plot for the surprise of 
Basing House (CLARENDON, viii. 139). Parlia- 
ment proclaimed him ' traitor, rogue, villain, 
and skellum,' nailed their proclamation on a 
gibbet set up in Palace Yard, and promised 
to put him in the same place when they could 
catch him. In the parliamentary newspapers 
he is henceforth termed ' skellum Grenville ' 
(RusHWORTH, v. 384). On arriving at Ox- 

ford, Grenville addressed a long letter to 
Lenthall, in which he explained and justified 
his change of parties (ib. v. 385). A similar 
letter to the governor of Plymouth gives 
some additional details (A Continuation of 
the True Narrative of the most observable 
Passages about Plymouth, tor/ether with the 
Letter of Sir R. Grenville, 1644, 4to). Four 
days only after his arrival at Oxford, Gren- 
ville was despatched to the west to take part 
in the siege of Plymouth, and with a com- 
mission to raise additional troops in Cornwall 
(BLACK, Oxford Docquets, p. 198). Shortly 
afterwards Colonel John Digby, who com- 
manded the besiegers of Plymouth, was dis- 
abled by a wound, and Grenville succeeded 
to his post (CLARENDON, viii. 142). In June 
1644 the march of the Earl of Essex into the 
west obliged Grenville to raise the siege and 
retire into Cornwall. ' Like a man of honour 
and courage, he kept a good body together 
and retreated in good order to Truro, en- 
deavouring actively to raise a force sufficient 
to oppose Essex's farther advance' (WALKER, 
Historical Discourses, 1707, p. 49). On 11 Aug. 
he joined the king's army at Boconnoc with 
eighteen hundred foot and six hundred horse, 
and took an important part in the final 
defeat of Essex (ib. pp. 62, 74). Grenville 
then resumed the siege of Plymouth, which, 
according to Clarendon, he promised to re- 
duce before Christmas (CLARENDON, viii. 133 ; 
RUSHWORTH, v. 713). According to Walker, 
the force left under his command amounted 
only to three hundred foot and three hundred 
horse, a fact which helps to explain his 
failure to perform his promise. During the 
last year of the war Grenville's conduct was 
ambiguous and discreditable. In March 1645 
he was ordered to march into Somersetshire 
and assist in the siege of Taunton. There, 
while inspecting the fortifications of Wel- 
lington House, he was severely wounded, and 
obliged for a time to resign the command of 
his forces to Sir John Berkeley (CLARENDON, 
ix. 13-15). This gave rise to a quarrel be- 
tween Grenville and Berkeley. Grenville 
believed that Berkeley's intrigues had led 
to his own removal from Plymouth, and 
complained of Berkeley's conduct while in 
command of his forces, and of his encroach- 
ments on his own jurisdiction. Berkeley's 
commission as colonel-general of Devon and 
Cornwall clashed with his own as sheriff 
of Devon and commander of the forces be- 
fore Plymouth. At the same time gene- 
ral complaints of Grenville's conduct arose 
from all parts of the west. Towards pri- 
soners of war, towards his own soldiers, 
and all those under his command, he was 
severe and cruel, ' so strong,' says Clarendon, 




'was his appetite to those executions he 
had been used to in Ireland ' (ib. viii. 133, 
141). He habitually abused his military 
position in order to satisfy his malice or his 
avarice. He threw many persons into prison 
in order to enforce disputed manorial rights, 
or simply to extort ransom (ib. ix. 24, 141). 
He seized and hanged the solicitor who 
had conducted his wife's case in the Star- 
chamber (ib. ix. 55). On first coming into 
the west the king had granted Grenville the 
sequestration of his wife's estate to his own 
use ; in Devonshire the king had also granted 
him the sequestration of the estates of the 
Earl of Bedford and Sir Francis Drake, and 
that of Lord Roberts in Cornwall. More- 
over, he levied assessments and plundered on 
his own account. At the same time the 
commissioners of Devonshire loudly com- 
plained that he monopolised the contribu- 
tions of their county, and did not maintain 
as large a force out of them as he was bound 
to do (ib. ix. 22, 53, 62). The prince and his 
council attempted to bring about an agree- 
ment; Grenville was to be removed from 
the command before Plymouth, and made 
major-general of the prince's field army. He 
accepted the post, but immediately com- 
menced quarrelling with his commander,Lord 
Goring. He disputed his general's orders, 
encouraged the disinclination of the Cor- 
nish troops to move from their own county, 
attempted to prevent Goring's forces from 
entering Cornwall, and even proposed that 
the prince should treat with Fairfax for the 
neutrality of that county (ib. ix. 94, 103, 133). 
Finally, in January 1646, when Hopton suc- 
ceeded Goring, Grenville declined to serve 
under him. ' It plainly appeared now that 
his drift was to stay behind and command 
Cornwall, with which the prince thought he 
had no reason to trust him.' Neither was 
it thought safe to leave him free to continue 
his intrigues, and on 19 Jan. 1646 he was ar- 
rested and sent prisoner first to Launceston 
and afterwards to St. Michael's Mount (ib. 
ix. 137). When Fairfax's army advanced 
into Cornwall, Grenville, on his petition that 
he might be allowed to leave the kingdom 
rather than fall into the hands of the enemy, 
'from whence he had no reason to expect 
the least degree of mercy,' was allowed to 
embark for France (CAETE, Original Let- 
ters, i. 108). Grenville landed at Brest on 
14 March 1646, and after a short stay in 
Brittany proceeded to Holland. One of his 
first cares was to vindicate his conduct as a 
soldier, by publishing a narrative of affairs 
in the west from 2 Sept. 1644 to 2 March 
1646 (this narrative, originally printed in 
1647, is reprinted by CAETE, Original Letters, 

1739, i. 96-109 : see also Clarendon MSS. 2139, 
2676). In anticipation of some such attempted 
justification, Hyde had already completed 
(31 July 1646) an account of events from 
March 1645 to May 1646 from the point of 
view of the king's council, the greater part of 
which account he afterwards embodied in his 
history (Rebellion, ed. Macray, ix. 7, x. 12). 
On the publication of Clarendon's history, 
George Granville, lord Lansdowne, attempted 
to vindicate Sir Richard from Clarendon's 
charges, but without success (LANSDOWNE, 
Works, 1732, i. 503; see also Bioyraphia 
Britannica, pp. 2308-9). 

Nevertheless Grenville was still employed 
by Charles II. He states that in February 
1650, while living in Holland, he received the 
king's commands to come to France * to at- 
tend his service,' and in consequence returned 
to Brittany. i There I employed my own 
monies and great labours to advantage the 
king's service, as in supplying the Sorlinges 
with what was in my power, also in clothing 
and victualling the soldiers of Guernsey 
Castle when no man else would do it, they 
being almost naked and starved' (ib. p. 549; 
cf. Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1665-6, p. 154). 
A letter from Charles II, dated 2 Oct. 1650, 
shows that there was some intention of em- 
ploying his services in a proposed rising in 
the west of England (EVELYN, Memoirs, ed. 
Wheatley, iv. 202 : Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1650, pp. 47, 88). Grenville, probably with 
justice, attributed his non-employment to 
Hyde, and was bitterly incensed against him. 
i So fat a Hide ought to be well tanned,' wrote 
Grenville to his friend Robert Long, and on the 
evidence of Long and some worthless gossip 
accused Hyde to the king (12 Aug. 1653) of 
treasonable correspondence with Cromwell. 
The charge was examined by the king and 
council, and Grenville forbidden to come into 
the king's presence or court (29 Nov. 1653), 
while Hyde's honesty was vindicated by a 
public declaration, 14 Jan. 1654 ( Cal. Claren- 
don Papers, ii. 239, 259, 279, 299 ; LISTEE, 
Life of Clarendon, iii. 69-83). Grenville at 
once published a pamphlet entitled ' Sir 
Richard Grenville's Single Defence against 
all aspersions (in the power or aim) of all 
malignant persons, and to satisfy the con- 
trary,' containing an autobiographical ac- 
count of his life, services, and sufferings (re- 
printed in Lansdowne's 'Works,' i. 544-56). 
Grenville died in 1658; of the last four years 
of his life Lord Lansdowne writes (with some 
exaggeration) : ' He retired from all conversa- 
tion with mankind, shut himself up from the 
world to prepare himself seriously for another, 
never so much as suffering his beard to be 
shaven from that moment to his dying day, 




which followed soon, his great heart not being 
able to hold out any longer. He lies buried 
in a church in Ghent, with this inscription 
only upon a plain stone, " Sir Richard Gran- 
ville, the King's general in the West " ' (LANS- 
DOWNE, Works, i. 500). 

[Boase and Courtney's Bibliotheca Cornubien- 
sis, i. 193, iii. 1208 ; Clarendon's Rebellion, ed. 
Macray; State Papers, Dom.; Wood's Fasti, ed. 
Bliss, i. 352 ; Lloyd's Memoirs of Excellent Per- 
sons, 1668. Manuscript letters by Grenville are 
to be found among the Tanner MSS. in the 
Bodleian ; others are enumerated by Boase and 
Courtney, p. 1208.] C. H. K 

EARL TEMPLE (1711-1779), eldest son of 
Richard Grenville (1678-1728) of Wotton 
Hall, Buckinghamshire, by his wife Hester, 
second daughter of Sir Richard Temple, bart., 
of Stowe, near Buckingham, and sister and 
coheiress of Richard, viscount Cobham of 
Stowe, was born on 26 Sept. 1711. After 
receiving his education at Eton, he travelled 
about with a private tutor for more than 
four years. At the general election in 1734, 
shortly after his return to England, he was 
elected to parliament for the borough of 
Buckingham. In the parliament of 1741-7 
he represented the county of Buckingham, 
but at the general election in the latter year 
was once more returned for the borough. 

His mother succeeded as Viscountess Cob- 
ham on the death of her brother in September 
1749, and was created on the following 

18 Oct. Countess of Temple. On her death 
on 7 Oct. 1752, Richard succeeded to the 
House of Lords as Earl Temple. At the 
same time he inherited the large estates of 
"Wotton and Stowe, and took the additional 
surname of Temple. 

His career in the House of Commons 
appears to have been comparatively undis- 
tinguished. Walpole describes him as being 
at this period ' the absolute creature of Pitt, 
vehement in whatever faction he was en- 
gaged, and as mischievous as his understand- 
ing would let him be, which is not saying he 
was very bad' (Memoirs of the Reign of 
George II, pp. 135-6). In 1754 his only 
sister Hester was married to Pitt, and on 

19 Nov. 1756 Temple was appointed first 
lord of the admiralty in the Duke of Devon- 
shire's administration, being sworn a member 
of the privy council the same day. Having 
been absent from the council when the clause 
thanking the king for bringing the Hano- 
verian troops to England was added to the 
speech, Temple went down to the house at 
the opening of parliament (2 Dec.jl756), ( as 
he told the lords, out of a sick bed, at the 

hazard of his life (indeed, he made a most 
sorrowful appearance), to represent to their 
lordships the fatal consequences of the in- 
tended compliment. . . . And having finished 
his oration, went out of the house with a 
thorough conviction that such weighty 
reasons must be quite unanswerable ' (LORD 
WALDEGRAVE, Memoirs, pp. 89-90). This 
is probably the only instance of a cabinet 
minister on his first appearance as a minister 
in the house opposing any part of the ad- 
dress in return to the king's speech. The 
'oration/ however, had no effect, and the 
address was carried unanimously. Temple 
was greatly disliked by the king, who com- 
plained to Waldegrave that he * was so dis- 
agreeable a fellow, there was no bearing him ; 
that when he attempted to argue, he was 
pert, and sometimes insolent ; that when he 
meant to be civil, he was exceeding trouble- 
some, and that in the business of his office 
he was totally ignorant ' (ib. p. 95). Accord- 
ing to Walpole, who is in a great measure 
confirmed by Waldegrave, Temple on one 
occasion actually ventured so far as to sketch 
a parallel between the king at Oudenarde 
and Admiral Byng at Minorca, in which the 
advantage did not lie with the former (Me- 
moirs of the Reign of George II, ii. 378). 
Temple was dismissed from his post on 
5 April 1757, and a few days after Pitt 
shared the same fate. On the formation of 
the Duke of Newcastle's administration in 
June they both returned to office, Pitt as 
secretary for state and Temple as lord 
privy seal. On 22 Dec. 1758 Temple was 
appointed lord-lieutenant of Buckingham- 
shire. Being refused the Garter he resigned 
the privy seal on 14 Nov. 1759, but at 
the request of the king resumed office two 
days afterwards, and was elected a knight 
of the Garter on 4 Feb. 1760. He resigned 
office with Pitt in October 1761 in conse- 
quence of the rejection of Pitt's proposal for 
an immediate declaration of war with Spain. 
On 9 Nov. following they made a triumphal 
entry into the city, their reception being a 
remarkable contrast to that given to the 
king and queen. Temple now became es- 
tranged from his brother George [q. v.], and 
figured as one of the most active of Bute's 
opponents. Owing to his ostentatious pa- 
tronage of Wilkes he was dismissed from his 
post of lord-lieutenant on 7 May 1763. In 
May 1765 Pitt was dissuaded from forming 
an administration by Temple, who was on 
the point- of becoming reconciled with his 
brother George and had conceived the idea 
of forming a ministry the principal members 
of which were to be of his own family. In 
his interview with the king on the 25th of 




the following month Temple for the second 
time in this year refused to become first 
lord of the treasury. In the following 
year he intrigued with his brother George 
and the Duke of Bedford against the Rock- 
ingham ministry, and opposed the repeal of 
the Stamp Act, In July, at Pitt's advice he 
was again offered the post of the first lord 
of the treasury, which he refused after a 
stormy interview with his brother-m-law. 
4 1 might/ he wrote to his brother Ueorge, 
* have stood a capital cypher, surrounded 
with cvphers of quite a different complexion, 
the whole under the guidance of that great 
luminary, the Great Commoner, with the 
privy seal in his hand. . . . Thus ends the 
political farce of my journey to town, as it 
was always intended' (Grenville Papers, in. 
267-8). Temple having openly quarrelled 
with his brother-in-law now endeavoured to 
influence the public mind against him by a 
pamphlet warfare, conducted with most 
bitter personal animosity, and it was not 
until November 1768, shortly after Chatham s 
resignation of office, that a reconciliation 
took place between them. In the debate on 
the Duke of Richmond's resolutions relating 
to the disorders in America on 18 May 1770, 
Temple made a severe attack upon the Go- 
vernment, declaring that he had ' known 
administrations that were highly obnoxious 
to the people; but such a set of ministers as 
the present, so lost to all sense of shame, so 
eminently above the mere pretence of regard 
for iustice,' he had never seen (Parl. Hist. 
xvi. 1024). After the death of his brother 
George, Temple retired to a great extent from 
political life, and amused himself with the 
improvement of his house and gardens at 
Stowe. He was created a D.C.L. of Oxford 
University on 4 July 1771. His last re- 
ported speech in the House of Lords was 
delivered on 5 March 1778, when he de- 
claimed against Lord North's conciliatory 
bills, asserting his belief that America had 
' aimed at independency from the beginning,' 
and declaring that the* 'men who had shown 
to the whole world they were incapable of 
conducting a war . . . were now preparing 
to give another proof of their incapacity by 
showing they do not know how to make 
peace (ib. xx. 845-8). He was thrown out 
of his pony carriage in the Park Ridings at 
Stowe, and fractured his skull. After linger- 
ing for a few days in an insensible state, he 
died on 12 Sept. 1779 in the sixty-eighth 
year of his age. He was buried at Stowe 
on 16 Sept. 1779, but his body was after- 
wards removed to Wotton. Temple was 
a man of wealth and position, but with- 
out any great talents except that for in- 

trigue. His ambition was unbounded, but 
his factiousness and arrogance made him the 
most impracticable of men. 'Those who 
knew his habits,' wrote Macaulay, * tracked 
him as men track a mole. It was his nature 
to grub underground. Whenever a heap of 
dirt was flung up, it might well be suspected 
that he was at work in some foul, crooked 
labyrinth below' (Essays, p. 762). He is 
supposed to have been the author of several 
anonymous and scurrilous pamphlets (for a 
list of which see the Grenville Papers, iii. 
cl-cli), and to have assisted either with 
money or information in the production of 
many more. 

Walpole, while referring to Wilkes and 
Churchill, speaks of Temple as their familiar, 
' who whispered them where they might 
find torches, but took care never to be seen 
to light one himself (Memoirs of George III, 
i. p. 182). The authorship of Junius's 
'Letters' has also been ascribed to him. 
Though a bitter and unscrupulous opponent 
in public life, his liberality to his friends and 
relations was profuse. Pitt himself was in- 
debted to Temple for pecuniary assistance, 
and on his dismissal from the post of pay- 
master-general Temple entreated his sister 
to persuade her husband to ' give his brother 
Temple leave to become his debtor for a 
thousand pounds a year 'till better times' 
(Grenville Papers, i. 408). To Wilkes too 
he showed his generosity in bearing the ex- 
pense of all his law proceedings, and thus 
'it is to Earl Temple and to him alone that 
the nation owes the condemnation of the 
general warrants and the arbitrary seizure 
of persons and papers ' (ALMON, Correspond- 
ence of the late John Wilkes with his Friends, 
1805, i. 135). Wraxall, describing Temple 
in 1776, says: ' In his person he was tall and 
large, though not inclined to corpulency. 
A disorder, the seat of which lay in his ribs, 
bending him almost double, compelled him 
in walking to use a sort of crutch ; but his 
mind seemed exempt from decay. His con- 
versation was animated, brilliant, and full of 
entertainment' (Historical Memoirs, 1884, 
i. 88-9). In the satirical and political pro- 
ductions of the time he was known by the 
name of ' Squire Gawkey.' He married, on 
19 May 1737, Anne, daughter and coheiress 
of Thomas Chambers of Hanworth, Middle- 
sex, by his wife Lady Mary Berkeley, the 
eldest daughter of Charles, second earl of 
Berkeley. The only issue of the marriage 
was a daughter, Elizabeth, who was born on 
1 Sept. 1738 and died an infant on 14 July 
1742. The countess, whose ' Select Poems ' 
were printed at Strawberry Hill in 1764 
(WALPOLE, Catalogue of Royal and Noble 




Authors, ed. Park, iv. 361-4), died suddenly ' 
on 7 April 1777. In default of male issue 
Temple was succeeded in the earldom by his 
nephew George [q. v.], who was afterwards 
created Marquis of Buckingham. A portrait 
of Temple, painted by William Hoare of 
Bath, R.A., in 1760, is in the National Por- 
trait Gallery. The same collection contains 


a portrait of his wife, drawn by Hugh 
Douglas Hamilton, R.H.A., in 1770. The 
portrait of Temple painted by Sir Joshua 
Reynolds in 1776 was engraved by William 

[Grenville Papers (1852-3); Chatham Cor- j 
respondence (1838-40); Walpole's Memoirs of 
the Reign of George II (1846 1; Walpole's Me- 
moirs of the Reign of George HI (1845); Lord 
Waldegrave's Memoirs (1821); Lord Mahon's ! 
History of England (1858), vols. iv. v. vi. ; j 
Lecky's History of England, ii. 458-62, vol. iii. ' 
chaps, x. xi. ; Jesse's Memoirs of the Life and 

Lipscombe's History of Buckinghamshire (1847), 
i. 600, 614-15, iii. 86 ; Collins's Peerage of Enc*- 
land (1812). ii. 419-20; Doyle's Official Baron- 
age (1886), iii. 519 ; Foster's Alumni Oxonienses 
pt, ii. p. 562; Gent. Mag. 1737 vii. 315, 1738 
viii. 490, 1752 xxii. 47*, 1777 xlvii. 195, 
1779 xlix. 471 ; Official Return of Lists of 
Members of Parliament, pt. ii. pp. 72, 85, 98 ; 
Haydn's Book of Dignities (1851).] 

G. F. R. B. 

1839), elder son of George Nugent Temple 
Grenville, marquis of Buckingham [q. v.], by i 
Lady Mary Elizabeth, baroness Nugent, only I 
daughter and heiress of Robert, earl of Nu- ! 
gent, was born in London 20 March 1 776, and ! 
completed his education at Oxford, where he 
matriculated as a member of Brnsenose Col- 
lege 7 Dec. 1791, being known as Earl Temple 
from 1784 to 1813. He was elected member 
of parliament for Buckinghamshire 30 June 
1797, and sat till 11 Feb. 1813, during which 
time he was an active representative, and 
frequently spoke on general politics. His sup- 
port was given to his kinsman William Pitt 
while the first French war continued, but 
afterwards he generally sided with the op- 
position. He first took office as a commis- 
sioner for the affairs of India '2 July 1800, 
but resigned in the following March. On 
the formation of the ministry of his uncle, 
William Wyndharn, lord Grenville [q.v.], he 
was appointed deputy president of the board 
of trade, and joint paymaster-general of the 
land forces 5 Feb. 1806, and sworn of the 


privy council 6 Feb. He relinquished office 
with the administration in March 1807. On 
3 June 1800 he became captain-lieutenant of 
the Bucks regiment of gentry and veomanrv 
and 11 Oct. 1803 colonel of'the Bucks re^i- 
inent of militia. At the installation of his 
uncle, Lord Grenville, as chancellor of the 
university of Oxford, the degree of D.C.L 
was conferred on him 3 July 1810, and on 
o July 1819 he was made an LL.D. of Cam- 
; bridge. On the death of his father, 11 Feb 
813, he succeeded as second Marquis of 
Buckingham, and in the same year was ga- 
zetted lord-lieutenant of Buckinghamshire 
He was created Earl Temple of Stowe, Mar^ 
quis of Chandos, and Duke of Buckingham 
and Chandos 4 Feb. 1822, being the only per- 
son elevated to ducal rank by George IV, 
who had made him a knight of the Garter 
7 June 1820. In 1827 Buckingham found 
himself in embarrassed circumstances His 
expenditure in the luxuries of art and litera- 
ture had been enormous, and the munificence 
with which he had entertained the royal 
family ol France on one of his estates had 
burdened him with debt. He therefore went 
abroad. A new yacht called the Anna Eliza 
was built for him ; in her he sailed from South- 
ampton on 4 Aug., and remained absent from 
England about two years. An account of 
his voyage and travels was published bv his 
son in three volumes in 1862 under the "title 
of The Private Diary of Richard, Duke of 
Buckingham and Chandos/ his portrait form- 
ing the frontispiece to the first volume. The 
last office he held was that of steward of the 
household, 28 July to 22 Nov. 130 At one 
time he was a strong advocate of Roman ca- 
tholic emancipation, but afterwards changed 
his opinions ; he was, however, a consistent 
supporter of measures for the abolition of the 
slave trade. For some years he lived in re- 
tirement on account of bodily infirmities 
brought on by violent attacks* of the gout. 
He, however, found employment among the 
books and works of art with which Stowe 
Buckinghamshire, his favourite residence', 
abounded. Here he laid out a large sum of 
money in making a collection of rare and 
curious prints. Five years before his death 
some portion of this collection was disposed 
of in a sale lasting thirty days (Gent. Man 
September 1834, pp. 288-9). There is a por- 
trait ol him by J. Jackson. He died at Stowe 
17 Jan. 1839, and was buried in the mauso- 
leum at A\ otton 2o Jan. He married, 16 April 
1 / 9b, Anne Eliza Brydges, only daughter and 
heiress of James, third duke of Chandos She 
was born m November 1779, died at Stowe 
lo May 1836, and was buried at Avington, 
Hampshire, 24 May. 




[Gent, Mag. 1836 pt. i. p. 95, 1839 pt. i. 
pp. 309-10 ; Doyle's Official Baronage, i. 264.J 

Gr. C. B. 

AND CHANDOS (1797-1861), only child of 
Richard T. N. B. C. Grenville, first duke of 
Buckingham [q. v.], was born at Buckingham 
House, Pall Mall, London, 11 Feb. 1797, and 
as Lord Cobham entered Eton in 1808. From 
1813 to 1822 he was known as Earl Temple, 
and under that name matriculated from Oriel 
College, Oxford, 25 Oct. 1815. He was M.P. 
for Buckinghamshire from 22 June 1818 to 
17 Jan. 1839. From the date of his father's 
elevation to a dukedom in 1822 he was known 
as Marquis of Chandos. He introduced into 
the Reform Bill in 1832 the tenant-at-will 
clause, known as the Chandos clause, which 
extended the franchise in counties to 50/. 
It is the only part of the Reform Bill which 
is identified with any one's name, and Lord 
John Russell said that it destroyed the sym- 
metry of the whig measure, and frustrated 
whig expectations in the counties. In 1836 
Chandos obtained a select committee * for the 
consideration of the grievances and depressed 
state of the agriculturists.' He was gazetted 
G.C.H. in 1835, and on the death of his father, 
17 Jan. 1839, succeeded as second Duke of 
Buckingham. He had become captain of the 
2nd Bucks regiment of yeomanry, 15 June 
1813, and was named colonel of the royal 
Bucks regiment of yeomanry, 22 Sept. 1839. 
On Sir Robert Peel coming into office he was 
named lord privy seal, 3 Sept. 1841, but 
when the premier proposed to deal with the 
corn laws he retired, January 1842, and did 
not again join any ministry. He was sworn 
a privy councillor 3 Sept. 1841, made a 
knight of the Garter 11 April 1842, and be- 
came a D.C.L. of Cambridge in the latter 
year. Popularly known as ( The Farmer's 
Friend,' he was presented on 18 May 1842 
at Aylesbury with a testimonial by his ad- 
mirers. Although at the time he spoke of 
this as the last scene in his political life 
{Times, 19 May 1842), he again spoke in 
Buckinghamshire against the repeal of the 
corn laws on 31 Dec. 1845 and 7 Feb. 1846. 
On the death of his father in 1839 the duke 
succeeded to a rent-roll of 100,000/. a year ; 
the estates, however, were very heavily en- 
cumbered, and he himself much increased the 
liabilities. One of his expensive habits was 
purchasing land with borrowed money, re- 
gardless of the fact that the interest of the 
money he borrowed was much heavier than 
the rental he recovered from the land. In 1844, 
on his eldest son coming of age, the entail to 

some of the estates was cut off, leaving intact 
the Chandos estates, which were entailed 
upon female heirs. Although it was known 
that the duke was in financial difficulties, the 
queen and Prince Albert paid him a visit at 
Stowe Park, Buckinghamshire, where they 
stayed from 15 to 18 Jan. 1845 (Times, 16- 
20 Jan. 1845 ; Illustr. London News, 18 and 
25 Jan. 1845). This visit cost a large sum 
of money, and helped to precipitate the im- 
pending catastrophe. On 31 Aug. 1847 the 
effects at Stowe and other residences were 
taken possession of by the bailiffs, and on 
12 Sept. the duke left England with liabilities 
estimated at upwards of a million. Some of 
his estates in Buckinghamshire/Oxfordshire, 
and Northamptonshire were sold on 10 May 
1848 for 262,990/. A forty days' sale of the 
pictures, china, plate, furniture, &c., at Stowe 
commenced on 15Aug. 1848, and was attended 
by dealers from all parts of the world, pro- 
ducing 75,562^. (Times, 14 Aug. to 24 Sept. 
1848 ; Illustrated London News, 19 Aug. to 
23 Sept. 1848; Athenceum, 1848, pp. 344, 
776, 829, 860, 912, 939, 965, 1033, 1333). 
The ( Times ' wrote with great severity of the 
duke as ' a man of the highest rank, and of 
a property not unequal to his rank, who has 
flung away all by extravagance and folly, 
and reduced his honour to the tinsel of a 
pauper and the baubles of a fool.' His con- 
duct, however, was looked on in a more 
favourable light by other critics. The first 
portion of the library at the conclusion of the 
sale, 20 Jan. 1849, brought 4,58U. lls. Qd. 
(Athenaum, 1849, pp. 42, 70, 142) ; the en- 
gravings on 14 March sold for 2,359 10*. Qd. 
(ib. pp. 281, 307, 337) ; and the Stowe manu- 
scripts passed to Lord Ashburton on 1 May 
for 8,000/. (ib. pp. 380, 463). The duke 
married, 13 May 1819, Lady Mary Campbell, 
youngest daughter of John, first marquis of 
Breadalbane. She now in the consistory 
court, on her own petition, obtained a divorce 
from her husband, 19 Jan. 1850(7Yme6-,21 Jan. 
1850, p. 7). Henceforth the duke occupied 
himself as an author, and the many historical 
works which he produced, founded on his 
own manuscripts and journals, have served 
to throw much light upon the inner political 
history of modern times. He died at the Great 
Western Hotel, Paddington, London, 29 July 
1861. The duchess, who was born 10 July 
1795, died at Stowe, 28 June 1862. 

Buckingham published the following works: 
1. 'Agricultural Distress ; its Cause and Re- 
medy,' 1835. 2. ' The Ballot discussed in a 
Letter to the Earl of Devon/ 1837, two edi- 
tions. 3. ( Memoirs of the Court and Cabinets 
of George III,' 1853-5, 4 vols. 4. < Memoirs 
of the Court of England during the Regency,' 



1856, 2 vols. 

Memoirs of the Court of 

George IV,' 1859, 2 vols. 6. ' Memoirs of 
the Courts and Cabinets of William IV and 
Victoria/ 1801, 2 vols. 7. 'The Private 
Diary of Richard, Duke of Buckingham and 
Chandos,' 1862, 3 vols. 

[Gent. Mag. September 1861, pp. 321-2 ; Il- 
lustrated London News, 10 Dec. 1842, p. 496, 
with portrait; Times, 31 July 1861, p. 12, and 
3 Aug. p. 9 ; Lipscombe's Buckinghamshire (1847), 
i. 586-604, iii. 84-108; Francis's Orators of the 
Age (1847), pp. 217-23; Doyle's Official Baron- 
age, i. 265, with portrait.] G. C. B. 

statesman, only son of Richard Plantagenet 
Temple Nugent Brydges Chandos Grenville, 
second Duke of Buckingham and Chandos 
[q. v.], was born on 10 Sept. 1823, and was 
known as Earl Temple from his birth till 
1839, and then as Marquis of Chandos from 
that date to 1861. He was at Eton from 
1835 until 20 Oct. 1841, when he matricu- 
lated from Christ Church, Oxford, and was 
created D.C.L. on 7*June 1852. He was 
lieutenant in the Royal Bucks regiment of 
yeomanry 1843, captain 1845, lieutenant- 
colonel commandant 1862, and honorary 
colonel 1881. He sat as member of parlia- 
ment for the borough of Buckingham in the j 
conservative interest from 11 Feb. 1846 to 
21 March 1857; but on his contesting the | 
university of Oxford on 1 July 1859 with \ 
Mr. W. E. Gladstone, he received only 859 
votes against 1050 given for his opponent. | 
In Lord Derby's short administration he was j 
a j unior lord of the treasury from 28 Feb. to j 

28 Dec. 1852. From March 1852 to 1859 he | 
was keeper of the privy seal to the Prince of 
Wales, who in October 1852 appointed him a 
special deputy warden of the stannaries. He ! 
was elected chairman of the London and 
North-western railway in October 1853, and j 
in that position displayed business qualities , 
of a high order ; he resigned in 1861, and on 

29 July in that year, on the death of his 
father, succeeded as the third Duke of Buck- 
ingham and Chandos. He was chairman of 
the executive committee of the royal com- 
mission for the Great Exhibition of 1862, 
honorary colonel of the 1st Middlesex artil- 
lery volunteers on 10 July 1865, and was ga- 
zetted a privy councillor on 6 July 1866. 
When Lord Derby returned to power he ap- 
pointed Buckingham on 6 July 1866 lord-pre- 
sident of the council. He held this place I 
until 8 March 1867, when he succeeded the | 
Earl of Carnarvon as secretary for the colonies. ! 

He creditably fulfilled the duties of this post 
until the Derby-Disraeli administration went 
out on 8 Dec. 1868. In 1875 he was appointed 
governor of Madras, assumed the government 
on 23 Nov., and remained in India until 1880. 
During his term of office he energetically 
grappled with the terrible famine of 1876 
and 1877. He instituted relief on a large 
scale early in the visitation, and by the end 
of July 1876 there were in receipt of relief in 
the Madras districts 839,000 persons. Relief 
works were also commenced, and by the end 
of April in the same year 716,000 persons 
were in daily employment. At the instance 
of Buckingham the lord mayor of London 
organised a relief fund on behalf of the suf- 
ferers, when 475,000/. were collected and for- 
warded to Madras. On 2 June 1870 he was 
named a knight grand commander of the 
Star of India. On 3 April 1868 he was ga- 
zetted lord-lieutenant of Buckinghamshire, 
and elected chairman of the Buckingham 
quarter session in 1881. Before the House 
of Lords on 21 July 1868 he established his 
right to the title of Baron Kinloss in the 
peerage of Scotland, which had been in 
abeyance (Remarks on Scottish Peerages, 
particularly with reference to the Barony of 
Bruce of Kinloss, bv J. E. Brudenell Bruce, 
1868; Times, 17, 18, and 22 July 1868). On 
the death of Lord Redesdale in May 1886, he 
was chosen chairman of committees in the 
House of Lords. In this capacity he was 
well and favourably known, though he had 
much of the brusqueness which had distin- 
guished his predecessor in the office. He was 
a staunch conservative, but seldom spoke at 
length on political subjects. He made a laud- 
able effort to pay off his father's debts, and 
succeeded in settling the majority of the 
claims. His death from diabetes took place 
at Chandos House, Cavendish Square, Lon- 
don, on 26 March 1889, and he was buried in 
Wotton Church on 2 April. He was twice 
married; first on 2 Oct. 1851 to Caroline, 
daughter of Robert Harvey of Langley Park, 
Buckinghamshire ; she died on 28 Feb. 1874 ; 
secondly, 17 Feb. 1885, to Alice Anne, eldest 
daughter of Sir G raham Graham Montgomery, 
bart. By Buckingham's death the duke- 
doms of Buckingham and Chandos became 
extinct, while his nephew, William Stephen 
Gore Langton, formerly member of parlia- 
ment for Mid Somerset, succeeded to the 
earldom of Temple. The eldest of Bucking- 
ham's three daughters, Lady Mary Morgan, 
a lady of the Crown of India, and wife of 
Captain Lewis F. H. C. Morgan, inherited 
the Scottish barony of Kinloss, and the vis- 
county of Cobham passed to Lord Lyttelton. 
Buckingham's will was proved in June 1889, 




the personalty being 79,942/. os. 5d., besides 
landed property. 

[Doyle's Official Baronage, 1886, i. 265-6; 
C. Brown's Life of Lord Beaconsiield, 1882, ii. 50, 
with portrait: Illustrated London News, 1862 
xl. 215, 225, 1867 1. 132, 142, and 6 April 1889, 
p. 443, with portrait; Graphic, 22 May 1875, 
p. 501, with portrait, and 6 April 1889, p. 360, 
with portrait; Times, 28 March 1889, p. 7, and 
3 April, p. 1 1 ; Pictorial World, 4 and 1 1 April 
1889, with portrait.] G. C. B. 

GRENVILLE, THOMAS (1719-1747), 
captain in the navy, seventh son of Richard 
Grenville (1678-1728) of Wotton Hall in 
Buckinghamshire, younger brother of Richard 
Grenville, second earl Temple (1711-1779) 
[q. v.l, and of George Grenville (1712-1770) 
[q. v.J, was born on 3 April 1719. Having 
passed rapidly through the lower ranks in the 
navy, he was, on 6 April 1742, posted to the 
command of the Romney, in which, off Cape 
St. Vincent in the folio wing March, he had the 
good fortune to capture a French ship from 
Vera Cruz to Cadiz with an extremely valu- 
able cargo. In a letter to his brother George, 
Grenville estimated his share as being pro- 
bably between 30,OOW. and 40,000/., but it 
does not seem to have actually amounted to 
more than half. In the beginning of 1745 
he was appointed to the Falkland, on the 
coast of Ireland, and in the following year to 
the Defiance of 60 guns, in which, in the 
spring of 1747, he was ordered on an inde- 
pendent cruise, by the influence of his brother 
George, then one of the lords of the admi- 
ralty. Much to their annoyance, however, 
the ship was at the last moment detained and 
attached to the squadron under Anson [q. v.], 
who wrote to George Grenville, promising 
that the detention should be for as short a 
time as possible, and adding ' if there should 
be any service, I know he would be glad to 
be in it.' On 3 May Anson met and captured 
the French squadron off Cape Finisterre. The 
success was complete ; but * the joy of it,' 
wrote George Lyttelton, 'is palled to our 
family by the loss of poor Captain Grenville, 
one of the most promising young men in the 
navy, and who, had he lived, would have 
been an honour not to his family only, but 
to his country.' About two hours after the 
action began his left thigh was smashed by a 
huge splinter, and though the mangled limb 
was at once amputated, he died in the course 
of five hours. His body was brought to Eng- 
land, and buried at Wotton. A column to 
his memory was erected in the gardens at 
Stowe by his uncle, Lord Cobham. 

[Charnock's Biog. Nav. v. 190 ; The Grenville 
Papers, vol. i. freq.] J. K. L. 

GRENVILLE, THOMAS (1755-1846), 
statesman and book collector, second son of 
George Grenville (1712-1770) [q. v.], by 
Elizabeth, daughter of SirWilliamWyndham, 
was born 31 Dec. 1755. He entered Christ 
Church, Oxford, as a gentleman-commoner, 
and matriculated 9 Dec. 1771 . On 18 May 1778 
he was appointed ensign in the Coldstream. 
guards, and in October 1779 was gazetted as 
lieutenant in the regiment of foot afterwards 
known as the 80th or the Rutland regiment. 
These appointments he was ultimately driven 
to resign. North was attacked for the poli- 
tical bias shown in military appointments. 
Grenville, who was elected in 1780 as mem- 
ber for Buckinghamshire, was called upon by 
Fox in the following session to detail to the 
house the ill-treatment he had received in 
this capacity, and made a statement which 
was very damaging to the ministry. Gren- 
ville joined the Fox party, and subsequently 
became a warm friend of Fox. This choice 
placed him in antagonism to the politics of 
his family, and the estrangement continued 
until the period of the French revolution, 
though the warm affection existing between 
himself and his brothers was never impaired. 
Grenville was prepossessing in person and a 
good speaker. Pitt sought his alliance ; Fox 
had a high opinion of his abilities, and if the 
India Bill had passed meant to appoint him 

In 1782 Grenville was entrusted by Rock- 
ingham and Fox with the task of arranging 
the terms of the treaty with the United States. 
Grenville went to Paris and made some pro- 
gress with his mission, when he was suddenly 
recalled by the death of Lord Rockingham. 
He adhered to Fox, and supported the coalition 
ministry. After the dissolution of 1784 he 
lost his seat, but was returned for Aldborough 
in 1790. In 1791 Grenville brought forward 
a motion against the increased naval force 
known as the ' Russian armament,' but his 
resolution was defeated by 208 to 114. While 
member for Aldborough, Grenville joined the 
old whigs, and gave a general support to Pitt. 
In 1793 Grenville supported the Alien Bill 
and other government measures ; and in the 
following year he was sent with Earl Spen- 
cer as minister extraordinary to the court of 
Vienna. At the elections of 1796 Grenville 
was returned for the town of Buckingham, 
which he continued to represent until his 
retirement from parliament. In 1798 he was 
created a privy councillor. 

In 1799 Grenville accepted the post of am- 
bassador to Berlin, to propose an alliance 
against France. The ship in which he sailed 
was driven back by ice, and the Proserpine, 
to which he transferred himself, was wrecked 




off the Newerke Island, and several of the 
crew perished. Grenville escaped with diffi- 
culty, losing everything but his despatches. 
The English ambassador's enforced delay had 
enabled the French directory to despatch 
Si6yes to Berlin, and Grenville's design was 
frustrated. The king of Prussia having been 
persuaded by the French to adhere to his 
neutrality, the British mission returned to 

In 1800 Grenville received the sinecure 
office of chief justice in eyre south of Trent, 
with a salary of 2,000/. Grenville was the 
last to be appointed to this office, which was 
abolished in 1817. 

Grenville opposed the Addington adminis- 
tration and the Treaty of Amiens, against 
which he voted in the small minority of 
twenty with Windham. In 1805 he voted 
for the prosecution of Lord Melville. He 
now drifted away from the tory party, and 
looked forward to a union with Fox, which 
took place in February 1806, but Grenville 
was left without office, although his brother 
was premier. In the following July he be- 
came president of the board of control on the 
appointment of Lord Minto to the viceroyalty 
of India. After the death of Fox, Grenville 
was appointed first lord of the admiralty. On 
the fall of the Grenville administration at 
the close of March 1807 he practically with- 
drew from public life. He only voted three 
times afterwards, viz. in favour of catholic 
emancipation, of the repeal of the income tax, 
and for his nephew, C. Williams Wynn, when 
a candidate for the speakership. He retired 
from parliament in 1818, and from that time 
until his death lived in the society of his 
friends and his books, and devoted himself to 
the formation of his splendid library. 

When Lord Glastoiibury died in 1825 he 
left Grenville all his landed and funded pro- i 
pertyfor life, with remainder to the Rev. Dr. j 
Neville, dean of Windsor. Grenville imme- ' 
diately gave up the landed property to Dr. 
Neville. His pursuit of book-collecting began i 
early in life, and he was wont to say that j 
when in the guards he bid at a sale against a j 
whole bench of bishops for some scarce edi- ! 
tion of the Bible. He was appointed a trustee j 
of the British Museum. 

Grenville died at Hamilton Place, Picca- ; 
dilly, 17 Dec. 1846. His large charities be- i 
came known after his death. He had origi- 
nally bequeathed his library to the Duke of ' 
Buckingham, but revoked this bequest in a ; 
codicil, stating that as his books had been in | 
great part acquired from a sinecure office, he 
felt it right to leave them to the British Mu- 
seum, only leaving certain manuscripts to the j 
duke. The British Museum thus received 

upwards of twenty thousand volumes, valued 
at more than 50,000/. The collection con- 
sisted chiefly of printed books. The most 
valuable classes of the collection were first, 
the Homers ; secondly, the ^Esops, of which 
there were also some manuscripts ; thirdly, 
the Ariostos ; fourthly, early voyages and 
travels ; fifthly, works on Ireland ; sixthly, 
classics, both Greek and Latin; and seventhly, 
old Italian and Spanish literature. They in- 
cluded also a fine copy of the first folio of 
Shakespeare, and other old English books. 
A catalogue of the library by II. J. Payne 
and II. Foss was published under the title 
' Bibliotheca Grenvilliana ' between 1842 and 
1848 (3 vols. London, 8vo). 

A portrait of Grenville, by Hoppner, has 
been engraved in folio by Say, and also by 
Dean in octavo, with Grenville's autograph, 
for Fisher's ' National Portrait Gallery : ' there 
is another portrait by Phillips at Althorp, 
and a miniature by C. Manzini is in the Na- 
tional Portrait Gallery. There is a bust in 
the British Museum. 

[Ann. Eegister, 1846; Gent. Mag. 1847, pt. i. 
197-201 ; Hansard's Parliamentary Debates ; 
Brit. Mus. Cat.] G. B. S. 

HAM, BARON GRENVILLE (1759-1834), the 
I youngest son of George Grenviller^q. v.j, by 
| his wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir William 
| Wyndham, bart., was born on 25 Oct. 1759. 
I He was educated at Eton, and afterwards at 
Christ Church, Oxford, where he matricu- 
lated 14 Dec. 1776, and, gaining the chan- 
cellor's prize for Latin verse in 1779, gradu- 
; ated B.A. in 1780. He was admitted a 
student of Lincoln's Inn on 6 April 1780, 
but was never called to the bar ; and at a 
by-election in February 1782 was returned 
to parliament for the borough of Bucking- 
ham. In September 1782 he became chief 
secretary to his brother George Nugent Tem- 
ple Grenville [q. v.], earl Temple (afterwards 
marquis of Buckingham), lord-lieutenant of 
Ireland, and was sworn a member of the Irish 
privy council. Grenville appears to have re- 
mained in London the greater part of the 
time he held the office of Irish secretary, and on 
22 Jan. 1783 seconded Townshend's motion for 
leave to bring in the Renunciation Bill, which 
was quickly passed through parliament (23 
Geo. Ill, c. 28), and ' completely set at rest 
every reasonable or plausible demand of the 
party of Flood ' (LECKT, History of England, 
vi. 313). Upon the appointment of Lord 
Northington in the place of Temple as lord- 
lieutenant (June 1783) Grenville resigned 
office, but after the downfall of the coalition 
ministry accepted the post of paymaster- 




general in his cousin Pitt's first administra- 
tion, and was sworn a member of the privy 
council on 31 Dec. 1783. On 7 April 1784 
he was appointed joint-pay master-general 
with Constantine, second baron Mulgrave, 
and at the general election in the same month 
was returned, after a very severe contest, at 
the head of the poll for" Buckinghamshire. 
On 3 Sept. following he was made one of the 
commissioners of the newly created board of 
control, and on 6 Sept. 1786 was appointed 
vice-president of the committee of trade. 
Though Grenville had taken part in several 
important debates with a fair amount of suc- 
cess, he did not make much way in the com- 
mons as a debater, and as early as 1786 began 
to aspire to a seat in the House of Lords. In 
the summer of 1787 he was sent on a diplo- 
matic mission to the Hague, and afterwards 
went to Paris to assist Morton Eden [q.v.] in 
the Dutch disputes. On 5 Jan. 1789,while only 
in his thirtieth year, Grenville was elected 
speaker of the House of Commons, in the 
place of Charles Wolfran Cornwall [q. v.], by 
215 votes against 144 (Parl. Hist, xxvii. 
904-7). Owing to the king's illness the usual 
formalities of receiving the royal permission 
to elect a speaker, and the royal approbation 
of him when elected, could not be observed, 
and Grenville taking his seat immediately 
performed all the duties of his office (MAT, 
Parl. Practice, 1883, p. 203). On 16 Jan. 
Grenville spoke at great length on Pitt's 
resolutions providing for the exercise of 
the royal authority during the king's illness 
(Parl. Hist, xxvi'i. 970-94), and in May 
took part in the debate on the slave trade 
resolutions, when he declared that Wilber- 
force's speech ' entitled him to the thanks of 
the house, of the people of England, of all 
Europe, and of the latest posterity ' (ib. xxviii. 
76). Having accepted the post of secretary 
of state for the home department in the 
place of Lord Sydney, Grenville resigned the 
speakership on 5 June 1789, and was suc- 
ceeded in the chair by Addington. A few 
weeks afterwards he also resigned the offices of 
joint-paymaster-general and of vice-president 
of the board of trade. On 12 March 1790 he 
succeeded Lord Sydney as president of the 
board of control, and at the general election 
in June was again returned for Buckingham- 
shire. On 25 Nov., the day of the meeting 
of the new parliament, he was created Baron 
Grenville of Wotton-under-Bernewood in 
the county of Buckingham. Grenville was 
forthwith entrusted with the conduct of the 
government business in the lords, it being 
vainly hoped that he would be able to keep 
matters smooth with Thurlow, whom Pitt 
was at a loss to know how to manage. He 

made his maiden speech in the upper house 
during the debate on the convention with 
Spain on 13 Dec. (ib. p. 948). On the resigna- 
tion of Francis, fifth duke of Leeds, Gren- 
ville w r as appointed secretary of state for 
foreign affairs (8 June 1791), being succeeded 
at the home office by Dundas. At first 
Grenville seems to have taken a very rose- 
coloured view of foreign affairs. Writing 
on 17 Aug. 1791, on hearing of the conclu- 
sion of the negotiations at Sistova, he says : 
' I am repaid by the maintenance of peace, 
which is all this country has to desire. We 
shall now, I hope, for a very long period in- 
deed enjoy this blessing, and cultivate a situa- 
tion of prosperity unexampled in our history' 
( The Court and Cabinets of George III, ii. 
196), His letter to his eldest brother, dated 
7 Nov. 1792, satisfactorily proves that up to 
that time our government had abstained from 
any interference in the hostilities against 
France (ib. pp. 221-5), while that dated 
17 Sept. 1794 gives Grenville's view of the 
war after it had broken out. In his opinion 
' the existence of the two systems of govern- 
ment was fairly at stake, and in the words of 
St. Just, whose curious speech I hope you 
have seen, that it is perfect blindness not to 
see that in the establishment of the French 
republic is included the overthrow of all the 
other governments of Europe' (ib. p. 303). 
This letter contains the key to Grenville's 
foreign policy, and whenever the subject of 
peace negotiations was brought before the 
cabinet Grenville was always to be found at 
the head of the war party in opposition to 

On 13 Dec. 1791 Grenville was appointed 
ranger and keeper of St. James's and Hyde 
parks, a sinecure office, which he afterwards 
exchanged in February 1794 for the lucra- 
tive one of auditor of the exchequer, worth 
4,000/. a year. In December 1792 he intro- 
duced the Alien Bill for the registration and 
supervision of all foreigners in the country, 
and on 24 Jan. 1793 wrote to M. Chauvelin, 
the French ambassador, informing him that 
' His Majesty has thought fit to order that 
you should retire from this kingdom within 
the term of eight days ' (Parl. Hist. xxx. 
269). Grenville resigned the presidency of 
the board of control in June 1793, and was 
succeeded by Dundas. On 22 May in the fol- 
lowing year Grenville moved the first read- 
ing of the Habeas Corpus Suspension Bill, 
which was passed through all its stages and 
read a third time in the House of Lords on 
the same day (ib. xxxi. 574-603). On 6 Nov. 
1795 he introduced the Treasonable Practices 
Bill (ib. xxxii. 244-5), and in the following 
month the Seditious Meetings Bill (ib. pp. 




527-9). Grenville made a spirited speech in 
defence of the government on 22 March 1798, 
during the debate on the Duke of Bedford's 
motion for an address to the king for the re- 
moval of the ministry (ib. xxxiii. 1338-51), 
and on 19 March 1799 moved the resolutions 
for the union with Ireland in a speech last- 
ing four hours, 'putting the arguments on 
strong grounds of detailed political necessity' j 
(Lord Colchester s Diary, i. 175). On 4 Jan. j 

1800 Grenville replied to Napoleon's letter j 
to the king, and, throwing the whole blame j 
of the war upon the French, refused to enter j 
into negotiations with those ' whom a fresh j 
revolution has so recently placed in the ex- I 
ercise of power in France.' A few weeks | 
after Grenville defended the foreign policy | 
of the government in the House of Lords, and ; 
carried an address in favour of the vigorous i 
prosecution of the war, by 92 to 6 (Parl. Hist. 1 
xxxiv. 1204-22). In October 1800 Grenville | 
wrote a long letter to Pitt, protesting against 
tampering with the laws of supply and de- 
mand, and reminded him that ' we in truth 
formed our opinions on the subject together, 
and I was not more convinced than you were 
of the soundness of Adam Smith's principles 
of political economy till Lord Liverpool 
lured you from our arms into all the mazes 
of the old system' (STANHOPE, Pitt, iii. 248). 

Grenville, however, had to yield his opinion 
in the cabinet, and several measures of an 
exceptional character for the alleviation of 
the existing distress were passed early in 
the ensuing session. Writing to his eldest 
brother on 2 Feb. 1801, Grenville declared 
that it had always been his opinion that ' the 
union with Ireland would be a measure ex- 
tremely incomplete ' . . . ' unless immediate 
advantage were taken of it ' to conciliate the 
great body of the Irish catholics ( The Court 
and Cabinets of Georye III, iii. 128). An 
elaborate plan, prepared by Grenville in con- 
junction with Pitt, was submitted to the 
cabinet. Though approved of by a majority 
of the ministers, the king refused to sanction 
any measure of catholic emancipation. Pitt 
thereupon resigned, and Grenville announced 
his own resignation and that of several other 
members of the administration on 10 Feb. 

1801 (Parl Hist. xxxv. 945-6). In Novem- 
ber 1801 Grenville forcibly stated his objec- 
tions to the peace, the terms of which he 
considered * fraught with degradation and 
national humiliation' (ib. xxxvi. 163-71), 
and voted against the address, which was, 
however, carried by 114 to 10. Though at 
variance with Pitt on the subject of the 
peace, Grenville, thinking that war was in- 
evitable, was strongly of opinion in November 

1802 that unless the government were placed 

in Pitt's hands Bonaparte would be able to 
treat us as he had treated the Swiss ( The 
Court and Cabinets of George III, iii. 214). 
In April 1803 the negotiations between Ad- 
dington and Pitt fell through owing to Pitt 
insisting that Grenville and Windham should 
be included in the ministry. In the confi- 
dential letter of 12 July 1803, written by 
Grenville to Lord Wellesley (which falling 
by the chances of war into the hands of the 
French was published in the ' Moniteur '), the 
writer says : ' While my quarrel with Ad- 
dington becomes every day more serious, all 
the motives which made Pitt and me differ 
in opinion and conduct daily decrease. We 
have not yet been able to assimilate com- 
pletely our plans of political conduct' {An- 
nual JKeyister, 1804, app. to Chron. p. 153). 
Though Pitt at first refused^ to join in a 
systematic opposition to the government, he 
afterwards combined with Grenville and Fox 
in their attack upon Addington's administra- 
tion. Upon its downfall in the spring of 1804, 
Grenville declined to accept office under Pitt 
without Fox, whom the king refused to ad- 
mit. Pitt was greatly incensed at Grenville's 
refusal to join him, and their long friendship 
was terminated. On Lord Hawkesbury re- 
fusing to carry on the government after Pitt's 
death, Grenville formed the Ministry of All 
the Talents, comprising the principal mem- 
bers of the three parties which had recently 
acted together in opposition. Grenville was 
appointed first lord of the treasury on 11 Feb. 
1806, while Fox became secretary for foreign 
affairs, and Lord Sidmouth took the office of 
lord privy seal. Grenville's short adminis- 
tration was a singularly unfortunate one. 
The admission of Lord Ellenborough to the 
cabinet while holding the office of lord chief 
justice of England was injudicious if not 
unconstitutional. The measure, which was 
immediately introduced and rapidly passed 
through both houses,to enable Grenville while 
holding the post of first lord of the treasury to 
execute the office of auditor of the exchequer 
by deputy (46 Geo. Ill, c. 1), was not credit- 
able to the prime minister. The negotiations 
with France failed. The foreign expeditions 
were unsuccessful. Fox's death, in September 
1806, created a void which none could fill. 
One great measure, though not strictly speak- 
ing a government one, was, however, accom- 
plished. Resolutions in favour of the aboli- 
tion of the slave trade were carried by Fox 
and Grenville in the two houses in June 1806. 
On 2 Jan. 1807 Grenville introduced a bill to 
carry these resolutions into effect, and on 
5 Feb. moved the second reading in an elo- 
quent speech (Parl. Debates, viii. 657-64). 
The bill, after passing through the House 




of Commons, received the royal assent on 
25 March (47 Geo. Ill, sess. i. c. xxxvi.), the 
very day on which the ministers went out of 
office. On 5 March 1807 Lord Howick (after- 
wards Earl Grey), who had succeeded Fox in 
the post of foreign secretary, introduced the 
Roman Catholic Army and Navy Service 
Bill, a measure throwing open both services 
to Roman catholics and dissenters alike 
(ParL Debates, ix. 2-8). Lord Sidmouth had 
already alarmed the king, who declared that 
he would never go beyond the extension to 
England of the Irish act of 1793. On the 
13th the king told Grenville and Howick that 
he would never consent to their bill. Find- 
ing that all Pitt's friends were determined to 
support the king, Grenville and the other 
ministers who were favourable to the bill 
determined on the 15th not to proceed any 
further with it. In the minute acquainting 
the king with their determination they re- 
served to themselves the right to openly avow 
their opinions in parliament on the subject of 
the catholic claims, and to offer in future 
such advice to the king about Ireland f as the 
course of circumstances shall appear to re- 
quire ' {Memoirs of Lord Castlereagh, iv. 388). 
On the 17th the king demanded a positive 
assurance from ministers that they would 
never press upon him in the future any con- 
cessions to the catholics. On the 18th Gren- 
ville informed the king that it was not pos- 
sible for the ministers acting with him to 
give such assurances (ib. p. 392). The king 
thereupon expressed his intention of looking 
out for other ministers, and appointed the 
Duke of Portland first lord of the treasury. 

As a matter of policy, the insertion of these 
reservations in the minute was most ill ad- 
vised. They were quite unnecessary, and 
were only calculated to provoke the king into 
retaliation. Some of Grenville's colleagues, 
indeed, looked upon his conduct as nothing 
short of political suicide, notably Sheridan, 
who is reported to have said that ' he had 
known many men knock their heads against 
a wall, but he had never before heard of any 
man who collected the bricks and built the 
very wall with an intention to knock out his 
own brains against it ' (LoED COLCHESTEK, 
Diary, ii. 109). In September 1809 an un- 
successful attempt was made to induce Gren- 
ville and Grey to join the ministry on the 
resignation of the Duke of Portland. In his 
letter to Perceval conveying his refusal Gren- 
ville declared that his ' accession to the ex- 
isting administration 'could not be considered 
' in any other light than as a dereliction of 
public principle' (The Court and Cabinets 
of George III, iv. 376). On 14 Dec. 1809 
Grenville was elected chancellor of the uni- 

versity of Oxford, in the place of the Duke 
of Portland, who had died in the previous 
October. The contest was a severe one, but 
the division of the tory interest secured 
Grenville's election, the votes recorded for 
Grenville being 406, for Lord Eldon 393, and 
for the Duke of Beaufort 288. Grenville 
was created D.C.L. by diploma on 23 Dec., 
and was duly installed as chancellor on 10 Jan. 
1810. Previously to the passing of the Re- 
gency Bill in the beginning of 1811 the 
Prince of Wales had several communications 
with Grenville and Grey. It was believed 
that the prince intended to change the go- 
vernment as soon as he should become regent. 
The prince, however, on 4 Feb. 1811 informed 
Perceval that he had decided ' not to remove 
from their stations those whom he finds there ' 
(Memoirs of the Court, i. 32). 

In February 1812 Grenville and Grey 
refused to accede to the regent's wish that 
( some of those persons with whom the early 
habits of my public life were formed would 
strengthen my hands and constitute a part of 
my government ' (ib. p. 227). In their joint 
letter to the Duke of York, through whom 
the prince regent had made his wishes known, 
they declared that their differences of opi- 
nion were ' too many and too important to 
admit of such a union,' and that they were 
' firmly persuaded of the necessity of a total 
change in the present system of government ' 
in Ireland, and of the immediate repeal of 
the catholic disabilities (ib. p. 233). After 
Perceval's death fresh negotiations, with a 
view to forming an administration, were 
opened with Grenville and Grey, first through 
Lord Wellesley and afterwards through Lord 
Moira. On the refusal of the latter to ac- 
quiesce in the demand of Grenville, that cer- 
tain changes should be made in the household 
appointments, the prince regent made Lord 
Liverpool prime minister. In April 1813 
Grenville supported Romilly's bill for repeal- 
ing the Shoplifting Act. * For strength of 
reasoning,' wrote Romilly, * for the enlarged 
views of a great statesman, for dignity of 
manner and force of eloquence, Lord Gren- 
ville's was one of the best speeches that I have 
ever heard delivered in parliament' (Memoirs, 
1840, iii. 95). In the following year Gren- 
ville made a powerful speech calling atten- 
tion to the question of the slave trade in the 
newly restored French colonies (Part. De- 
bates, xxviii. 299-336). In March 1815 he 
strenuously opposed the new corn bill, and 
on the 20th of that month, with ten other 
peers, signed the protest drawn up by him- 
self and Lord Wellesley declaring their opi- 
nion that ' public prosperity is best promoted 
by leaving uncontrouled the free current of 




national industry ' (RoGEKS, Protests of the 
Lords, 1875, ii. 481-3). On the escape of 
Napoleon differences of opinion arose between 
Grenville and Grey on the war question. 
Grenville maintained that, as it was impos- 
sible to keep peace with Napoleon, vigorous 
hostilities should be immediately commenced, 
while Grey declared that it was the duty of 
this country and the allies to do everything 
which they reasonably could to preserve the 
peace. A correspondence ensued between 
them, which led to a division among their 
followers. Though this difference between 
the two opposition leaders was not immedi- 
ately followed by their political separation, 
it was the commencement of that schism 
which paralysed the strength of the opposi- 
tion for so many years. In the debate on the 
prince regent's message, on 23 May, Gren- 
ville supported the ministers, and advocated 
the prosecution of the war against Bonaparte 
with the utmost vigour (Pa/-/. Debates, xxxi. 
363-71), and Grey's amendment was defeated 
by 156 to 44. In April 1816 Grenville spoke 
in favour of the Marquis of Buckingham's 
motion for the appointment of a committee 
to take into consideration the state of Ireland, 
and maintained that before they could expect 
general obedience in any country ' the laws 
themselves ought to be made equal to all ' 
(ib. xxxiii. 832-5). In the following year 
he supported the repressive measures which 
were introduced by the government, and 
spoke in favour of the Habeas Corpus Sus- 
pension Bills (ib. xxxv. 583-6, xxxvi. 1013- 
1014). Though no longer acting in concert 
with his old colleague, Grenville gave his 
support to Grey's Roman Catholic Relief 
Bill in June 1819 (ib. xl. 1058-63). Alarmed 
at the recent disturbances in the country, 
Grenville wrote to Lord Liverpool shortly 
before the opening of parliament enclosing 
a lengthy memorandum of suggestions for 
several stringent measures ' to provide for 
the public tranquillity and safety of the 
kingdom ' (Life of Lord Liverpool, ii. 418- 
430). On 30 Nov., during the debate on 
Lord Lansdowne's motion on the state of 
the country, Grenville made a long speech 
full of gloomy prognostications, and urged 
the ministers to pass further repressive mea- 
sures (Par/. Debates, xli. 448-78). In Novem- 
ber 1820 he voted for the second reading of 
the bill of pains and penalties against Queen 
Caroline, though he had formed one of the 
commission appointed to inquire into the 
conduct of the Princess of Wales in 1806, 
which entirely acquitted her of the charges 
then brought against her. In order to 
strengthen his ministry, Lord Liverpool to- 
wards the close of 1821 made overtures to 

the Grenville party. Grenville himself, 
having practically retired from active poli- 
tical life, had no desire for office/ but his 
small band of followers were provided with 
valuable posts. The value of the prefer- 
ment which they obtained seemed so dis- 
proportionate to the strength which they 
added to the ministry that it occasioned 
Lord Holland to remark that i all articles 
are to be had at low prices except Gren- 
villes' (WALPOLE, Hist, of England, ii. 42). 
Grenville spoke for the last time in the 
House of Lords on 21 June 1822, when, ' as 
one of those who had always been favour- 
able to the concession of the catholic claims,' 
he supported the second reading of the 
Duke of Portland's Roman Catholic Peers 
Bill (Par/. Debates, new ser. vii. 1251-5). 

In 1823 Grenville had a paralytic attack, ' 
and retired altogether from public life to Drop- 
more, where he amused himself in literary 
pursuits. That he continued almost to the 
last to take an interest in politics is apparent 
from his letter to the Duke of Buckingham 
of 21 Nov. 1830 (The Court and Cabinets of 
William IV and Victoria, i. 146), and the 
account which Brougham gives of his un- 
successful attempt to overcome Grenville's 
objections to certain parts of the Reform Bill 
(Memoirs of Lord Brougham, iii. 495). Gren- 
ville died at Dropmore Lodge, Buckingham- 
shire, on 12 Jan. 1834 in his seventy-fifth 
year, and was buried at Burnham. In charac- 
ter Grenville greatly resembled his father. 
Though his industry and honesty secured 
him respect both in public and private life, 
his cold and unsympathetic manners ren- 
dered him unpopular. Brougham bears wit- 
ness in his 'Memoirs' to Grenville's great 
capacity for business. * The industry with 
which he mastered a subject previously un- 
known to him may be judged from his 
making a clear and impressive speech upon 
the change proposed in 1807 in the court of 
session ; and no lawyer could detect a slip 
on any of the points of Scotch law which 
he had to handle ' (iii. 488-9). In one im- 
portant qualification Grenville himself ac- 
knowledged his deficiency. * I am not com- 
petent,' he says in a letter to his brother, 
1 to the management of men. I never was 
so naturally, and toil and anxiety more and 
more unfit me for it' (The Court and Cabinets 
of George III, iv. 133). Though not a great 
orator, Grenville was a successful speaker 
in the House of Lords, where his weighty 
and sonorous speeches, though sometimes 
long and tedious, were listened to with 
attention. ' The great staple of his dis- 
course was argument,' says Brougham, ' and 
this, as well as his statement, was clear and 




impressive, and I may say authoritative. His 
declamation was powerful and his attacks 
hard to be borne ' (Memoirs, iii. 488-9). From 
a party point of view Grenville's career, 
taken as a whole, was inconsistent. This 
inconsistency of political conduct was due 
to his inbred alarm at the spread of revolu- 
tionary principles abroad, and his belief in 
the efficacy of repressive measures at home. 
It should, however, always be remembered, 
when Grenville's consistency is called in 
question, that he twice gave up office rather 
than sacrifice his principles on the subject 
of catholic emancipation, and that his views 
on that question practically excluded him 
from office during the rest of his political 

Grenville married, on 18 July 1792, the 
Hon. Anne Pitt, only daughter of Thomas, 
first baron Camelford, and sole heiress of 
her brother Thomas, the second baron. There 
being no issue of the marriage the barony 
of Grenville became extinct upon his death. 
His widow survived him for many years, and 
died in South Street, Grosvenor Square, on 
13 June 1864, aged 91, leaving her large 
estates to her husband's nephew, the Hon. 
George Matthew Fortescue. The National 
Portrait Gallery possesses a portrait of Gren- 
ville by Hoppner. Another portrait, painted 
in 1792 by Gainsborough Dupont, was ex- 
hibited in the third Loan Collection of Na- 
tional Portraits (Catalogue, No. 29), while a 
third, painted by W. Owen, belonging to 
Christ Church, Oxford, was lent to the Exhi- 
bition of Old Masters in 1872 (Catalogue, No. 
248). Engravings after portraits of Grenville 
by W. Owen and J. Jackson will be found in 
Cadell's ' British Gallery of Contemporary 
Portraits' (1822) and Fisher's 'National 
Portrait Gallery ' (1830). A large collec- 
tion of letters, including Grenville's corre- 
spondence with Pitt, is preserved by Colonel 
Fortescue at Dropmore. In addition to a 
number of his speeches, which were sepa- 
rately published, and the edition of Homer 
which was privately printed by him and his 
brothers, and edited by Porson and others 
(Oxford, 1800, 4to, 4 vols.), Grenville pub- 
lished the following : 1. i Letters written 
by the late Earl Chatham to his nephew, 
Thomas Pitt, Esq. (afterwards Lord Camel- 
ford, then at Cambridge ' [edited by Gren- 
ville], London, 1804, 8vo; third edition, 
London, 1804, 8vo ; a new edition, Lon- 
don, 1810, 12mo ; a new edition, London, 
1821, 8vo. 2. 'Letter from Lord Gren- 
ville to the Earl of Fingal, January 22, 
1810,' Buckingham [1810], 8vo ; another 
edition, London, 1810, 8vo; new edition, 
corrected, London, 1812, 8vo ; 'third edition, 

1815,' contained in the fifth volume of ' The 
Pamphleteer ' (1 815), pp. 141-50. 3. ' Nugse 
Metrics?/ 1824, 4to, privately printed, ad- 
denda printed 1834. 4. ' Essay on the sup- 
posed advantages of a Sinking Fund,' by 
Lord Grenville, part the first, London, 1828, 
8vo, privately printed; second edition cor- 
rected, London, 1828, 8vo ; no second part 
was ever printed. 5. ' Oxford and Locke/ 
by Lord Grenville, London, 1829, 8vo ; se- 
cond edition, corrected, London, 1829, 8vo. 
6. 'Dropmore/ 1830, 4to, privately printed. 

[Memoirs of Court and Cabinets of George III 
(1853-6); Memoirs of the Court of the Regency 
(1856); Memoirs of the Court of George IV 
(1859); Memoirs of the Court and Cabinets of 
William IV and Victoria (1861); Lord Auck- 
land's Journal and Correspondence (1861-2); 
Lord Colchester's Diary and Correspondence 
(1861); Lord Holland's Memoirs of the Whig 
Party (1852-4); Lord Stanhope's Life of Pitt 
(1861-2); Life and Opinions of Earl Grey 
(1861) ; Yonge's Life of Lord Liverpool (1868) ; 
Pellew's Life of Lord Sidmouth (1847); Sir 
G. C. Lewis's Administrations of Great Britain 
1783-1830(1864); Lord Brougham's Statesmen 
of George III (1839), 1st series, pp. 254-9; 
Lord Brougham's Memoirs (1871), iii. 487-98; 
Martineau's History of England, 1800-1815 
(1878); Walpole's History of England (1879), 
vols. i. andii. ; Edinburgh Review, clxviii. 271- 
312; Collins'sPeerage(1812),ii.418,viii. 269-70; 
Lipscombe's Buckinghamshire (1847), i. 600-1; 
Gent. Mag. 1792, vol.lxii. pt. ii.p. 672, 1834 new 327-9, 1864 new ser.xvii. 125; 
Foster's Alumni Oxonienses, pt. ii. p. 563 ; Official 
Return of Lists of Members of Parliament, pt. 
ii. pp. 162, 175, 187 ; Haydn's Book of Dignities 
(1851): Lincoln's Inn Registers; Brit.Mus. Cat.; 
Grenville Library Cat.] G. F. R. B. 

GRESHAM, JAMES (fl. 1626), poet, 
published in 1626 ' The Picture of Incest : 
liuely portraicted in the historic of Cinyras 
and Myrrha/ 12mo. This poem, written in 
heroic couplets, is a translation from book x. 
of Ovid's l Metamorphoses/ and is a satisfac- 
tory performance. A reprint from the one 
known copy of the original edition, which 
is in the British Museum Library, has been 
made by the Rev. A. B. Grosart (1876). Gres- 
ham may be identical with the James Gres- 
ham who in 1631 married the widow of Roger 
Hurst, a brewer, and five years later petitioned 
the king for protection against the creditors of 
Hurst's estate (Cal State Papers, Dom. 1636, 
p. 30). 

[Gresham's Picture of Incest.] A. V. 

GRESHAM, SIR JOHN (d. 1556), lord 
mayor of London. [See under GKESHAM, 





1549), lord mayor of London, was descended j 
from an ancient family which long 1 resided j 
in the village of Gresham in Norfolk. In j 
the fifteenth century John Gresham or his j 
son James, eleven of whose letters are pre- j 
served in the Paston collection, moved to ; 
Holt, three miles distant. James's son John : 
married Alice, a lady of fortune, daughter i 
of Alexander Blyth of Stratton, and resided i 
chiefly in London, where their four sons, j 
William, Thomas, Richard, and John, were j 
brought up to trade. Richard, Lorn at Holt j 
about 1485, was apprenticed to John Middle- ! 
ton, an eminent London mercer and merchant 
of the staple at Calais, and was admitted to ' 
the freedom of the Mercers' Company in 1507, ; 
being then of age. He lived chiefly in Lon- 
don, occasionally visiting Antwerp and the 
neighbouring towns. As early as loll he 
advanced money to the king, and bought 
goods on his own account (Cal. State Papers, 
Henry VIII, ii. 80). In November 1514 
Gresham and William Copeland, a fellow- j 
merchant of London, received 33/. from 
Henry VIII for the hire of their ship, the j 
Anne of London, trading to Prussia (ib. i. 
957), and in 1515 they were in turn hiring 
vessels from the crown. In the spring of 
the same year the king's ship, the Mary 
George, was lent them for a voyage ' beyond 
the Straits of Morocco,' and in the autumn 
they paid 3001. for the freight of the Anne 
of Fowey, employed on two voyages, the one 
to Eastland or Prussia, the other to Bordeaux 
(ib. ii. 1487-8). In March 1516 Gresham, 
acting by himself, bought for the crown 
sixty-nine cables at a cost of 65G/. 2s. (ib. 
p. 1550). 

Gresham's relations with the court soon 
grew closer. In 1516 he was appointed a 
gentleman-usher extraordinary in the royal 
household (ib. p. 873), and during the two 
following years his name appears several 
times among both the debtors and creditors 
of the crown, his indebtedness, jointly with 
his brothers William and John, amounting 
at one time to more than 3,438/. (ib. pp. 994, 
1476, 1483). On 14 Oct. 1520 Gresham 
wrote toWolseythat he was arranging with 
foreign workmen, at the cardinal's request, 
for making tapestries for Hampton Court. 
He had taken the measure of eighteen cham- 
bers, and on his arrival at ' parties beyonde the 
see ' would cause the hangings to be made 
with diligence. He adds that the cost will ex- 
ceed a thousand marks (666/. 13s. 4e?.), and, 
since the artificers are poor men, it will be 
necessary for him to advance money ' for 
proveycion of ther stufiV (ELLIS, Orit/. Let- 
ters, 3rd ser. i. 232-8). In March 1520-1 

Gresham informs the cardinal that eight 
pieces of cloth of gold are ready (Letters, <yc., 
Hen. VIII j iii. 449; for the subjects of some 
of these tapestries see inventory of Wolsey's 
household stuff, ib. iv. 2764). On 11 Jan. 
1521 Gresham asked Wolsey to obtain for 
himself and his two brothers a license to 
export and import goods, the custom duty 
on which might amount to 2,600/., to be paid 
at the rate of three hundred marks per annum. 
Gresham offered in return to cancel a debt of 
280/. due to him from the cardinal (ELLIS, 
Orif/. letters, 3rd ser. i. 233). A similar 
license to the extent of 2,000/. had been 
granted to Gresham alone about four years 
before (ib. ii. 491). On 9 March 1520-1 
Gresham complained to Wolsey of the seizure 
by Margaret, duchess of Savoy, of four ships 
laden with wheat, which he had despatched 
to England in anticipation of a scarcity. He 
enclosed the draft of a letter of remonstrance 
to the duchess, written in Wolsey's name, 
for which he begs his signature (ib. iii. 405). 
In June 1521 he supplied l,050yards of velvet 
to the king at lls. Sd. a yard (ib. iii. 1541). 
Early in 1524 he received 1,165/. 19s. for 
1 cables, running glasses, compasses/ &c., for 
the use of the navy in the war with France 
(ib. iv. 85). At the end of May he attended 
the funeral of Sir Thomas Lovell, a knight 
of the Garter, at the priory of Holywell, 
Shoreditch (ib. p. 149). In October 1525 
Gresham, by a timely advance of 50/., saved 
Sir Robert Wingfield, deputy at Calais, from 
selling his plate; the money was repaid by 
Wolsey (ib. pp. 705, 825 ; Cott. MS. Galba 
B. viiil 210, 216). 

Gresham's desire to serve the court brought 
him into trouble in the city in 1525. The 
common council were then resisting Wolsey's 
demand for a benevolence. Gresham spoke 
in the council in its favour, and was with 
two others threatened with expulsion (HALL, 
Chronicle, ed. Ellis, 1809, p. 699). He was 
elected warden of the Mercers' Company in 
1525, and served the office of master in 1533, 
1539, and 1549. On 5 March 1526 he wrote 
to Wolsey from Nieuport that all English- 
men with their ships and goods, including 
the writer and his brothers William and 
John, were under arrest there, because the 
emperor's ambassadors and divers ships were 
arrested in England. A safe-conduct, which 
proved of no avail, had been obtained for the 
Greshams through Joachim Hochstetter of 
Augsburg, the bearer of the letter, whom 
Gresham recommends to the cardinal's favour 
as one of the richest and most influential 
merchants of Germany, and a great im- 
porter of wheat to London (Letters, fyc., 
Hen. VIII, iv. 1784 ; ELLIS, 3rd ser. ii. 80). 




Gresham soon regained his liberty, and in 
the following August solicits Wolsey's fa- 
vour in a dispute with Hochstetter, who, he 
said, had failed in an agreement with him- 
self and his brother John to deliver eleven 
thousand quarters of grain in the port of 
London, and when pressed to fulfil his con- 
tract 'eloyned himself beyond sea.' The 
Greshams proceeded against his factor; Hoch- 
stetter complained to Cromwell and to Henry 
himself, alleging that the detention of the 
grain was by order of the authorities of Nieu- 
port, and that the Greshams had injured his 
credit on the continent, by which he had 
suffered a loss of 30,000/. In December and 
the following months business relations with 
Hochstetter were resumed, Gresham bargain- 
ing to supply kerseys and other kinds of 
cloth in exchange for cereals, quicksilver, 
and vermilion (Letters, fyc., Hen. VIII, iv. 
2026-8). In 1527 he lent 333/. 6s. Sd. to 
the Earl of Northumberland, and in 1528 
received a warrant from the royal treasury 
for supplying ten pieces of arras wrought 
with gold, containing the story of David (ib. 
iv. 1534, v. 304). There are also payments 
to him for tapestries, velvets, and satins, and 
700/. to provide ropes beyond sea (ib. p. 325). 

There is no evidence that Gresham was 
appointed to the office of royal agent in the 
Low Countries, as some have asserted, but 
he frequently acted as the state's financial 
agent, and was the confidential correspondent 
of Wolsey and Cromwell in matters of foreign 
policy. By the death in 1530 of Wolsey, to 
whom he remained faithful to the last, he 
lost a valued friend and patron. When the 
cardinal was dying at Leicester, he told Sir 
William Kingston, his custodian, that for a 
large sum of money then claimed by the 
crown he was indebted to Richard Gresham 
and others, and had borrowed it mainly for 
burial expenses (CAVENDISH, Life of Wolsey, 
ed. Singer, 1825, i. 316). Gresham after- 
wards applied to the crown for the payment 
of this debt, stated to amount to 22QI. 13s. 4d. 
(Good Friday, 1533, cf. ELLIS, Orig. Letters, 
3rd ser. ii. 204-6). 

On midsummer day 1531 Gresham was 
elected sheriff of London and Middlesex, 
with Edward Altham as his colleague. He 
carried out the sentences against William 
Tewkesbury (20 Dec. 1531) and James Bain- 
ham [q. v.] (30 April 1534), who were 
burnt as heretics at Smithfield (Letters, fyc., 
Hen. VIII, v. 272). The king gave Gresham 
as a New-year's gift (1531-2) a gilt cup and 
cover. In the following January (1532-3) 
Gresham presented the king with three pieces 
of cambric (ib. vi. 14, vii. 5). His charges 
.for this year (1531-2) were great, he wrote, 

' because of his office of sheriff' (ib. vi. 
623). The close of 1532 saw him in much 
domestic trouble. His wife's eldest daugh- 
ter died in October, and a son and his wife 
were at the time lying very ill (ib. v. 606). 

In 1532 Hochstetter again complained of 
the Greshams to the king (ib. p. 728). On 
6 Oct. 1533 Archbishop Cranmer begged of 
' Master Gresham ' (probably Richard) some 
respite for a debt until his next audit at 
Lambeth (ib. vi. 506). Sir Francis Bigod 
[q. v.], when begging Cromwell for help in 
paying his debts, wrote that ' he dare not 
come to London for fear of Mr. Gresham and 
Mr. Lodge ' (ib. viii. 42, x. 18). On 30 Jan. 
1534 Gresham was one of seventeen com- 
missioners for London to inquire into the 
value of benefices previous to the suppression 
of the abbeys (ib. p. 49). About the same 
time he was assessed at 2,000/. for the subsidy 
to the king (ib. p. 184). On 26 Aug. 1535 
Gresham offered Cromwell 100/. to buy a 
saddle if he would bestow the office of prior 
of Worcester on John Fulwell, ' monk bailly ' 
of Westminster (ib. ix. 58). On 19 May 
1536, the day of Queen Anne Boleyn's exe- 
cution, Gresham, with two other London 
merchants, was engaged by Sir William 
Kingston to convey all strangers (thirty in 
number) out of the Tower. He was one 
of Queen Anne's creditors (ib. x. 381, 383). 

On 22 May 1536 Gresham became alder- 
man for the ward of Walbrook (City Records, 
Repertory 9, f. 178), and on 9 Oct. 1539 he 
was translated to Cheap ward, which he con- 
tinued to represent until his death (ib. Repert. 
10, f. 1385). He was elected lord mayor 
on Michaelmas day 1537, was knighted on 
18 Oct. (METCALFE, Book of Knights, p. 68), 
and on the 29th entered upon the duties of 
the mayoralty. In his invitation to Crom- 
well (ELLIS, 3rd ser. iii. 120-2) to his 'feaste- 
full daye ' he dwells on his intention of dis- 
pensing the traditional hospitalities on a 
lavish scale. He asked Cromwell to move 
the king to give him ' of hys Dooes ' for the 
feast. On 8 Nov. he informed Cromwell, on 
the death of Queen Jane Seymour (Cott. MS. 
Nero C. y. f. 2 b : BTJRGON, i. 24-5), that he had 
caused twelve hundred masses to be said 
within the city ; proposed ' that ther shullde 
bee allsoo at Powlles a sollem derige and 
masse,' and suggested a distribution of alms. 
On 30 Nov. an augmentation to his arms 
was granted him (Miscellanies Hist, and Phil. 
1703, p. 175 ; AUBBEY, Surrey, v. 371). Soon 
afterwards he petitioned the king as an act of 
charity to grant three hospitals or spitals. 
viz. those of St. Mary, St. Bartholomew, and 
St. Thomas, and the ' new abbey of Tower 
Hill,' for the benefit of ' pore, sykk, blynde, 




aged, and impotent persons, . . . tyll they be 
holpen and cured of theyr diseases and syk- 
nes.' These buildings, he said, were origi- 
nally endowed for the relief of the poor, and 
not for the maintenance of canons, priests, 
and monks ' to ly ve in pleasure, nothyng re- 
gardyng the miserable people liyng in every 
strete ' ( Cott. Cleopatra, E. 4, f. 222 ; cf. ELLIS 
and BTJRGON). These recommendations were 
practically carried out by Henry and his suc- 
cessor, Edward VI. Gresham was not equally 
successful with his project for the erection of 
a burse or exchange in London for the con- 
venience of merchants, whose custom was to 
assemble twice a day in the open air in Lom- 
bard Street. The king suggested in 1534- 
1535 the removal of the place of meeting to 
Leadenhall, but this had not found favour 
(Sxow, ed. 1720, ii. 152). In 1537 Gres- 
ham submitted to Cromwell a design for 
a building in Lombard Street on the model 
of the Antwerp burse (BURGOO, i. 31-3). 
He estimated, 25 July 1538, the cost of his 
design at 2,000., one half of which he hoped 
to collect before the expiration of his mayor- 
alty, and asked for a letter from Cromwell 
to compel Alderman Sir George Monoux to 
sell him certain houses which formed part of 
the proposed site. But it was Gresham's son, 
and not Gresham himself, who carried out 
this design. Gresham opposed rigorously 
the issue of a proclamation forbidding mer- 
chants to make exchanges, by which it was 
thought the exchequer suffered loss. He 
showed that the order would lead to the ex- 
portation of gold from England, and main- 
tained that ' merchants can no more be with- 
out exchanges and rechanges than the ships 
in the sea can be without water' (WAED, 
Lives of the Gresham Professors, App. i.) It 
appears that the draft of this proclamation 
was, by Cromwell's order, submitted to Gres- 
ham for his opinion. Gresham in reply 
(2 Aug. 1538) asked that a new proclama- 
tion might be made to meet his views, and 
this seems to have been done (BuRGON, i. 
33-4). On 11 Aug. he told Cromwell that 
he had received the king's proclamation, and 
published it throughout the city ' and also in 
Lombard Street amongst all the merchants.' 
In the same letter he suggested an act to 
oblige every householder in the city to pro- 
vide himself with one suit of ' harness ' and 
one halberd, or more according to his means, 
for the defence of the city. He also asks 
permission for himself, the sheriffs, and six 
aldermen to visit the infant prince Edward, 
and petitions for redress for some ill-treat- 
ment sustained at Dublin by some London 

In the August of 1538 he entertained the 

'French lords' at Cromwell's request, caused 
the 'ymages in powlles' to be taken down, 
and requested that his son might be ap- 
pointed the king's servant. Gresham was 
probably the governor of the Company of 
Merchant Adventurers this year (1538) ; he 
appears to have been deputy-governor in 1536 
(Letters,^-. Hen. Fill, xi. 484). On 19 Sept. 
he informed Cromwell that certain persons 
had eaten flesh on an Ember-day, and asked 
if he should commit them. At the close of 
his mayoralty the Mercers' Company ac- 
quired through his interposition with the 
king the hospital of St. Thomas of Aeon, 
which was surrendered to the Mercers on 
21 Oct. 1538, and conveyed by deed on 
21 April 1542. 

In 1539 Gresham was employed abroad on 
the king's business, and advanced money to 
Thomas Wriothesley and other servants of 
the state (BtrRGON, i. 34-5). He was one 
of the ' captayns of the Bylls ' in the cele- 
brated military muster of the citizens of Lon- 
don before Henry VIII (Guildhall Library 
I MS. ii. 7), and received 100/. 13*. 9d. for a 
chain of fine gold, which he supplied for an 
envoy from the Duke of Bavaria (BuRGON, i. 
13). He sat with his brother John on the 
commission under Bishop Bonner for en- 
forcing the Six Articles (STRYPE, Eccl. Mem. 
i. 565-6). Gresham was, to use his own 
words, ' conformable in all things to his High- 
ness's [i.e. the king's] pleasure.' He also dis- 
solved the monastery of Walsingham, and 
brought the prior to submission (BuRGON, i. 
36-7); but he recommended Cromwell to 
make the prior, who was impotent and lame 
I but of good reputation, l parson' of Walsing- 
I ham (Letters, 8fc. Hen. VIII, 1538). In 1540 
Gresham, with John Godsalve, a clerk of the 
signet, examined Henry Dubbe, a stationer, of 
London, who was suspected of publishing ' a 
naughty booke made by Philipp Melanchton 
against the King's Acts of Christian religion ' 
(Privy Council Proc. and Ord. ed. Nicolas, vii. 
101). On 3 March 1544-5 Secretary Paget 
mentioned Gresham's name among those of 
English merchants abroad whose goods had 
been seized by order of Charles V (State 
Papers}. This is the latest reference to 
Gresham. He died at his house in Bethnal 
Green on 21 Feb. 1548-9, and was buried on 
24 Feb. at the church of St. Lawrence Jewry 
against the east wall. The tomb perished 
with the church in the fire of London. His 
monumental inscription, preserved by Stow, 
was not set up until after 1559, and is inaccu- 
rate in its date of his death and family history. 
Gresham was first married to Audrey, daugh- 
ter of William Lynn of Southwick, North- 
amptonshire, who died 28 Dec. 1522 and was 




buried at St. Lawrence Jewry. By her lie 
had two sons and two daughters : John, who 
was knighted by the Protector Somerset on 
the field of Musselburgh on 28 Sept. 1547, 
and was ancestor to Lord Braybrooke ; Ino- 
mas [q. v.l ; Elizabeth, who died unmarried 
26 March 1552 ; and Christian, who married 
the wealthy Sir John Thynne of Longleat in 
Wiltshire, "and ancestor to the Marquis of 
Bath. He married secondly Isabella Tayer- 
son, nee Worpfall, a widow, who survived 
him, dying in April 1565. 

Gresham had a town house in Milk Street 
and other premises in Lad Lane, both in the 
parish of St. Lawrence Jewry. His princi- 
pal mansion was at Bethnal Green, but he 
had also three country seats, at Ringshall in 
Suffolk, at Intwood Hall in Norfolk, and at 
Orembery in Yorkshire (see will). In each 
of these "counties Gresham obtained large 
grants of monastic lands, in most cases by 
purchase. The chief of these possessions 
was Fountains Abbey in Yorkshire, which 
he bought in 1540. The site and lands were 
valued at 300/. yearly, and Gresham offered 
7,000/. He subsequently bought some ad- 
joining lands, paying for all 11,737 /. 11s. Sd. 
(ELLIS, Orig. Lett. 3rd ser. iii. 270-1). Re- 
ferences to property which he acquired in 
various counties are given by Burgon (i. 37- 
39, App. iii.) and Ellis (above), in the State 
Papers (Hen. VIII, x. 505, xi. 566), and in 
the licenses to alienate at the Record Office 
(33-6 Hen. VIII). Gresham's two wills are 
dated 20 Feb. 1548; that of his real estate 
(Chancery Close Roll, 3 Edw. VI, pt. v. No. 
24) was proved 23 March 1549, and gives the 
annual value of his estates as 800/. 2s. 6d. 
The will of his personal estate was proved 
in the Prerogative Court, Canterbury, by his 
son Thomas on 20 May 1549 (Populwell, 31). 
No portrait is known. 

GRESHAM, SIR JOHN (d. 1556), lord mayor 
of London, younger brother of Sir Richard 
Gresham, was born at Holt. He was admitted 
to the Mercers' Company in 1517. In partner- 
ship with his brother Richard, and sometimes 
by himself, he acted as agent for both Wolsey 
and Cromwell. He appears as a gentleman- 
pensioner in 1526 (State Papers, Hen. VIII, iv. 
871). In the subsidy of 1535 he was assessed 
at three thousand marks. His principal trade 
was with the Levant (BuRGOtf, i. 11-12), and, 
besides being a merchant of the staple and a 
leading member of the merchant adventurers, 
he was one of the founders of the Russia 
Company in May 1555 (State Papers, Dom. 
1601-3, p. 439). He was occasionally con- 
sulted by the council, and deputed by them 
to examine into disputes between English 
and foreign merchants (Acts of the Privy 

Council, new ser. 1890, i. 38, 59, 162). He 
was sheriff in 1537, the year of Richard 
Gresham's mayoralty, and was lord mayor 
ten years later, when he revived the costly 
pageant of the marching watch on the eve of 
St. John the Baptist, which had been sus- 
pended since 1524. He purchased the family 
seat at Holt from his brother William in 
1546, and converted it into a free grammar 
school, which he endowed with freehold 
estates in Norfolk and London, and entrusted 
to the management of the Fishmongers' 
Company. He died of a malignant fever on 
23 Oct. 1556, and was buried with great 
magnificence on the 30th at the church of 
St. Michael Bassishaw, in which parish he 
lived (MACIIYN, Diary, pp. 116-17). Gresham 
married, first, Mary, daughter of Thomas 
Ipswell, by whom he had eleven children, 
and, secondly, Catharine Sampson, widow of 
Edward Dormer of Fulham. A descendant, 
Marmaduke Gresham, was made a baronet in 
1660, but the title became extinct in 1801, 
and the family estate at Titsey, Surrey, 
passed to William Leveson-Gower, a grand- 
son of the last baronet, to whose representa- 
tives it still belongs. 

[Authorities quoted ; Leveson-Gower's Gene- 
alogy of the Family of Gresham, 1883, contains a 
full pedigree and transcripts of both wills, pp. 
65-76, 147-8, 162; Fox Bourne's English Her- 
chants, i. 167-72 ; Biog. Brit. 1757, iv. 2373-6 ; 
Privy Purse Expenses of Henry VIII, ed. Nicolas, 
1827, iii. 7, 116, 261, 324-5 ; Acts of the Privy 
Council, new ser. 1890, vol. i. 1542-7; Davy's 
Suffolk Collections, British Museum, vol. Ivii. ; 
Stow ; Weever ; Ward's Lives of the Gresham 
Professors.] C. W-H. 

1579), founder of the Royal Exchange, second 
son of Sir Richard Gresham [q. v.], by his 
first wife, Audrey, was born in London. The 
foolish story of his being a foundling, and of 
his having adopted his well-known crest be- 
cause his life was saved by the chirping of a 
grasshopper, is disproved by the fact that the 
crest was used by his ancestor James Gresham 
in the fifteenth century (cf. Notes and Queries, 
5th ser. x. 134-5). The year of his birth has 
not been determined. The inquisition upon 
his father's Yorkshire estates, taken in 1551, 
shows that John, Thomas Gresham's elder 
brother, there stated to be aged 34, was born 
in 1517 (LEVESON-GOWER, Genealogy of the 
Family of Gresham, p. 140). Gresham could 
not, therefore, have been born before 1518, 
or later than 1522, when his mother died. 
Holbein (or more probably Girolamo da Tre- 
viso) painted his portrait in 1544, when he 
was stated to be twenty-six years old. Hence 
the end of 1518 or the beginning of 1519 ap- 




pears to be the most probable date of his birth. 
Against this, however, must be placed his 
own statement, in a letter to Walsingham 
dated 3 Nov. 1575, that he was sixty-two 
years of age, blind and lame (State Papers, 
Dom. 1547-80, p. 505). On leaving school 
he was sent at an early age to the university 
of Cambridge, which he entered as a pensioner 
of Gonville and Caius College. He there made 
the acquaintance of Dr. John Caius (1510- 
1573) [q. v.], who mentions him in his annals 
as one of the earliest members of his re-founded 
college. On leaving Cambridge Gresham was 
apprenticed by his father (about 1535) to his 
uncle, Sir John Gresham [see under GRES- 
HAM, SIR RICHARD], and he gratefully as- 
cribes to this training his wide commercial 
knowledge (Letter to Duke of Northumber- 
land, 16 April 1553). He was also a student 
of Gray's Inn, but the date of his admission 
is not preserved (DOUTHWAITE, Gray's Inn, 
1886, p. 203). Gresham assisted his father 
both in his public and private duties. Sir 
Richard wrote to Cromwell, 29 Aug. 1538, re- 
questing that a son of his (probably Thomas) 
might be admitted to the royal service, and 
mentions that the youth had been chosen for 
his knowledge of French to attend to Dover 
certain French lords whom he had enter- 
tained at Cromwell's request (Letters, fyc., 
Hen. VIII, 1538). In 1543 Gresham was 
admitted to the freedom of the Mercers' Com- 
pany ; in June of that year he was apparently 
acting in the king's behalf in the Low Coun- 
tries. Seymour and Wotton, writing from 
Brussels, state that some gunpowder bought 
for the king had been delivered ' to yonge 
Thomas Gresham, solycitor of the same \State 
Papers: BURGON, i. 48). On 3 March 1544-5 
Secretary Paget wrote from Brussels that 
Gresham, then trading for himself, was one of 
the English merchants whose goods had been 
seized by order of Charles V (ib. p. 49). On 
25 Nov. 1545 the lord treasurer was ordered by 
the council to pay certain foreign mercenaries 
at Calais with money which he had received 
from Gresham (Acts of the Privy Council, new 
ser. ed. Dasent, 1890 ; Rolls Ser. i. 274). 

In 1544 Gresham married. At this time 
he probably resided with his father in Milk 
Street, where he largely assisted in his father's 
business, but on Sir Richard's death in 1549 
he seems to have removed to a house in Lom- 
bard Street, at the sign of the Grasshopper, 
his family's emblem. This has been iden- 
tified by Mr. Martin with No. 68, now oc- 
cupied by the banking firm of Martin & Co. 

Gresham's private business often required 
his presence abroad, and in December 1551, 
or the following January, he obtained the 
important office of royal agent or king's mer- 

chant, which necessitated his residence at 
Antwerp at very frequent intervals for many 
months at a time. The chief duties of this 
ancient office were to negotiate loans for the 
crown with the wealthy merchants of Ger- 
many and the Netherlands, to supply the state 
with any foreign products that were required, 
especially with military stores, such as gun- 
powder, saltpetre, and arms, and to keep the 
privy council informed of all matters of im- 
portance passing abroad. Gresham had been 
assistant to his predecessor, Sir William Dan- 
sell, who, in April 1551, after a serious dis- 
agreement with the privy council, was f re- 
voked from his office of agent by reason of his 
slacknes.' On Dansell's dismissal Gresham 
and other merchants were consulted as to the 
king's financial position, and through the in- 
fluence of John Dudley [q. v.], duke of North- 
umberland (BURGON, i. 101), Gresham was 
appointed to the vacant post. In giving an 
account of his consultation with the council 
Gresham adds that the post was conferred 
1 without my suit or labour for the same' 
(Cotton MS. Otho E. x. fol. 43). 

At Antwerp Gresham lived at first in the 
house of Gaspar Schetz, his ' very friend,' 
who was royal factor to Charles V. Gresham 
did not spare himself in the discharge of 
his duties. Forty times did he cross the 
Channel (he tells us) within the first two 
years of his holding office at Antwerp, and 
often at the shortest notice. He employed as 
his London agents John Elliot and Richard 
Candeler, and during his frequent visits to 
London his affairs at Antwerp were directed 
by his factor, Richard Clough [q. v.], a very 
capable man of business. Gresham had also 
agents in many parts of Europe who sent 
him regular intelligence. The financial diffi- 
culties he had to deal with were consider- 
able. Henry VIII's expensive wars with 
France and the extravagance of the protector 
Somerset had raised the interest on the king's 
foreign bonds to 40,000/. annually. By the 
management of foreign capitalists the rate of 
exchange, over which no English merchant 
had hitherto had any control, was reduced to 
16*. Flemish for the pound sterling. An enor- 
mous rate of interest was also demanded by 
the money-lenders on the renewal of a debt, 
and the king was compelled to purchase jewels 
and other wares at exorbitant prices from the 
Fuggers or other foreign traders who furnished 
the loan. Within two or three years Gresham 
raised the exchange at Antwerp for the pound 
sterling from 16s. to 22s., and discharged the 
king's debts at this favourable rate. In March 
1551-2 he repaid the Fuggers 63,500/., and 
soon afterwards arranged for the repayment 
to them of 14,000/. Early in August he came 




to London to present to King Edward an 
account of his payments during the pre- 
vious five months, which amounted to 
106,30U 4*. 4d. (ib. ff. 184, 185, 188). They 
include a charge of 26/. for a banquet to the 
Fuggers, Schetz, and other creditors of the 
king. Such banquets formed part of Gres- 
ham's policy, and one of them was the sub- 
ject of a costly contemporary painting which 
belonged to the Earl of Leicester (BTJRGON, 
i. 83-6, 462). On 15 Sept. 1552 the Earl of 
Pembroke wrote to Cecil urging that speedy 
payment should be made to Gresham for his 
services (State Papers, Dom. 1547-80, p. 44). 
Gresham had returned to Antwerp on 
20 Aug. with instructions to postpone the 
payment of 56,000/. due at the end of the 
month. The council on this occasion de- 
clined to purchase jewels or merchandise as 
a fee-penny for the obligation. In a long 
letter to his patron Northumberland, written 
a day after his arrival, Gresham for the first 
of many times strongly condemns the Eng- 
lish government's want of punctuality, which 
he declares will in the end ' neyther be 
honnorable nor profitable to his Highnes.' 
He then suggests a new plan for discharging 
the king's debts. He asks for 1,200/. or 
1,3001. weekly, with which he would take up 
at Antwerp 200/. or 300J. every day by ex- 
change. By this means he was confident of 
discharging all the debt (then amounting to 
108,000/.) within two years (Cotton. Galba 
B. xii. if. 209-12: BURGON, i. 88-94). The 
scheme was adopted by the council, but the 
payments lasted only for eight weeks. A 
further suggestion, at the close of his letter, 
that the king should seize all the lead in the 
kingdom, make a staple of it, and prohibit its 
exportation for five years, was wisely re- 
jected by the council. Gresham's methods 
were often very high-handed and unjust to 
his fellow-merchants. Twice during Ed- 
ward's reign, apparently by his advice, the 
English merchant fleet was detained when 
on the point of sailing for Antwerp until 
the owners of the goods agreed to advance 
certain sums of money to be repaid within 
three months in London at a high rate of 
exchange fixed by the crown. On 3 Oct. 

1552 a loan of 40,000/. was thus obtained 
from the merchant adventurers. On 28 April 

1553 Gresham, in a letter to the council, 
boasts that he has so plagued foreign mer- 
chants and intimidated English merchants 
that they will both beware of meddling with 
the exchange for London in future. 

Gresham's increasing reputation at court 
procured him in 1552 some delicate diploma- 
tic employment. He sounded Charles V's 
ambassador as to that monarch's disposition 

towards England ; obtained from the regent 
of the Netherlands some intercepted letters 
from Mary, queen of Scotland, to the French 
king; and discussed the possibility of a mar- 
riage between Edward VI and a daughter 
of the king of the Romans (HAYNES, State 
Papers, 1740, pp. 132-42). 

With King Edward Gresham was always 
on good terms. He presented him with a 
pair of Spanish silk stockings, described by 
Stow as ' a great present.' Three weeks be- 
fore his death the king gave Gresham lands 
worth 100/. a year, and assured him that he 
should know he had served a king. Gresham 
was also granted by Edward VI Westacre 
Priory in Norfolk, and the manor of Walsing- 
ham with other manors in the same county. 

The accession of Mary brought Gresham 
a temporary reverse of fortune. His patron 
Northumberland died on the scaffold. Gar- 
diner, bishop of Winchester, was, according 
to his own account, a bitter enemy. Gresham 
was undoubtedly a protest ant, and on inti- 
mate terms with Foxe, the martyrologist, but 
he was sufficiently alive to his own interests 
to make no obnoxious display of his religious 
opinions under a catholic sovereign. For a 
time he was removed from the position of 
royal agent, and Alderman William Daunt- 
sey took his place, but the result was disas- 
trous to the queen's credit. Dauntsey nego- 
tiated a loan with an Antwerp money-lender 
at a rate of interest two per cent, higher than 
that at which Gresham had freely obtained 
credit. In August Gresham addressed a me- 
morial to the council (printed by BTJRGON, i. 
1 15-20), recountinghis services toEdward VI, 
and complaining that ' those who served be- 
fore him, and brought the king into debt, 
and took wares and jewels up to his great 
loss, are esteemed and preferred for their evil 
service.' His suit was assisted by Sir John 
Legh, a Roman catholic gentleman who had 
great influence with the queen, and early in 
November the council inquired of him on 
what terms he would resume office. On the 
13th he was reinstated. Until the end of 
the reign he was constantly passing to and 
from Antwerp and London. He was allowed 
for his ' diet ' 20s. a day, besides all expenses 
incurred for messengers, letters, arid the car- 
riage of treasure. 

The exportation of bullion was prohibited 
by the Low Countries as strictly as in Eng- 
land, and, to circumvent the authorities in the 
Low Countries, Gresham, with the council's 
approval, contrived various subterfuges. Not 
more than 1,000/. was to be sent in one vessel, 
and Gresham proposed to secrete the money 
in bags of pepper, but afterwards decided to 
convey it in dry vats containing one thousand 



demi-lancers' harness, which he asked permis- 
sion to buy for the defence of the realm (State 
Papers, 6 Dec. 1553). Similarly Gresham 
was not averse to taking- part in the heavy 
carousals of the Flemish custom-house offi- 
cials, and often made them costly presents. 
By these means the gates of Gravelines were 
always open to his servants at night for the 
exportation of treasure (BURGON, i. 144). He 
refers in his letters of 31 Jan., 6 and 15 Feb. 
1554 to the panic produced on the Antwerp 
exchange by the news of Wyatt's rebellion, 
whereby the queen's credit was for a time 
seriously affected (ib. pp. 166-8). OnlSMarch 
the queen appointed commissioners to exam ine 
his accounts and pay what was due to him. 

In May Gresham carried despatches to 
Charles V from Simon Ilenard, the emperor's 
ambassador in England, and next month set 
out for Spain to obtain a loan of five hundred 
thousand ducats. He had previously secured 
the emperor's passport and license for export- 
ing the amount, and was allowed 30-?. a day 
for his ' dietts.' Gresham was detained in 
Spain for several months, and found difficulty 
in procuring so much bullion. One of the 
oldest banks in Seville suspended payment 
in consequence of his operations (cf. his in- 
structions for this commission in BUHGOX, 
App. xi.) But he finally obtained the sum 
of 97,878/. 15$. (ib. App. xiii.),and returned 
in the beginning of 1555 to find his duties at 
Antwerp placed in other hands. In May, 
however, he was again in regular correspond- 
ence with the government, taking up loans 
and purchasing military stores as Toefore. In 
June he received Sir William Cecil, who was 
his intimate friend, at his house in Antwerp. 
He was present, 25 Oct., at the abdication of 
Charles Vat Brussels. On 12 April he wrote 
to Secretary Boxall, and on 1 May to the 
queen, praying for an audit of his accounts, 
which he says was always granted to his 
master and uncle, Sir John Gresham, by 
Henry VIII 'under his broad seall of Fug- 
land ' (ib. i. 198-201). 

Mary died on 17 Nov. 1558. Her minis- 
ters, unlike the ministers of her predecessor, 
had corresponded with Gresham on formal 
business terms, which show that he never 
stood very high in their personal regard. 
One of them, John Paulet, marquis of Win- 
chester, was a bitter enemy, and it has been in- 
ferred that a gap in Gresham's correspondence, 
extending from March 1556 to March 155^. 
is due to his being without regular official 
employment owing to Winchester's influence 
with the queen. But it is fairly certain tli;;t 
Mary never shared her minister's dislike of 
Gresham. By the advice of Boxall he \->^\\- 
larly sent the queen all the news he could 


rocure of the health and employments of 
ler neglectful husband. At times he corre- 
sponded directly with her (ib. pp. 157-60, 
181-4), and Mary appears to have sent replies 
in her own hand (ib. p. 161). In January 
1555-6 he exchanged new-year's presents 
with her, and received substantial marks of 
her favour. She made him liberal grants of 
land, including the priory of Austin Canons 
at Massingham in Norfolk, and the manors 
of Langham, Merston, and Combes (ib. pp. 

On the accession of Elizabeth, Gresham's 
friend Cecil became secretary of state. His 

I predecessor, Boxall, on resigning office 
(18 Nov.), explained to him the present con- 
dition of Gresham's monetary relations with 
the crown, and mentioned how two bonds 
for the repayment of loans contracted by 
Gresham were, while waiting for the late 
queen's signature, used for < cering ' her body 
after death (ib. p. 215). Gresham was present 
at Elizabeth's first council, held at Hatfield 
on 20 Nov., three days after the death of 
Mary. Elizabeth received him graciously, 
and continued him in his office, promising 
him ample rewards for future services (ib. pp. 
216-18). Gresham soon suggested plans for 
improving the royal finances. He insisted 
that it was desirable (1) to restore the purity 
of the coinage, (2) to repress the Steelyard 

1 merchants, (3) to grant few licenses, (4) to 
borrow as little as possible beyond seas, and 
(5) to maintain good credit with English 

i merchants (ib. App. xxi.) 

For the first nine years of Elizabeth's reign 
Gresham still divided his time between Lon- 
don and Antwerp, raising, as before, loans 
in the Low Countries, and exporting thence 
to England, as well as he was able, weapons 
of war and ammunition. He was also in the 
habit of bringing over for friends such com- 
modities as Bologna sausages, salt tongues, 
or paving-stones. On one occasion he sent 
wainscoting and glass to the Earl of Or- 
monde, and ' rollers ' for ' her headpieces 01 
silke ' for the queen. His house at Antwerp 
was now in the Long New Street, then the 
principal thoroughfare of the city. His clerk, 
Richard Clough, continued to represent him 
at Antwerp when he himself was in London. 
On one occasion Gresham stayed abroad for 
nearly a year continuously ; but his customary 
sojourns in the Low Countries did not exceed 
two or three months at one time. His letters 
to Cecil are often full of valuable political 
intelligence, warning him of the designs of 
Philip, of the dangers of a catholic coalition 
against England, and of the necessity of sup- 
porting the protestants in France and the Low 
Countries. Gresham's influence was great on 




both sides of the Channel. In 1563-4 the 
regent of the Netherlands forbade the im- 
portation of English cloths and wools, or the 
lading of English ships in the Flemish ports. 
The trade between the two countries was 
thus interrupted. Thereupon the Antwerp 
merchants appealed to Gresham to use his 
influence in re-establishing free commercial 

When in London Gresham was in constant 
personal communication with Cecil, and his 
financial suggestions were always well re- 
ceived. Writing on 1 March 1558-9, he 
proposed to repeat the plan (adopted by Ed- 
ward VI at his suggestion) of forcing a loan 
from the merchant adventurers by detaining 
their fleet of exports when ready to sail (ib. 
pp. 257-62). In August 1559 Sir Thomas 
Chaloner, the English ambassador to the Low 
Countries, was accredited to the Spanish 
court ; Gresham was temporarily appointed 
in his place as ambassador to the court of 
the Duchess of Parma, regent of the Nether- 
lands. He was knighted before leaving Eng- 
land, and his instructions were dated 20 Dec. 
1559. Anticipating a prolonged absence, 
Gresham before starting recommended his 
1 poor wife ' to the queen's notice, 25 Feb. 
1559-60. He afterwards, when abroad, 
begged Cecil to look after her, quaintly add- 
ing that he knew she 'molests him dayly 
for my coming home, suche is the fondness 
of women.' 

While Gresham was acting temporarily as 
ambassador, his letters to Cecil dealt almost 
entirely with foreign complications. He 
perceived the impending storm between the 
Spanish government and their Flemish sub- 
jects. He bribed Spanish officials to obtain 
information, and with the knowledge of the 
council took into his pay his friend Gaspar 
Schetz, Philip's factor at Antwerp. He kept 
a watchful eye upon the Spanish king's move- 
ments, and reported his suspicions that a force 
of 4,400 Spaniards, stationed at Zealand, 
would be despatched to the assistance of the 
French garrison at Leith, then besieged by 
the English and Scotch. He assured Cecil 
of the popularity of Elizabeth and her people 
with the Netherlander, although the queen's 
credit had suffered by delaying the payment 
of her debts. The English merchants at 
Antwerp were in constant fear of the seizure 
of their goods, and Gresham had increasing 
difficulty in procuring the military stores, 
which Elizabeth's government ordered on an 
immense scale. He urged the council to set 
up powder-mills in England, and advised 
Cecil to keep all English ships and mariners 
within the realm, adding that he had spread 
the report that the queen had two hundred 

ships in readiness well armed (ib. pp. 294-5). 
After he had procured large quantities of 
ammunition and weapons, which he disguised 
in his despatches under the name of ' velvets/ 
he still found much difficulty in exporting 
them to England. More than once he com- 
plains of the want of secrecy at the Tower 
in unloading his consignments, whereby the 
authorities at Antwerp were informed of his 
acts, and both Gresham himself and the 
Flemish custom-house officers, whom he had 
bribed, put in considerable danger (ib. pp. 
318-25). On one occasion he abstracted some 
two thousand corslets from the king of Spain's 
armoury at Malines (Letter to Cecil, 19 April 
1560; Relations Politiques des Pays Bas, ii. 
333-5). Gresham was strictly enjoined by 
Cecil to communicate only with him, or in 
his absence with Sir Thomas Parry, and the 
secrecy with which his correspondence was 
conducted excited some suspicion at court. 
His old enemy the Marquis of Winchester 
charged him before the queen in council with 
using his position to enrich himself at the 
expense of the state, and with hoi ding 40,000 /. 
j of the queen's money. Gresham replied by 
! letter that he had not 3007. remaining in 
his hands, and Parry led the queen to dis- 
| countenance the accusation. But Gresham's 
I financial dealings were not always above sus- 
picion. , 

The raising of loans was still Gresham's 
main occupation. Count Mansfeld. a Ger- 
man nobleman, who owned silver and copper 
mines in Saxony, offered through him in 
1560 to lend the English government 75,000/. 
The council referred the offer to Gresham, 
who sent his factor, Clough, into Saxony to 
I arrange the terms. Clough was magnifi- 
i cently entertained, and concluded the bar- 
| gain at ten per cent., returning to Antwerp 
on 2 July 1560. But from Gresham's letter 
j to Parry of 26 Aug. it appears that the 
! count did not keep his word. The govern- 
| ment had, therefore, to fall back upon 
j Gresham's old device of procuring a compul- 
1 sory loan from the merchant adventurers and 
! staplers by detaining their fleet (BURGOO, pp. 
| 335-7, 347-53). In the important work of 
restoring the purity of the English coinage 
Gresham took an active part. He recom- 
mended that Daniel Wolstat should be en- 
trusted with the work of refining the base 
money (July 1560). In October 1560 he broke 
his leg in a fall from his horse, and was lamed 
for life. On 13 Feb. 1560-1 the queen sum- 
moned him home, in order to accelerate his 
1 recovery,' and to obtain ' intelligence of his 
doings.' He arrived in March 1561, after 
nearly a year's absence. 

On 5 July 1561 Gresham asked Cecil for 




an audit of his account, and for four war- 
rants for bucks ' against the Mercers' feast.' 
The first request was not rapidly complied 
with. He spent the following August and 
September in Antwerp, and his letters deal 
with the same topic. On 23 Sept. he sent word 
that he had despatched large quantities of 
warlike stores, which he had insured at five 
per cent. He spent the winter of 1561-2 in 
London, and on New-year's day he and his 
wife exchanged gifts with the queen. His 
present was 101. in angels, enclosed in a 
knitted purse of black silk and silver. 

Gresham was now inquiring into the ma- 
nagement of the customs in London, and 
obtained from Clough (31 Dec. 1561) full 
particulars of the system in use at Antwerp, 
which he had so often successfully evaded. 
Clough showed that the queen's revenue 
from the customs might be increased by at 
least 5,000/. a year. Gresham was again in 
Antwerp for a few weeks in March 1562. On 
the 27th he appealed to the queen to reward 
his services as she had promised. Once more 
in Antwerp in the summer of 1562, he enter- 
tained there, from 7 to 16 Aug., Cecil's eldest 
son Thomas and his tutor, Thomas Winde- 
bank. They had come from Paris to see the 
principal towns of the Low Countries and 
Germany. He furnished them with money, 
and promised to look after the young man as 
if he were his own son. On a later visit to 
Antwerp (September 1563) he managed to 
satisfy all the queen's creditors except two, 
Brocktropp and Rantzom,who threatened him 
with arrest unless they received payment in 
cash. Gresham accordingly asked for 20,000/. 
to be sent to Antwerp by 20 Nov. to be coined 
there, a plan which he now considered more | 
advantageous than paying by exchange. In ' 
the same letter, dated 3 Oct., he strongly re- j 
monstrates with Cecil upon a proposed reduc- | 
tion of his * diets,' detailing his various ser- \ 
vices to the queen, and not forgetting to . 
mention his broken leg (ib. pp. 29-35). On j 
the same day he addressed a petition on the 
subject to the queen. 

In August 1566j Gresham, on his customary 
visit to Antwerp, took up loans amounting to 
10,000/., and deferred the payment of others 
amounting to 32,000/. On this visit the Prince 
of Orange entertained him at dinner, and 
sounded him as to the likelihood of obtaining 
Elizabeth's support for his party ; but Gresham 
was too wary to commit himself. Before leav- 
ing Antwerp Gresham entertained the prince 
and princess at his house ' a little out of the 
town.' His acknowledged influence at court 
and his popularity with the citizens of Ant- 
werp is shown by a memorial which the re- 
formed church of that town addressed to him 

on 1 Feb. 1566-7. They asked his good offices 
with Elizabeth to avert the ruin with which 
the Low Countries were threatened by the 
wrath of Philip, and entreated that the latter 
might be brought to grant their request for 
liberty to worship God without molestation. 
On 2 March 1566-7 Gresham arrived at Ant- 
werp on his final visit. He carried a large sum 
of money for the discharge of loans, and had 
interviews on his arrival with Marcus Perez, 
the chief of the protestant church, the Prince 
of Orange, and Count Horn. Perez inquired 
of him whether the protestant community 
would be tolerated as refugees in England. 
Gresham, when reporting the conversation 
to Cecil, added : ' If this religione hath not 
good success in this towne, I will assure you 
the most of all this towne will come into 
England.' On 14 March Gresham sent home 
a graphic account of the first battle, on the 
previous day, bet ween the protestants and the 
forces of the Spanish regent, and of the gene- 
ral rising of the citizens of Antwerp (with the 
poet Churchyard at their head) which fol- 
lowed. He wrote again on the 17th, con- 
tinuing the history of the disturbances. He 
seems to have finally left Antwerp on the 
19th. Clough remained behind, and kept 
his master informed of all that went on until 
the spring of 1569, when he left Gresham's 
service to become deputy-governor of the 
merchant adventurers at Hamburg. 

Gresham had many residences in England, 
where he henceforth resided permanently. 
His finest country house was at Mayfield, 
Sussex, once a palace of the archbishops of 
Canterbury, which he purchased early in life. 
The value of its furniture was estimated at 
7,550/. On this estate he had some iron- 
smelting works. Another elaborate house, 
'a fair and stately building of brick,' was 
at Osterley, Middlesex, standing in a park 
abundantly wooded and well watered. He 
came into possession of this property in 1562, 
but was long occupied in embellishing it. 
Before 1565 he set up mills on the estate for 
paper, oil, and corn, the paper-mills being the 
earliest of the kind in England. Subsequently 
Gresham purchased the manor of Heston, in 
which Osterley House stood. He had other 
houses at Intwood and Westacre, Norfolk, 
and Eingshall, Suffolk. The goods at West- 
acre were valued at 1,655/. Is. In London 
Gresham lived at Gresham House, Bishops- 
gate Street, which he built a few years before 
1566. The furniture there was valued at 
1,127/. 15. 8d. At Gresham House he dis- 
pensed a lavish hospitality, of which all 
classes were glad to take advantage. Cecil 
and his wife were Gresham's guests there in 
the summer of 1567. In September 1568 the 

L 2 




Huguenot leader, Cardinal Chatillon, fled for 
safety to England, and Grindal, bishop of 
London, being unable to comply with the 
council's request to entertain him at Fulham 
Palace, Gresham received the cardinal and 
his suite at Gresham House, to which he con- 
ducted him from Gravesend on 12 Sept., ac- 
companied by many distinguished citizens. 
Gresham proposed to take the cardinal to 
Osterley, but after a week the cardinal re- 
moved 'by the queen's appointment to Sion 

At this time (1568) a quarrel was proceed- 
ing between the Spanish and English courts 
on account of the seizure by English mer- 
chants of large cargoes of Spanish treasure in 
English ports. The Duke of Alva, by way of 
reprisals, placed all Englishmen at Antwerp 
and elsewhere on Spanish soil under arrest, 
and in January 1569 sent over an agent named 
Dassonleville to demand restitution. The 
agent was committed to the custody of Alder- 
man Bond in Crosby House ; he requested to 
see the Spanish ambassador, who was also 
under arrest, and Gresham was directed to 
bring them together. On 22 Feb. 1568-9 an 
unsuccessful conference took place between 
Cecil, Sir Walter Mildmay, and Dassonleville 
at Gresham's house. To prevent the Spanish 
treasure falling into Alva's hands, Gresham 
proposed that the money should be coined 
for the merchants, and then borrowed of them 
by the government for two or three years 
on loan. This advice was acted on, and 
Gresham made the needful arrangements. 
A final settlement of the dispute was not 
arrived at till five years later, when it was 
arranged by Gresham and others to restore 
to Spain the arrested goods (ib. p. 308). 

In April 1569 Gresham was requested by 
foreign protestants to go over with an English 
merchant fleet then sailing for Hamburg, 
which from this time took the place of Ant- 
werp as a mercantile centre, and assist to 
take up a loan in their behalf in that city. 
The Prince of Orange and his party again 
sought Gresham's help in the summer of 
1569, and asked him to raise a loan of 30,000/. 
on the queen of Navarre's j ewels . The French 
ambassador, La Mothe, who had prevented 
any assistance being sent by the queen and her 
ministers, was alarmed, and saw no means of 
resisting Gresham's interference. La Mothe 
states that Gresham also secretly supplied 
the merchants in London with money, so 
that the greater part of the value of two 
cloth fleets sent to Hamburg (estimated at 
750,000/.) never returned to this country in 
specie or merchandise, but remained in Ger- 
many to strengthen Elizabeth's credit on the 
continent. Gresham now advised the council 

to endeavour to obtain from the London mer- 
chants the loans for which they had hitherto 
depended upon foreign money-lenders. He was 
accordingly authorised to negotiate with the 
merchant adventurers, who, after some dila- 
tory excuses, refused to comply. But a sharp 
letter, written by the council at Gresham's 
instance, procured in November and Decem- 
ber a loan for six months of about 22,000/., 
in sums of 1,000/. and upwards, subscribed by 
various aldermen and others. An absolute 
promise of repayment, with interest at twelve 
per cent., was made, and bonds were given 
to each lender in discharge of the Statute of 
Usury, which forbade higher rate of interest 
than ten per cent. These loans when due 
were renewed for another six months, and 
the operation proved mutually advantageous. 
In 1570 and 1571 Gresham repeatedly com- 
plained, without much success, of the govern- 
ment's unpunctuality in paying off their loans. 
On 26 May 1570 he advised the raising of a 
loan of a hundred thousand dollars in Ger- 
many. On 7 March following he pointed out 
that if the queen's credit with the citizens 
were maintained by greater punctuality in 
discharging her debts, she could easily obtain 
40,000/. or 50,000/. within the city of Lon- 
don. He also proposed that 25,000/. or 
30,000/. of the Spanish money that still lay 
in the Tower should be turned into English 
coin. Gresham was henceforth compelled 
by increasing infirmity his leg was still 
troubling him to leave to agents the trans- 
action of his foreign business. On 3 May 
1574 he ceased to be the queen's financial 
agent. He sold his house at Antwerp on 
14 Dec. 1574 for a cargo of cochineal, valued 
at 624/. 15s. (Relations politiques des Pays- 
Bas, vii. 386-7, Coll. de Chron. beiges in- 
edites}. He was only once again, in 1576, 
publicly associated with finance, when he 
was placed on a commission of inquiry into 
foreign exchanges. He contributed 80/. to 
the expenses of Frobisher's voyage in 1578 
(State Papers, Dom. 1547-80, pp. 615, 621). 
An investigation into the financial rela- 
tions between Gresham and the government, 
made in the light of the pipe and audit office 
accounts, shows that Gresham incurred little 
or no personal risk as a government financier, 
that his profits were very large, and that his 
conduct was often open to serious miscon- 
struction (cf. ME. HUBERT HALL'S analysis of 
Gresham's accounts for 1562-3 in his Society 
in Elizabethan Age, pp. 65-9, App. pp. 161-2). 
Personal expenses were allowed on a generous 
scale, and he seems to have been permitted at 
times to apply government money in his hands 
to private speculations. When Gresham's em- 
ployment ceased in 1574, his accounts had 




not been passed for eleven years. The subse- 
quent audit at the treasury showed that he 
had received in the last ten years in behalf of 
the government 677,248/. 4*. 8fd., and had 
expended 659,099/. 2s. l$d. Several items of 
personal expenditure were disallowed or re- 
duced by the official auditor ; but certain sums 
owing to Gresham at the last audit (in 1563) 
were acknowledged, and he finally found 
himself about 10,000/. in debt to the govern- 
ment. Gresham tried to wipe off this debt 
by claiming interest at twelve per cent., and 
exchange at 22s. 6d. on the sums admitted 
to be due to him from the previous audit. 
On this calculation he represented that the 
crown was in his debt to the large extent of 
11,506/. 18s. Q\d. This exorbitant demand 
was at once disputed by the commissioners. 
Gresham promptly obtained a duplicate copy 
of his accounts, and caused a footnote to be 
added to the document acknowledging the 
impudent claim for interest and exchange 
which had already been practically rejected. 
With this paper he set out for Kenilworth, 
where the queen was staying as the guest of 
Leicester. Through the good offices of her 
host Elizabeth was induced to allow the claim, 
and, fortified by the royal endorsement, Gres- 
ham obtained the signatures of the commis- 
sioners to his duplicate account, with its de- 
ceitfully appended note. The evidence is too 
complete to admit of a favourable construc- 
tion being placed on this transaction. 

During 1564 Gresham had suffered a crush- 
ing misfortune in the death of his only son, 
Richard, a young man twenty years old, who 
was buried in St. Helen's Church. Bishops- 
gate. This bereavement seems to have dis- 
posed him to devote his wealth to schemes 
for the public benefit. His father had con- 
templated erecting a bourse or exchange for 
the London merchants as early as 1537, and 
on 31 Dec. 1562 Clough had urged him to 
fulfil this object. But it was not till 4 Jan. 
1564-5 that Gresham offered to the court 
of aldermen, through his servant, Anthony 
Strynger, to build at his own expense a burse 
or exchange for the merchants of London, if 
the city would provide a site. The offer 
was thankfully accepted, a committee was 
appointed to consider a site, and Gresham's 
intention of employing i strangers ' in erect- 
ing the building was approved. The situa- 
tion first selected was between Cornhill and 
Lombard Street, the old meeting-place of the 
merchants, but this was afterwards rejected 
in favour of the site occupied by the present 
structure on the north side of Cornhill. The 
wardens of the twelve principal livery com- 
panies were summoned to meet, and the aid 
of the merchant adventurers and staplers 

was also enlisted to raise the necessary funds 
for the purchase of the land, the latter com- 
panies being required to contribute four hun- 
dred marks within two months. The total 
cost of the ground was 3,532/. 17s. 2d., to- 
wards which twenty of the principal com- 
panies contributed 1,G85/. 9s. Id., subscribed 
by 738 of their members between March 
1565 and October 1566, in sums rising from 
10s. to 13/. 6s. 8d. Notice was served in 
Christmas 1565 upon the occupiers of the 
property required, and on 9 Feb. Gresham, 
while at the house of Alderman Ryvers, pro- 
mised in the presence of many citizens that 
within a month after the burse should be 
fully finished he would present it in equal 
moieties to the city and the Mercers' Company. 
The foundation-stone of the new burse was 
laid by Gresham on 7 June 1566, and the 
timber used in its construction came from 
Battisford, near his house at Ringshall in 
Suffolk. The great bulk of the materials re- 
quired, stone, slate, wainscot, glass, c., were 
obtained by Clough at Antwerp, and a Fle- 
mish architect, named Henryke, whom Gres- 
ham in 1568 recommended to Cecil to build 
his house at Burleigh, was engaged to design 
the building and superintend its erection. 
The statues employed for the decoration of 
the interior were the work of English artists, 
with the except ion of Queen Elizabeth's,whicn 
was procured from Antwerp (ib. pp. 107-21, 
500-3). By November 1567 Stow tells us 
the building was covered with slate, and 
shortly afterwards fully finished. 

The building was ready for the use of mer- 
chants on 22 Dec. 1568. Two contemporary 
engravings of the exterior and interior of the 
structure are reproduced by Burgon (pi. 8 
and 9), and exhibit a striking likeness to the 
burse at Antwerp. It w r as built, like Gres- 
ham's own house in Bishopsgate Street, over 
piazzas supported by marble pillars, and form- 
ing covered walks opening into an open square 
inner court. On the first story there were 
also covered walks (known as the ' pawn '), 
lined by a hundred small shops, from the 
rents of which Gresham proposed to reim- 
burse himself for the cost of the erection. A 
square tower rose beside the south entrance, 
containing the bell which summoned the mer- 
chants to their meetings at noon and at six 
o'clock in the evening. Outside the north 
entrance was also a lofty Corinthian column. 
On each of these towers and above each corner 
of the building was the crest of the founder, 
a huge grasshopper, and the statues already 
mentioned, including one of Gresham himself, 
adorned the covered walks. According to 
Fuller, Clough contributed to the expense 
of building the burse to the extent of some 



thousands of pounds ; but his provision of the 
building materials from Antwerp on Gres- 
ham's behalf may have been mistaken by the 
writer for a personal outlay. 

For more than two years the shops re- 
mained, according to Stow, 'in a manner 
empty;' but when Elizabeth signified to 
Gresham her intention of visiting him, and of 
personally inspecting and naming his edifice, 
Gresham busied himself to improve its ap- 
pearance for the occasion. By personal visits 
to the shopkeepers in the upper * pawn,' he 
persuaded them to take additional shops at 
a reduced rent, and to furnish them with 
attractive wares and with wax lights. On 
23 Jan. 1570-1, says Stow, the queen, at- 
tended by her nobility, made her progress 
through the city from Somerset House to 
Bishopsgate Street, where she dined with, 
Gresham. Afterwards returning through 
Cornhill, Elizabeth entered the burse, and 
having viewed every part, especially the 
' pawn,' which was richly furnished with all 
the finest wares of the city, ' she caused the 
same burse by an herralde and a trompet to 
be proclaimed the Royal Exchange, and so 
to be called from thenceforth, and not other- 
wise' (Survey, ed. 1598, p. 194). Contem- 
porary notices of this event occur in the 
accounts of the churchwardens of various 
London parishes. In those of St. Margaret's, 
Westminster, payments are recorded to the 
bell-ringers ' for ringing when the Queen's 
Majesty went to the burse' (cf. NICHOLS, 
Illustrations, &c., 1797). The ceremony forms 
the subject of a Latin play (Tanner MSS., 
Bodleian Library, No. 207), in five acts, en- 
titled ' Byrsa Basilica, seu Regale Excam- 
bium a Sereniss. Regina Elizabetha in Per- 
sona sua sic Insignitum, &c.' The characters 
are twenty in number. The first on the list, 
1 Rialto,' is intended for Sir Thomas Gresham ; 
Mercury pronounces the prologue and epi- 
logue. The piece appears to be of contempo- 
, rary date, and is signed I. Rickets. Another 
play, written by Thomas Heywood, describes 
the building of the burse. It is in two parts, 
entitled respectively, ' If you know not me, 
you know nobody, or the Troubles of Queen 
Elizabeth,' 4to, 1606 ; and < The second part 
of Queen Elizabeth's Troubles. Doctor Paries 
treasons: The building of the Royall Ex- 
change, and the famous victory in ann. 1588,' 
4to, 1609. The play is full of fabulous stories 
of Gresham, including the tale of his drink- 
ing the queen's health in a cup of wine in 
which a costly pearl had been dissolved. An- 
other scene, for which there is probably more 
foundation, describes a quarrel between Gres- 
ham and Alderman Sir Thomas Ramsay, and 
their reconciliation by Dean Nowell (Gent. 

Mag. 1826, pt. i. pp. 219-21). The exchange 
soon became a fashionable lounge for citizens 
of all classes, and the shops in the upper walk 
or pawn fetched high rents, and were regarded 
as one of the sights of London. A record exists 
in the Inquest Book of Cornhill ward of the 
* presentment ' of the exchange in 1574 for the 
disturbance occasioned there on ' Sondaies and 
holy daies ' by the l shoutinge and hollowinge ' 
of young rogues, that honest citizens cannot 
quietly walk or hear themselves speak (BuE- 
GON, ii. 355). Gresham's exchange was de- 
stroyed in the fire of 1666. 

Gresham also contributed from his vast 
fortune to other public objects. At the close 
of 1 574 or the beginning of 1 575 he announced 
the intention, which he had long entertained, 
of founding a college in London for the gratui- 
tous instruction of all who chose to attend 
the lectures. This roused the jealousy of his 
own university of Cambridge, and Richard 
Bridgewater,the public orator, wrote to Gres- 
ham on 14 March 1574-5, to remind him of a 
promise to present 500/. to his alma mater, 
either for the support of one of the old col- 
leges, or the erection of a new one. This 
was followed by another letter on the 25th, 
with one of the same date to Lady Burghley 
(whose husband was chancellor of their uni- 
versity), asking her to use her influence with 
Gresham to prevent the establishment of a 
rival university in London. But Gresham 
did not change his plans. His town re- 
sidence, Gresham House, was bequeathed to 
the college upon the death of Lady Gresham 
(cf. Gresham's will, dated 5 July 1575). The 
rents of the Royal Exchange were, with Gres- 
ham House, to be vested in the hands of the 
corporation of London and of the Mercers' 
Company, who were to appoint seven lec- 
turers. The lecturers' salaries were fixed at 
50/. per annum, and they were to lecture suc- 
cessively on the sciences of divinity, astro- 
nomy, geometry, music, law, medicine, and 
rhetoric. The professors were required to be 
unmarried men, and each was to be provided 
with a separate suite of apartments. The 
college did not prove very successful. Lady 
Gresham sought to divert its endowment after 
Gresham's death. In 1647 complaints of its 
management appeared (cf. Sir T. Gresham's 
Ghost, a whimsical tract). The fire of Lon- 
don, which destroyed the Royal Exchange, 
deprived it of its source of revenue ; but the 
college escaped destruction, and there the 
corporation and other public bodies took tem- 
porary refuge. It was the first home of the 
Royal Society. In 1707 complaints of its 
management were renewed, and in 1767 the 
building, then in a ruinous condition, was sold 
under an act of parliament to the government 



for an excise office, for the small annuity of 
500/. The Gresham lectures were thence- 
forth delivered at the Royal Exchange, till in 
1841 the present Gresham College was erected 
at the corner of Gresham and Bishopsgate 
Streets. Gresham also built during his life- 
time eight almshouses immediately behind his 
mansion, for the inmates of which he provided 
liberally in his will. 

In June 1569 Gresham was entrusted with 
the custody of Lady Mary, sister of Lady 
Jane Grey [see KEYS, LADY MARY], who had 
offended the queen by an imprudent marriage, 
in August 1565, with Martin Keys, the ser- 
jeant-porter, and had been in the custody 
since that date first of Mr. Hawtrey of 
Chequers, Buckinghamshire, and afterwards 
of the Duchess of Suffolk. Gresham, the 
lady's third gaoler, performed his duties 
strictly. He even asked Cecil's permission 
to allow his prisoner to put on mourning on 
the occasion of her husband's death. The 
restraint thus imposed on his movements and 
those of his wife became very irksome, and 
Gresham begged the queen to relieve him of 
the charge. He repeatedly requested Cecil 
or the Earl of Leicester to bear in mind his 
(and his wife's) ' sewte for the removing of 
my Lady Marie Grey.' On 15 Sept. 1570 he 
pleads that his wife * would gladly ride into 
Norfolk to see her old mother, who was ninety 
years old, and very weak, not like to live 
long.' His appeals cease in 1573, when it may 
be presumed that he obtained the sought-for 
relief (cf. Gresham's letter to the Earl of 
Leicester, 29 April 1572, Notes and Queries, 
4th ser. x. 71). 

Clough died at Hamburg in the summer 
of 1570, and left two wills. By the second 
he bequeathed to his master, Sir Thomas 
Gresham, all his movable goods, to discharge 
his conscience of certain gains which he had 
acquired when in his service. It is satis- 
factory to find that Gresham did not take 
advantage of this bequest, but that an earlier 
will was proved by which the property was 
left to Clough's relations. 

Queen Elizabeth visited Gresham in Au- 
gust 1573 at his house at May-field. About 
May 1575 Gresham entertained her again at 
his house at Osterley. For her entertainment 
he exhibited a play and pageant written by 
his friend and Antwerp comrade, Thomas 
Churchyard (CHURCHYARD, The Decises of 
Warre, and a play at Awsterley: her High- 
ness being at Sir Thomas Greshairfs), Fuller 
relates a well-known anecdote in connection 
with this visit. The queen ' found fault with 
the court of the house as being too great,' 
affirming that it would ' be more handsome 
if divided with a wall in the middle.' There- 

upon Gresham sent at night for workmen from 
London, who worked so quickly and silently 
during the night that ' the next morning 
discovered that court double, which the 
night had left single before ' ( Worthies, ii. 
35). During the queen's visit four 'mis- 
creants' were committed to the Marshalsea 
for burning Sir Thomas's park pale. 

One of Gresham's latest acts was to receive 
Casimir, prince palatine of the Rhine, on his 
visit to this country on 22 Jan. 1578-9. 
Stow describes his reception at the Tower 
by a party of noblemen and others, who con- 
ducted him, by the light of cressets and torches, 
to Gresham House. Gresham welcomed him 
with ' sounding of trumpets, drums, fifes, and 
other instruments,' and here he was lodged 
and feasted for three days. 

Gresham died suddenly on 21 Nov. 1579, 
apparently from a fit of apoplexy, as he re- 
turned from the afternoon meeting of the 
merchants at the exchange. He was buried 
on 15 Dec. in the church of St. Helen, 
Bishopsgate, beneath a tomb which he had 
prepared for himself during his lifetime. 
According to the directions of his will his 
body was followed to the grave by two 
hundred poor men and women clothed in 
black gowns. His funeral was conducted 
on a scale of unusual splendour, the expenses 
amounting to 800/. His altar-shaped tomb 
of alabaster, with a top slab of black marble, 
is in the east corner of the church. Until 
1736 it bore no inscription, but the following 
entry in the burial register was then cut into 
the top of the tomb : ' S r Thomas Gresham, 
Knight, bury d Decem br the 15 th 1579.' A 
large stained-glass window close by contains 
his arms and those of the Company of Mer- 

Gresham's character exhibits shrewdness, 
self-reliance, foresight, and tenacity of pur- 
pose, qualities which, coupled with great 
diligence and an inborn love of commerce, 
account for his success as a merchant and 
financial agent. Sir Thomas Chaloner de- 
scribes him as ' a Jewell for trust, wit, and 
diligent endeavour'' (HAYNES, State Papers, 
1740. p. 236). His conciliatory disposition 
is proved by the confidence reposed in him 
by ministers of state, and by his success- 
ful dealings with the Antwerp capitalists. 
His patriotism and benevolence are attested 
by his disposition of his property. As we 
have seen, he was not over-scrupulous in 
his commercial dealings. He profited by the 
financial embarrassments of his sovereign, and 
with the connivance, sometimes by the direct 
authority, of his own government made it his 
practice to corrupt the servants and break the 
laws of the friendly power with which he 




transacted his chief business. Gresham's cul- 
ture and taste are displayed in the architec- 
ture of the exchange and of his private resi- 
dences, and in his intimacy with the learned. 
Hugh Goughe dedicated to him, about 1570, 
his * Of^pring of the House of Ottomano,' and 
Richard Rowlands his translation of 'The 
Post for divers Parts for the World ' in 1576. 
Gresham was author of ' Memorials ' to Ed- 
ward VI and Queen Mary, a manuscript jour- 
nal quoted by Ward ( Gresham Professors ; 
Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. vii. 416), and 
his letters are numerous. He also left a manu- 
script containing musical lessons and songs in 
English and Italian (MILLINGTON, Biblio- 
theca Mafsoviana, 1687, p. 63). In person he 
seems to have been above the middle height, 
and grave and courteous in his deportment. 

Gresham married in 1544 Anne, the daugh- 
ter of William Ferneley of West Creting, Suf- 
folk, and widow of William Read, also of Suf- 
folk, and a citizen and mercer of London. 
Read, who had died but a few months before, 
had been intimate with Sir Richard Gresham, 
whom he made overseer of his will. By his 
marriage Gresham became closely related, to 
the Bacons, his wife's younger sister Jane 
having married Sir Nicholas Bacon [q. v.], 
the lord keeper. Gresham's only son , Richard, 
was baptised on 6 Sept. 1544 at St. Lawrence 
Jewry, and died unmarried in 1564. In a 
letter from Antwerp, dated 18 Jan. 1553-4, 
Gresham mentions his ' powre wiff'e and chil- 
dren/ but, with the exception of a natural 
daughter Anne, the name of no other child 
has been recorded. This daughter, whose 
mother is said to have been a native of 
Bruges, was well educated by Gresham, and 
brought up in his family, being afterwards 
married to Sir Nathaniel Bacon, Gresham's 
wife's nephew. 

Lady Gresham, who, according to Fuller, 
was not on very amicable terms with her 
husband, died at Osterley House on 23 Nov. 
1596. She was buried with unusual pomp 
at St. Helen's, Bishopsgate, on 14 Dec., the 
heralds who attended receiving 40/. as their 

Gresham's wills, dated 4 and 5 July 1575, 
were proved in the P. C. C. on 26 Nov. 1579, 
and are printed in Leveson-Gower's ' Gene- 
alogy of the Greshams' (pp. 80-5). He 
bequeathed Gresham House and the rents 
arising from his shops in the exchange to 
Lady Gresham during her life, and after her 
death to the corporation of London and the 
Mercers' Company in equal moieties for the 
support of his college. Besides provision 
for his almshouses, he also left 101. a year 
to relieve poor debtors in each of the six 
London prisons, 100/. annually to the Mer- 

cers' Company for four quarterly feasts, and 
10/. yearly to each of the four royal hospi- 
tals. Lady Gresham was left with a large 
annual income of 2,388/. 10s. 6d., but she 
did her best to thwart her husband's inten- 
tions as to the subsequent disposition of his 
property. She refused to build a steeple 
for St. Helen's Church, which he had pro- 
mised the parishioners, and twice attempted 
to saddle the rents of the exchange with 
charges for the benefit of her heirs. 

The following are among the extant por- 
traits of Gresham : 1. A full-length, tradi- 
tionally ascribed to Holbein, but assigned by 
Scharf to Girolamoda Treviso. It was painted 
on the occasion of Gresham's marriage, and 
is inscribed with his age, his own and his 
wife's initials, and the date. Formerly ia 
possession of the Thruston family, since pre- 
sented to Gresham College, and preserved 
in the court-room of the Mercers' Company 
(Archeeoloyia, xxxix. 54-5). Exhibited at 
Royal Academy (Cat. of Old Masters, 1880, 
165). 2. A three-quarter length standing- 
figure in Mercers' Hall, engraved by Delaram 
and others (cf. LODGE, Portraits). 3. By Sir 
Antonio More, engraved by Thew in 1792, 
now belonging to Mr. Leveson-Gower. 4. The 
Houghton portrait, also painted by More, and 
described by Horace Walpole as l a very good 
portrait.' It was engraved by Michel in 
1779. The original is now in the Hermitage 
Gallery, St. Petersburg. 5. Similar to 3. 
From the Bedingfield Collection, now in the 
National Portrait Gallery. 6. In the posses- 
sion of Sir John Neeld, and engraved in Bur- 
gon's 'Life of Gresham.' He is represented 
standing and holding in his left hand a 
pomander. 7. A small head and bust portrait 
in Mercers' Hall. 8. A half-length at Bay- 
nards, the seat of Mr. T. Lyon Thurlow. 
Exhibited at the Tudor Exhibition, 1890. 
9. A small cabinet portrait at Audley End 
belonging to Lord Braybrooke, considered by 
some to represent Sir John Gresham, brother 
of Sir Thomas. 10. The Osterley picture, be- 
longing to the Earl of Jersey, is said by Mr. 
Leveson-Gower not to be a portrait of Sir 
Thomas Gresham. 11-12. Two other por- 
traits, belonging to Mr. Gower, are preserved 
at Titsey Place. 13. A small half-length, 
formerly belonging to Mr. Gresham, high 
bailiff of Southwark. Nos. 2, 3, and 4 are 
engraved in Leveson-Gower's ' Genealogy of 
the Family of Gresham.' There are full- 
length figures of Gresham in the stained-glass 
windows at the east end of Guildhall, in 
the Guildhall Library, and at Mercers' Hall. 
Lists of the engraved portraits of Gresham 
are given in Evans's 'Catalogue,' Nos. 4648-54, 
and in Granger's 'Biographical History/ 




i. 298. They include prints by Vertue (in 
Ward's 'Gresham Professors'), Faber, Hollar 
(in a view of the exchange), Benoist, Stent, 
Overtoil, J. T. Smith. Woodward, Picart, 
and a large number of smaller engravings, 
mostly taken from the Mercers' portrait. 
Besides the statue by Behnes in the tower 
of the Koyal Exchange, and another at Mer- 
cers' Hall, there is a bust of Gresham, with 
an inscription, in the temple of British 
worthies at Stowe. A bust of Gresham 
occupies the obverse of the medal struck by 
W. Wyon in 1844 on the occasion of the 
opening of the third Royal Exchange. Gres- 
ham's steelyard, bearing his arms, is preserved 
by Mr. T. Lyon Thurlow at Baynards. 

[Relations politiques des Pays-Bas et de 
1'Angleterre sous leregnede Philippe II . . .(Coll. 
de (Jhron. beiges inedites), 1882-8, vols. i-viii., 
contain an extensive list of Gresham's letters and 
transcripts of or extracts from those of principal 
interest; Hall's Society in the Elizabethan Age, 
1887, ch. v. and .A pp. pp. 1GO-2, gives full re- 
ferences to sources of information in the Public 
Record Office ; Leveson-Gower's Genealogy of 
the Family of Gresham, 1883, contains verbatim 
transcripts of wills and other family records ; 
Hist. MSS. Comm., Cat. of the Hattield MSS., 
passim ; Davy's Suffolk MSS., Brit, Mus., Ivii. 
118 et seq. ; Three Letters, written in 1560 and 
1572, are printed in Notes and Queries, 4th ser. 
x. 71 ; Holinshed's Chronicle; Fronde's Hist, of 
England, vols. v-x. ; Extracts from the Records 
of the City of London . . . with other Documents 
respecting the Royal Exchange and Gresham 
Trusts, 1564-1825, privately printed, 1839; Ex- 
tracts from the Journals of Parliament respect- 
ing the same, 1580-1 768, privately printed, 1839; 
Cooper's Athense Cantabrigienses, 1858, i. 414- 
417, has a copious list- of authorities: Fox 
Bourne's English Merchants, ii. 174-96 ; Ward's 
Lives of the Professors, 1740, the author's anno- 
tated copy in the British Museum; Gresham's 
Ghost, or a Tap at the Excise Office, 1784; The 
Life of Sir Thomas Gresham, 1845 (Knight's 
weekly volume) ; Richard Taylor's Letter to Sir 
R. H. Inglis on the Conduct of the Lords of the 
Treasury with regard to the Gresham Trusts, 
1839; Burgon's Life and Times of Sir Thomas 
Gresham, 2 vols. 1839. This last work practi- 
cally exhausts the information to be found in the 
State Papers, although it was published before 
the printed calendars appeared.] C. W-H. 


(1799-1837), author, born on '27 Dec. 1799, 
was son of Sir Nigel Bowyer Gresley, 7th 
baronet, of Drakelow Park, Burton-on-Trent, 
by his second wife, Maria Eliza, daughter of 
Caleb Garway of Worcester. He succeeded 
his father in 1808 and entered Christ Church, 
Oxford, 17 Oct. 1817, where he remained until 
1819, leaving the university without a degree. 
After an unsuccessful attempt to obtain a seat 

in parliament at Lichfield in 1826, he was re- 
turned for Durham city in 1830, New Rom- 
ney, Kent, in 1831, and South Derbyshire in 
1835, but failed at the election of July 1837. 
He was a moderate tory. In June 1821 he 
married Lady Sophia Catharine, youngest 
daughter of George William Coventry, 
seventh earl of Coventry, and had issue one 
child only, Editha, who died an infant in 1 823, 
He was groom of the bedchamber to the Duke 
of Sussex, captain of the Staffordshire yeo- 
manry cavalry, and an F.S.A. He died on 
12 Oct. 1837, and was buried on 28 Oct. at 
Church Gresley, Derbyshire. Gresley, who 
usually wrote his name Greisley, was the 
author of the following : 1. l A Letter to the 
Right Hon. Robert Peel on Catholic Emanci- 
pat ion. To which is added an account of the 
apparition of a cross at Migne on the 17th. 
December, 1 820,' translated from the Italian, 
London, 1827, 8vo. 2. 'A Letter to ... 
John, Earl of Shrewsbury, irf reply to his 
reasons for not taking the Test/ London, 
1 828, 8vo. 3. ' Sir Philip Gasteneys ; a Minor/ 
London, 1829, 12mo. This tale contains 
a spirited description of the evils of con- 
temporary Rome, but is otherwise thin and 
puerile. 4. ' The Life and Pontificate of 
Gregory the Seventh/ an antipapal essay, 
London, 1832, 8vo. 

[Gent. Mag. 1837, pt. ii. p. 649; Burke's Baro- 
netage ; Foster's Alumni Oxon. ; Athenaeum, 
1832 p. 615, 1829 p. 547; Return of Members 
of Parliament, vol. ii.] W. F. W. S. 

GRESLEY, WILLIAM (1801-1876), 
divine, born at Kenilworth, Warwickshire, on 
16 March 1801, was the eldest son of Richard 
Gresley of Stowe House, Lichfield, Stafford- 
shire, a descendant of the Gresley s of Drakelow 
Park, Burton-on-Trent, and a bencher of the 
Middle Temple, by his first wife, Caroline, 
youngest daughter of Andrew Grote, banker, 
of London. George Grote (17941871) [q. v.] 
was his first cousin on his mother's side. He 
was a king's scholar of Westminster School, 
and matriculated at Oxford as a student of 
Christ Church on 21 May 1819 (FOSTER, 
Alumni Od-on. 1716-1886,11.563). In 1822 he 
j took a second class in classics, and graduated 
| B.A.on8Feb.l823,M.A.on25Mayl825. An 
! injury to his eyesight prevented his studying 
j for the bar, and he took holy orders in 1825. 
He was curate for a short time (in 1828) at 
Drayton-Bassett, near Tamworth, and from 
1830 to 1837 was curate of St. Chad's, 
Lichfield. During part of the time he was 
also morning lecturer at St. Mary's, Lich- 
field. An earnest high churchman, he threw 
himself with eagerness into the Tractarian 
movement of 1833, and tried to popularise 




its teaching. In 1835 he published ' Eccle- 
siastes Anglicanus : being a Treatise on the 
Art of Preaching as adapted to a Church 
of England Congregation,' and in 1838 his 
' Portrait of an English Churchman/ which 
ran through many editions. In 1839 he began, 
in conjunction with Edward Churton [q. v.], 
a series of religious and social tales under the 

feneral title of ' The Englishman's Library,' 
1 vols., 12mo, London, 1840-39-46. 
Of these tales he wrote six : 1. ' Clement 
Walton, or the English Citizen' (vol. i.) 

2. ' The Siege of Lichfield, a Tale illustra- 
tive of the Great Rebellion' (vol. xiii.) 

3. ' Charles Lever, or the Man of the Nine- 
teenth Century' (vol. xv.) 4. 'The Forest 
of Arden, a Tale illustrative of the English 
Reformation' (vol. xix.) 5. l Clmrch-Claver- 
ing, or The Schoolmaster' (vol. xxiv.), in 
which he developed his views on education. 
6. ' Coniston Hall, or the Jacobites ' (vol. 
xxxi.) In November 1840 Gresley became 
a prebendary in Lichfield Cathedral, an 
honorary preferment (Ls NEVE, Fasti, ed. 
Hardy, i. 642). To describe the influence 
upon his own mind of the Oxford move- 
ment, and to illustrate the ( danger of dis- 
sent,' he wrote ' Bernard Leslie, or a Tale 
of the Last Ten Years,' 2 pts., 12mo, Lon- 
don, 1842, 1859. To ' The Juvenile English- 
man's Library' (21 vols., 1845-44-49), edited 
successively by his friends F. E. Paget and 
J. F. Russell, he contributed ' Henri de 
Clermont, or the Royalists of La Vendee: 
a Tale of the French Revolution ' (vol. iii.), 
and 'Colton Green, a Tale of the Black 
Country' (vol. xv.) About 1850 Gresley 
removed to Brighton, and acted as a volun- 
teer assistant priest in the church of St. 
Paul. He preached every Sunday evening, 
worked untiringly among rich and poor alike, 
and exercised much power as a confessor. 
His ' Ordinance of Confession,' published in 
1851, caused considerable stir, although he 
did not wish to make confession compulsory. 
In 1857 he accepted the perpetual curacy 
of All Saints, Boyne Hill, near Maidenhead, 
Berkshire, where a church, parsonage-house, 
and schools were in course of erection at the 
expense of three ladies living in the Oxford 
diocese. He settled there before either church 
or house was ready, and worked there with 
great success. His schools obtained a specially 
high reputation. Later in life Gresley, with 
a view to checking the spread of scepticism, 
published ' Sophron and Neologus, or Com- 
mon Sense Philosophy,' in 1861 ; ' Thoughts 
on the Bible,' in 1871 : ' Priests and Philo- 
sophers,' in 1873 ; and ' Thoughts on Re- 
ligion and Philosophy,' in 1875. From the 
last two of these works selections, under the 

title of ' The Scepticism of the Nineteenth 
Century,' were published, with a short ac- 
count of the author, and portrait, by a former 
curate, S. C. Austen, in 1879. Gresley died 
at Boyne Hill on 19 Nov. 1876, and was 
buried in the churchyard. In 1828 he married 
Anne Wright, daughter and heiress of John 
Barker Scott, banker, of Lichfield, and had 
by her nine children, all of whom he sur- 
vived. His other writings include: 1. ' Ser- 
mons on some of the Social and Political 
Duties of a Christian,' 12mo, London, 1836. 
2. ' The Necessity of Zeal and Moderation in 
' the present circumstances of the Church en- 
| forced and illustrated in Five Sermons 
preached before the University of Oxford,' 
! 12mo, London, 1839. 3. ' Some Thoughts 
| on the Means of working out the Scheme 
i of Diocesan Education,' 8vo, London, 1839. 
4. ' Remarks on the necessity of attempting 
a Restoration of the National Church,' 8vo, 
London, 1841. 5. ' Parochial Sermons,' 
| 12mo, London, 1842. 6. ' The Spiritual 
| Condition of the Young: Thoughts sug- 
gested by the Confirmation Service,' 12mo, 
London, 1843. 7. ' St. Stephen : Death for 
Truth,' being No. ix. of ' Tracts for English- 
men,' 12mo, 1844. 8. ' Anglo-Catholicism. 
A short Treatise on the Theory of the Eng- 
lish Church,' 8vo, London, 1844. 9. 'Frank's 
First Trip to the Continent ' (Burns's ' Fire- 
side Library '),12mo,London, 1845. 10. 'Sug- 
! gestions on the New Statute to be proposed 
| in the University of Oxford,' 8vo, London, 
1845. 1 1. ' A Short Treatise on the English 
Church,' 12mo, London, 1845. 12. < Evan- 
gelical Truth and Apostolical Order ; a Dia- 
, logue,' 12mo, London, 1846. 13. ' The Real 
! Danger of the Church of England,' 8vo, Lon- 
' don, 1846 ; 6th edit. 1847. 14. 'A Second 
i Statement of the Real Danger of the Church 
1 of England . . . containing Answers to cer- 
' tain Objections [by F. Close and others] 
I which have been made against his former 
! Statement,' 8vo, London, 1846. 15. ' A 
j Third Statement of the real danger of the 
! Church of England, setting forth the dis- 
tinction between Romanists and Anglicans, 
i and the identity of Evangelicals and Puri- 
! tans,' 8vo, London, 1847. '16. 'Practical 
I Sermons,' 12mo, London, 1848. 17. ' The 
| Use of Confirmation ' (No. xi. of ' The Lon- 
don Parochial Tracts,' 8vo,l 848, &c.) 18. <A 
Word of Remonstrance with the Evangeli- 
cals, addressed to the Rev. Francis Wilson . . . 
in reply to his Pamphlet called " No Peace 
with Tractarianism," ' 8vo, London, 1850 ; 
3rd edit. 1851. 19. ' A Help to Prayer, in 
Six Tracts,' 12mo, Oxford and London, 1850. 
20. 'Stand Fast and Hope. A Letter' [on 
the decision of the Privy Council in the 




Gorliam case], 8vo, London, 1850. 21. ' Dis- 
tinctive Tenets of the Church of England,' 
4th edit., 8vo, London, 1851. 22. ' A Second 
Word of Remonstrance with the Evangeli- 
cals,' 8vo, London, 1851. 23. * A Letter to 
the Dean of Bristol [G. Elliott] on what he 
considers the " Fundamental Error " of Trac- 
tarianism,' 8vo, London, 1851 . 24. * A Letter 
on Confession and Absolution ... in reply to 
a Letter and Speeches of the Rev. R. J. 
McGhee,' 8vo, London, 1852. 25. 'The 
Present State of the Controversy with 
Rome. Three Sermons,' 12mo, London, 1855. 
26. ' Answer to a Letter of the Rev. E. B. 
Elliott addressed to the ReV. W. Gresley on 
the " Delusion of the Tractarian Clergy as to 
the Validity of their Ministerial Orders,'" 
8vo, London, 1856. 27. ' Position of the 
Church and the Duty of her Members in re- 
gard to the Denison Case,' 8vo, London, 1850. 
28. i Sermons preached at Brighton,' 12mo, 
London, 1858. 29. ' Boyne Hill Tracts. By 
W. G.,' 8vo, London, 1858. 30. < Idealism 
considered ; chiefly with reference to a 
volume of " Essays and Reviews " lately 
published,' 8vo, London, 1860. 31. < The 
Prayer-Book as it is,' 8vo, London, 1865. 

[Burke's Peerage, 1889, p. 626 ; Welch's 
Alumni Westmon. 1852, pp. 485, 486 ; Austen's 
Memoir cited above; Brit. Mns. Cat.] Gr. G. 

1794), painter and drawing-master, was born 
in London in 1741. His father was a native 
of Rolle, on the Lake of Geneva, and owned 
a small property close to Oxford Street, on 
which the present streets, Stephen Street 
and Gresse Street, Rathbone Place, were built 
about 1771. Gresse studied drawing under 
Gerard Scotin, the engraver, and was one of 
the first students to work in the gallery of 
casts founded by the Duke of Richmond. In 
1755 he obtained a premium at the Society of 
Arts for a drawing by a student under the age 
of fourteen years, and in 1759 he gained three 
premiums for drawings and studies from the 
human figure. He was successful again in 
1761 and 1762, obtaining in all nine premiums 
before attaining the age of twenty-one. He 
was for a short time pupil of Major the en- 
graver, and worked for several years under | 
Cipriani, profiting at the same time by the | 
instruction of Zuccarelli. He was employed 
by John Boydell to make drawings. Gresse 
lacked the industry and application necessary 
to succeed in the higher branches of his art, 
and as he inherited a sufficient income from 
his father, he did not exert his full powers. 
In 1763 he exhibited a landscape at the Free 
Society of Artists, and in 1764 two miniatures 
and a Madonna. In 1765 he became a mem- 

ber of the rival Incorporated Society of Ar- 
tists, and exhibited with them for four years, 
chiefly miniatures. In 1768 he sent a stained 
drawing of the Earl of Bessborough's seat at 
Roehampton. Gresse excelled in this branch 
of water-colour painting, and some of his 
views were engraved, He became one of the 
most fashionable drawing-masters of his day. 
In 1777 he was appointed drawing-master to 
the royal princesses, and was soon a favourite 
at court. His corpulence obtained for him 
the nickname of 'Jack Grease.' He occa- 
sionally practised etching, and etched the 
plates for Kennedy's ' Account of the Statues 
and Pictures at Wilton House ' (1769). He 
published a few other etchings, including one 
of 'St. Jerome' after Guido, and 'A Satyr 
Sleeping' after N. Poussin. Gresse died on 

19 Feb. 1794, in his fifty-third year, and was 
buried at St. Anne's, Soho. He was a great 
collector of works of art, which were sold by 
auction shortly after his death, the sale occu- 
pying six days. 

[Edwards's Anecd. of Painters; Redgrave's 
Diet, of Artists; DoJd's MS. Hist, of English 
Engravers, Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 33401 ; ex- 
hibition catalogues.] L. C. 

GRESSWELL, DAN (1819-1883), vete- 
rinary surgeon, was born 13 May 1819 at 
Kelsey Hall, Spilsby, Lincolnshire. He be- 
came in 1840 member of the Royal Col- 
lege of Veterinary Surgeons ; and in the same 
year was elected fellow of the Veterinary 
Medical Association in recognition of an essay 
upon ' Lactiferous Glands.' He settled in 
Loutli about the same time, and became 
widely known as a veterinary surgeon. On 

20 Feb. 1877 he was elected fellow of the 
College of Veterinary Surgeons as a reward 
for original research. He wrote many origi- 
nal papers on ' Paralysis in the Horse,' ' Ex- 
cision of the Uterus in the Cow,' 'Treat- 
ment and ^Etiology of Splenic Apoplexy or 
Anthrax,' ' Tetanus,' ' Arsenical Poisoning,' 
and other subjects. His sons have, since his 
death, published several works upon veteri- 
nary science, partly embodying his manu- 
scripts and verbal instructions. He took an 
active part in local politics as a strong con- 
servative, and did much to improve the sani- 
tary arrangements of Louth. He was elected 
to the town council 1 Nov. 1862, alderman 
in April 1871, and mayor 9 Nov. of the 
same year. He continued to be an alder- 
man until his death at Kelsey House, Louth, 
13 March 1883. He married, 18 Dec. 1845, 
Anne Beast all of Reston, near Louth, by 
whom he had eight sons and seven daughters. 
They all survived him. 

[Information from the family.] 




GRESWELL, EDWARD (1797-1869), 
chronologist, son of the Rev. William Parr 
Greswell [q. v.],wasborn at Denton,near Man- 
chester, on 3 Aug. 1797, and educated by his 
father and at the Manchester grammar school. 
He matriculated at Brasenose College, Ox- 
ford, on 5 April 1815, and was elected scholar 
of that college in the same year. Early m 
1816 he obtained the ' Lancashire ' scholar- 
ship at Corpus Christ! College, and graduated 
B.A. in 1816, M.A. in 1822, and B.D. in 
1830. He was ordained deacon m 1825, and 
priest in 1826, and held the office of college 
tutor from 1822 to 1834. He was fellow of 
Corpus Christi College from 1823 until his 
death in 1869, Latin reader in 1824, junior 
dean 1825, Greek reader 1827, librarian 1830, 
and vice-president of his college from 1840 to 
1869. He took part in the disputes at Oxford 
about 1836 in connection with Dr. Hamp- 
den's appointment to the regius professorship 
of divinity, and published a * Letter to his 
Grace the Duke of Wellington, Chancellor 
of the University,' on the subject (Oxford, 
1837). Otherwise his life at the university 
was spent uneventfully in the performance of 
his academical duties and the systematic pro- 
secution of his studies. He died on 29 June 

His works include several of high value 
and usefulness, the ' Harmony of the Gospels ' 
having long been used as a text-book. He 
published : 1. ' Dissertations upon the Prin- 
ciples and Arrangement of a Harmony of 
the Gospels/ Oxford, 1830, 8vo, 3 vols. 
2. ' Harmonia Evangelica,' 1830, 1837, 1840 ; 
5th edit. 1855. 3. ' Joannis Miltoni Fabulae, 
Samson Agonistes et Comus Greece,' 1832, 
8vo. 4. Supplementary dissertations on the 
' Harmonies,' 1834. 5. 'An Exposition of 
the Parables, and of other parts of the Gos- 
pels,' 1834-5, 6 vols. 8vo. 6. ' Prolegomena 
ad Harmoniam Evangelicam,' 1840. 7. 'Fasti 
Temporis Catholici and Origines Kalendariae : 
History of the Primitive Calendar, Part 1,' 

1852, 4 vols. 8vo. 

General Tables of 

Book of Joshua," considered and shewn to 
be unfounded,' London, 1863. 14. 'The Zulus 
and the Men of Science,' London, 1865. He 
also printed for private circulation a trans- 
lation into Greek iambics of three hymns by 
Bishop Ken, 1831, and a hymn of praise in 

[J. F. Smith's Register of Manchester School 
(Chetham Soc.), iii. 79 ; Foster's Alumni Oxoni- 
enses ; Brit. Mus. Cat.] C. W. S. 

GRESWELL, RICHARD (1800-1881), 
re-founder of the National Society,' born at 
)enton, Lancashire, on 22 July 1800, the 
burth son of the Rev. William Parr Gres- 
well [q. v.], was educated first by his father, 
wid afterwards at Worcester College, Oxford, 
>n the foundation of which college he was 
laced on 1 June 1818. In 1822, having 
rained a ' double-first,' he was appointed as- 
sistant tutor of Worcester, and in the next 
year full tutor, an office he retained for thirty 
vears. He became fellow in June 1824. He 
raduated B.A. in 1822, M.A. in 1825, and 
B.D. in 1836. As a tutor he was learned 
and skilful, and his lectures were considered 
models in their way. For many years he de- 
voted the proceeds of his tutorship to public 
and charitable objects, his personal expenses 
being defrayed from a modest fortune brought 
by his wife, Joana Julia Armitriding, whom 
he married in 1836. In 1843 he opened a 
subscription on behalf of national education, 
with a donation of 1,000/., and ultimately 
raised 250,000/. for the funds of the National 
Society. He was largely instrumental in es- 
tablishing the new museum at Oxford, and 
was one of the founders of the Ashmolean 
Society. From 1847 to 1865 he acted as 
chairman of Mr. Gladstone's election com- 
mittee at Oxford. He was a great benefactor 
to his father's parish of Denton, and by his 
exertions a new church, called Christ Church, 
was built and provided with parsonage, 
schools, and endowment (1853). Many kindly 
and beneficent acts are related of Greswell, 
whose ' chief characteristics were great and 

the Fasti Catholici, or Fasti Temporis Per- 
petui,from B.C. 4004 to A.D. 2000,' 1852, 4to. 
9. ' Supplementary Tables and Introduction 
to the Tables of the Fasti Catholici,' 1852 
8vo. 10. ' Origines Kalendariaeltalicse,' 1854 
4 vols. 11. ' Origines Kalendarise Hellenicee 
6 vols. 1861, 8vo. 12. ' The Three Witnesses 
and the Threefold Cord; being the Testi- 
mony of the Natural Measures of Time, of the 
Primitive Civil Calendar, and of Antediluvian 
and Postdiluvian Tradition, on the Principa 
Questions of Fact in Sacred and Profane 
Antiquity,' 1862, 8vo. 13. < The Objections 
to the Historical Character of the Pentateuch 
in Part I of Dr. Colenso's " Pentateuch am 

varied learning, boundless benevolence, and 
a childlike simplicity' (BUKGON, Lives, ii. 
118). His only publications were a paper 
'On Education and the Principles of Art,' 
1843, and a ' Memorial on the Proposed Ox- 
ford University Lecture-rooms, Library, Mu- 
seums, &c.,' 1853. He died at Oxford on 
22 July 1881, aged exactly 81 years. His 
daughter, Joanna Julia Greswell, published 
at Oxford in 1873 a ' Grammatical Analysis 
of the Hebrew Psalter.' 

[Burgon's Lives of Twelve Good Men, 1888, 
ii. 93; Crockford's Clerical Directory, 1881; 
Foster's Alumni Oxon. ii. 564 ; Booker's Denton 
(Chetham Soc.), 1855.] C. W. S. 




1854), clergyman and bibliographer, son of 
John Greswell of Chester, was baptised at 
Tarvin, Cheshire, on 23 June 1765. He was 
ordained on 20 Sept. 1789 to the curacy of 
Blackley, near Manchester, and succeeded on 
24 Sept. 1791 to the incumbency of Denton, 
also near Manchester, on the presentation of 
the first Earl of Wilton, to whose son he was 
tutor. This living, which when he took it 
was only worth 100/. a year, he held for the 
long period of sixty-three years. To add to 
his income he opened a school. lie educated 
his own seven sons, five of whom went to 
Oxford and won high honours. They were 
William, M. A., fellow of Balliol, and author 
of works on ritual, died 1876 ; Edward [q.v.], 
B.D., fellow and tutor of Corpus Christi Col- 
lege ; Richard [q. v.], B.D., fellow and tutor 
of Worcester College ; Francis Hague, M.A., 
fellow of Brasenose ; Clement, M.A., fellow 
and tutor of Oriel, and rector of Tortworth, 
Gloucestershire. His other sons were Charles, 
a medical man, and Thomas, master of Chet- 
ham's Hospital, Manchester. 

Greswell wrote : 1. ' Memoirs of Angelus 
Politianus, Picus of Mirandula, Sanazarius, 
Bembus, Fracastorius, M. A. Flaminius, and 
the Amalthei,' with poetical translations, 
Manchester, 1801, 8vo, 2nd ed. 1805. The 
' Retrospective Review ' (ix. 64, note) con- 
demns this work as careless and unmethodi- 
cal. 2. ' Annals of Parisian Typography ' 
(privately printed), 1818, 8vo. 3. ' The Monas- 
tery of Saint Werburgh, a Poem/ 1823, 8vo. 
To some copies are added i Rodrigo, a Spanish 
Legend,' and shorter pieces. 4. ' A View of 
the Early Parisian Greek Press, including 
the Lives of the Stephani,' Oxford, 1833, 
8vo, 2 vols. ; 2nd ed. with an appendix of 
Casauboniana, 1840. He also edited the 
third volume of the catalogue of the diet ham 
Library, 1826. The two works on the Pari- 
sian press are said by Brunet to be ' inexact' 
(Man. du Libraire, 5th edit. ii. 1735). 

He resigned his incumbency of Denton in 
1853, and died on 12 Jan. 1854, aged 89, and 
was buried at Denton. His large library was 
sold at Sotheby's rooms in February 1855. 

[Booker's Denton (Chetham Soc.),1855, p. 1 09 ; 
J. F. Smith's Eegister of Manchester School 
(Chetham Soc.), Hi. 77 ; Gent. Mag. 1854, pt. i. 
p. 427.] C. W. S. 

GRETTON, WILLIAM (1736-1813), 
master of Magdalene College, Cambridge, son 
of John Gretton of Bond Street, London, born 
in 1736, was educated at St. Paul's School and 
Peterhouse, Cambridge, where he graduated 
B.A. in 1758 and proceeded M.A. in 1761. 
Having taken holy orders, he was presented in 

1766 to the vicarage of Saffron Walden, Essex. 
In 1784 Lord Howard of Walden appointed 
him his domestic chaplain. He was subse- 
quently presented to the rectory of Little- 
bury, Essex, of which county he was in the 
commission of the peace, and was made arch- 
deacon on 2 Dec. 1795. In 1797 he was 
elected master of Magdalene College, Cam- 
bridge, and was vice-chancellor of the uni- 
versity in 1800-1. He died on 29 Sept. 1813. 

[Gardiner's Admission Reg. of St. Paul's School ; 
Gent. Mag. 1766 p. 344, 1784 pt. ii. p. 719, 
1795 pt. ii. p. 1062, 1797 pt. ii. p. 1137, 1800 
pt. ii. p. 1118, 1813 pt. ii.p. 405; Grad. Cant.; 
Le Neve's Fasti Eccl. Angl.] J. M. R. 

RICK (1798-1864), private secretary to the 
Duke of Wellington, born on 29 Jan. 1798, 
was the second son of Charles Greville (1762- 
1832), fifth son of Fulke Greville of Wilbury, 
Wiltshire, by his marriage with Lady Char- 
lotte Bentinck, eldest daughter of William 
Henry Cavendish, third duke of Portland ; 
he was consequently brother of Charles Ca- 
vendish Fulke Greville [q. v.] and Henry 
William Greville [q. v.] On 1 Feb. 1814 he 
obtained his commission as ensign in the 
Grenadier guards (then called the 1st regi- 
ment of foot guards), and was present at 
Quatre Bras and at Waterloo ; he was also 
at the attack and capture of Peronne. He 
was appointed shortly afterwards aide-de- 
camp to General Sir John Lambert, with 
whom he served in the army of occupation 
in France until he was appointed aide-de- 
camp to the Duke of Wellington, on whose 
staff he served until the army came home in 

1818. He was afterwards the duke's aide- 
de-camp in the ordnance office in January 

1819. On the duke being appointed com- 
mander-in-chief in January 1827, he selected 
Greville for his private secretary, which post 
he held while the duke was prime minister, 
secretary of state for foreign affairs, and com- 
mander-in-chief for the second time in De- 
cember 1842. Greville was Bath king of 
arms, an office he held for many years, and 
during the Duke of Wellington's lifetime was 
secretary for the Cinque ports. lie died at 
Hillingdon, Middlesex, the seat of his brother- 
in-law, on 15 Dec. 1864. He married, on 
7 April 1823, Charlotte Maria, daughter of 
Richard Henry Cox, who died on 10 April 
1841. His eldest daughter, Frances Harriett, 
married, on 28 Nov. 1843, Charles, sixth duke 
of Richmond, Lennox and Gordon, E.G., and 
died on 8 March 1887. 

[Times, 20 Dec. 1864, p. 10. col. 5; Burke's 
Peerage, 1889, pp. 1169. 1422; Army Lists- 
Gent. Mag. 1865, pt. i. pp. 125-6.] G. G. 




FULKE (1794-1865), political diarist, eldest 
son of Charles Greville, grandson to the fifth 
Lord Warwick, by his wife, Lady Charlotte j 
Cavendish Bentinck, eldest daughter of Wil- j 
liam Henry, third duke of Portland, was born 
2 April 1794. His childhood was in great 
part spent at Bulstrode, his maternal grand- 
father's house. He was educated at Eton j 
and Christ Church, where he matriculated I 
in 1810 but took no degree. For a time | 
he was page to George III. He left Ox- j 
ford early to be private secretary to Lord ! 
Bathurst, and the influence of the Duke of ; 
Portland procured him the sinecure secretary- j 
ship of Jamaica, the duties of which office he 
performed by deputy in the island without 
ever visiting it, though he interested him- 
self in Jamaica business in England. He also 
obtained by the same means the reversion of 
the clerkship to the privy council. This office 
fell into possession in 1821 and withdrew 
from public life a man whose talents signally 
fitted him to have played the part of an eminent 
statesman ; but on the other hand it afforded 
him exceptional opportunities for observing 
the inner workings of high political circles, and 
these opportunities he turned to good account 
in his journal. For some years he chiefly 
amused himself with horse-racing. He was one 
of the oldest members of the Jockey Club, and 
from 1821 till 1826 managed the racing esta- 
blishment of his intimate friend, the Duke of 
York. Subsequently he was partner in train- 
ing racehorses with Lord George Bentinck, 
his cousin, till, about 1835, they parted com- 
pany in consequence of a dispute about the 
handling of Greville's mare,Preserve. Greville 
afterwards trained with the Duke of Port- 
land. In 1845 his horse Alarm would have 
won the Derby but for an accident at the 
start ; but though he was owner of Alarm, 
Preserve, and Orlando, he never won the 
Derby, and only once the St. Leger. Till 
1855, when he sold all his racehorses, though 
often complaining of its frivolity, he was a 
devotee and excellent judge of racing. 

Greville's chief title to fame is his series of 
memoirs. For forty years he kept with great 
pains a political diary, designed for publica- 
tion, which he confided to Mr. Henry Reeve 
shortly before his death. Owing to his close re- 
lations with both whigs and tories, but espe- 
cially with the Duke of Wellington, the Duke 
of Bedford, Lord Palmerston, and Lord Cla- 
rendon, relations so close that he was not in- 
frequently employed as a negotiator during 
ministerial changes, especially at the time of 
Palmerston's resignation in 1853, he was pecu- 
liarly well informed on the most secret trans- 
actions of contemporary politics. He spared 

no pains in completing his information, re- 
corded it with great freshness and perfect im- 
partiality, and frequently revised his diaries. 
These characteristics, coupled with the bril- 
liant portraits which he draws of his contem- 
poraries, make his diaries the most important 
work of their kind of his generation. They 
were published in three series, one for 1817 to 
1837 (London, 1875, 8vo, 3vols.), and two for 
1837 to 1860 (1885, 8vo, 3 vols. ; 1887, 2 vols.) 
Greville published in his lifetime an ac- 
count of a visit to Louis XVIII at Hartwell 
in 1814, in the * Miscellanies of the Philo- 
biblon Society,' vol. v. ; ' A Letter to Lock- 
hart in Reply to an Article in the " Quar- 
terly Review," ' March 1832 ; a pamphlet on 
the prince consort's precedence in 1840, re- 
printed in l Memoirs,' 2nd ser. vol, i. append. ; 
'The Policy of England to Ireland' in 1845, 
in which he was aided by Sir George Corne- 
wall Lewis ; a pamphlet on ' Peel and the 
Corn Law Crisis ' in 1846, and a review on 
the memoirs of King Joseph Bonaparte in the 
' Edinburgh Review' for 1854. He also re- 
vised Lady Canning's pamphlet on the Por- 
tuguese question, 1830, edited a volume of 
Moore's ' Correspondence ' for Lord John Rus- 
sell, and Raikes's 'Memoirs.' In May 1859 
he resigned the clerkship of the council, and 
feeling that he then ceased to be intimately 
acquainted with the details of politics, he 
closed his journal in 1860. In 1849 he re- 
moved from Grosvenor Place to rooms in 
Lord Granville's house in Bruton Street, 
and there he died of heart disease, accele- 
rated by a chill caught in an inn at Marl- 
borough, on 18 Jan. 1865. His diary is full 
of pathetic lamentations over his wasted 
opportunities and educational shortcomings, 
yet he was in truth among the most remark- 
able men of his generation. Though a cynic 
he was popular among a large number of 
friends, to whom he was known by the nick- 
name of ' Punch,' or the ' Gruncher ' (Fixz- 
GBKALD, Life of George IV, ii. 202 it.) Sir 
Henry Taylor describes him as ' a friend of 
many, and always most a friend when friend- 
ship was most wanted ; high-born, high-bred, 
avowedly Epicurean, with a somewhat square 
and sturdy figure, adorned by a face both solid 
and refined, noble in its outline, the mouth 
tense and exquisitely chiselled ' (Autobiogr. 
i. 315). A portrait is prefixed to the 16mo 
edition (1888-9, 8 vols.) of his diary. 

[Preface and Notes to the G-reville Memoirs, 
by Henry Reeve, C.B. ; Doyle's Reminiscences ; 
Reminiscences of William Day ; Lord Malmes- 
bury's Memoirs, ii.86; Hayward's Letters, i. 284 ; 
Engl. Hist. Review, January 1886 and April 
1887; M'Cullagh Torrens's Lord Melbourne; 
Correspondence of Macvey Napier.] J. A. H. 




BROOKE (1554-1628), poet, only son of Sir 
Fulke Greville, by Ann, daughter of Ralph 
Neville, earl of Westmorland, was born at 
the family seat, Beauchamp Court, War- 
wickshire, in 1554. The father, who is 
eulogised by Camden (Britannia, i. 607) 
' for the sweetness of his temper,' was a great 
Warwickshire landowner, ' much given to 
hospitality,' who was elected M.P. for his 
county in 1580 and 1588, was knighted in 
1605, and died in the following year. To Lord 
Brooke's grandfather, also Sir Fulke Greville, 
the family owed its high position in Warwick- 
shire. This Sir Fulke younger son of Sir 
Edward Greville of Milcote was a notable 
soldier in the reign of Henry VIII, and mar- 
ried Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Wil- 
loughby, and grand-daughter and heiress of 
Sir Robert Willoughby, lord Brooke. By 
this marriage the great mansion of Beau- 
champ Court came, with much other pro- 
perty, into Sir Fulke's possession. In 1541 
Henry VIII gave him the site of Alcester 
monastery with many neighbouring estates, 
and he thus became one of the largest pro- 
prietors in the county. He was sheriff of 
Warwickshire in 1543 and 1548, and M.P. in 
1547 and 1554. He died 10 Nov. 1559, and 
was buried in Alcester Church. His widow 
died in 1560 and was buried by his side. 

Young Fulke Greville, the first Sir Fulke's 
grandson, was sent on 17 Oct. 1564, when 
ten years old, to the newly founded Shrews- 
bury School. Philip Sidney, who was of the 
same age, entered the school on the same day, 
and the intimacy which sprang up between 
the boys developed into a lifelong attach- 
ment. Greville proceeded to Jesus College, 
Cambridge, where he matriculated as a fel- 
low-commoner 20 May 1568. The statement 
that he was a member of Trinity College is 
erroneous. The suggestive letter of advice 
about Cambridge studies sent by Robert, earl 
of Essex, to one ' Sir Foulke Greville ' on his 
going to the university must have been ad- 
dressed to a cousin, Fulke, father of Robert 
Greville, second lord Brooke [q.v.] It cannot 
be dated earlier than 1595, and is doubtless 
from the pen of Bacon (SPEDDING, Bacon, ii. 
21). Although Sidney went to Oxford, Gre- 
ville maintained a close connection with him 
in his university days, and came to know his 
father, Sir Henry Sidney, president of Wales. 
Sir Henry was sufficiently impressed with his 
abilities to give him a small office connected 
with the court of marches as early as 1576, but 
Greville resigned the post in 1577 and came 
with Philip Sidney to court. Greville at once 
attracted the queen's favour, and f had the 
longest lease and the smoothest time without 

rub of any of her favourites ' 
Fraf/menta Regalia, ed. Arber, p. 50). Bacon 
writes that he used his influence with the 
queen honourably, ' and did many men good/ 
But disagreements between her and Greville 
were at times inevitable. Elizabeth appre- 
ciated his society so highly that she refused 
him permission to gratify his desire for foreign 
travel. He nevertheless ventured abroad at 
times despite her orders, and suffered accord- 
ingly from her displeasure. In February 1577 
he accompanied Sidney to Heidelberg, where 
his friend went to present the queen's condo- 
lences and assurances of goodwill to Princes 
Lewis and John Casimir, who had just lost 
their father, the elector palatine. In 1578 
he went to Dover to embark for the Low 
Countries to witness the war proceeding 
i there, but Sir Edward Dyer was sent with 
( a princely mandate ' to ' stay ' him. He 
managed, however, to accompany Secretary 
Walsingham on a diplomatic mission to Flan- 
ders a month or so later, but on his return 
'was forbidden the queen's presence for many 
months.' In 1579 he accompanied Sidney's 
j friend and tutor Languet on his return to 
j Germany, and when coming home had an in- 
| teresting interview with William the Silent, 
prince of Orange, of which he gives an ac- 
count in his < Life of Sidney ' (1652, pp. 22 
| et seq.) On Whit-Monday, 15 May 1581, 
Greville, with Sidney, the Earl of Arundel, 
and Lord Windsor, arranged an elaborate 
pageant and tournament at Whitehall for 
the entertainment of the queen and the en- 
voys from France who had come to discuss 
her marriage with the Duke of Anjou. On 
the departure of Anjou from London in Fe- 
bruary of the next year, Greville was one of 
the courtiers directed by the queen to attend 
the duke to Antwerp. 

Greville fully shared Sidney's literary 
tastes. Sir Edward Dyer [q. v.] was a friend 
of both, and the three formed an important 
j centre of literary influence at court. ' Two 
pastoralls made by Sir P. Sidney upon his 
meeting with his two worthy friends and 
fellow-poets, Sir Edward Dier and Maister 
Fulke Greuill/ open Davison's 'Poetical 
Rapsody,' 1602 ; the first poem appeared 
originally in 'England's Helicon' (1600). 
Sidney expresses the deepest affection for 
both Dyer and Greville. The three friends 
were members of the literary society formed 
by Gabriel Harvey, and called by him the 
' Areopagus,' whose chief object was to ac- 
climatise classical rules in English litera- 
ture. In 1 583 Giordano Bruno came to Eng- 
land, and Greville received him with enthu- 
siasm. In Greville's house in London Bruno 
held several of those disputations which he 






records in his ' La Cena de le Ceneri ' (FRITH, 
(Life of G. Bruno, 1887, pp. 227 et seq.) In 
the summer of 1585 Greville and Sidney ar- 
ranged with Drake to accompany the expe- 
dition preparing 1 for attack upon the Spanish 
West Indies. Elizabeth would not sanction 
the arrangement, but the young men went 
secretly to Plymouth with a view to im- 
mediate embarkation. Imperious messages 
from court led Drake to sail without them 
(14 Sept.) Elizabeth flatly refused Gre- 
ville's request, preferred on his return to Lon- 
don, to join Leicester's army, then starting 
for the Low Countries. Sidney, however, 
was allowed to take part in the expedition, 
in which he met his death (17 Oct. 1586). 
By his will Sidney left his books to Greville 
and Dyer, and Greville was one of the pall- 
bearers when Sidney was buried in St. Paul's 
Cathedral, 16 Feb. 1586-7. Greville lamented 
Sidney's death in verse, and penned a prose 

Greville was in Normandy for a short 
time with the English forces serving under 
Henry of Navarre about 1591. In 1597 
Essex suggested that he should take part 
in the Islands expedition by convoying pro- 
visions to the Azores, but the queen re- 
fused her permission, and thenceforth Gre- 
ville apparently contented himself with civil 
employment. On 20 April 1583 he had been 
constituted secretary for the principality of 
Wales, and on 24 July 1603 he was con- 
firmed 'in the office for life. But the duties 
do not appear to have been onerous or to have 
necessitated continuous residence in Wales. 
He sat in parliament as member for War- 
wickshire in 1592-3, 1 597, 1601, and 1620, and 
took some part in the debates. He interested 
himself in Francis Bacon, and interceded 
with the queen in his behalf in 1594, when 
Bacon was seeking to become solicitor-gene- 
ral. The letters that passed between them 
at the time indicate close personal intimacy. 
Michael (afterwards Sir Michael) Hicks [q.v.] 
was another friend, and was useful in helping 
Greville out of temporary pecuniary diffi- 
culties (cf. Letters in Lansd. MSS. 89, 90, 
printed by Grosart). In March 1597-8 he 
became ' treasurer of the wars,' and in Sep- 
tember 1598 ' treasurer of the navy.' When 
in August 1599 the second Spanish Armada 
was anticipated, it was proposed to nominate 
Oreville rear-admiral (Gal. State Papers, 
Dom. 1598-1 601, p. 282). Greville took part 
in the arrest of the Earl of Essex on Sunday, 
8 Feb. 1600-1. 

On James I's accession Greville was created 
knight of the Bath. For the first years of 
the new reign he retained his office of trea- 
surer of the navy, and worked vigorously. 

Higher preferment is said to have been denied 
him owingto the hostility of Robert Cecil,lord 
Salisbury. Salisbury died in 1612, and in Octo- 
ber 1614 Greville succeeded Sir Julius Caesar 
in the office of chancellor and under-treasurer 
of the exchequer, ' in spite of his age,' writes 
Chamberlain (ib. 1611-18, pp. 256-7). In the 
various discussions in which he took part in 
the council he supported the king's prero- 
gative. On 18 Jan. 1614-15 he was one of 
the privy-councillors who signed the warrant 
for the torture of Edmund Peacham, a clergy- 
man charged with writing a sermon deroga- 
tory to the royal authority (SPEDDING, Life 
of Bacon, v. 92). But when, in September 
1615, the council discussed the policy of 
summoning a parliament, Greville said that 
' it was a pleasing thing and popular to ask 
a multitude's advice ; besides it argued trust 
and begat trust' (ib. p. 201). In 1616 he 
was a member of the committee of the coun- 
cil appointed to inquire into Coke's conduct 
in the prcemunire case. In the House of Com- 
mons Greville was a useful supporter of the 
government. In 1618 he became commis- 
sioner of the treasury, and in January 1620-1 
he resigned the chancellorship of the exche- 
quer. A patent issued 29 Jan. conferred on 
him (with remainder to his favourite kinsman, 
Robert Greville) the title of Baron Brooke, 
which had been borne by his ancestors, the 
Willoughbys. His services were, however, 
still needed in the opening session of the new 
parliament, and he sat in the commons through 
the early months of the year. On 15 Nov. 1621 
he first took his seat in the House of Lords 
(cf. Notes and Queries, 4th ser. viii. 22, 88, 
217, 234). Brooke was henceforth less ac- 
tive in politics. He was prevented by se- 
rious illness from attending the council when 
the Spanish marriage treaty was formally 
adopted (July 1623). But his political know- 
ledge secured for him a seat on the council 
of war (21 April 1624), and on the committee 
of the council to advise on foreign affairs 
(9 April 1 625). According to Bacon, Brooke 
was an elegant speaker in debate. 

James I proved in Brooke's case a liberal 
patron, and to him Brooke owed a vast exten- 
sion of the landed property which he inherited 
in 1606 on the death of his father. Elizabeth 
had made him master of Wedgnock Park in 
1597, and in 1605 James bestowed on him 
the ruined castle of Warwick. Dugdale 
writes l that Brooke bestowed much cost, 
at least 20,000/., in the repairs thereof, beau- 
tifying it with the most pleasant gardens, 
plantations, and walks, and adorning it with 
rich furniture.' Brooke also obtained a grant 
of the manor and park of Knowle. His posi- 
tion in Warwickshire was very powerful, 




and among the smaller offices he is said to ' Did first draw forth from close obscuritie 

have held there was that of recorder of Strat- 
ford-on-Avon. His name frequently appears 
in the town records. 

Brooke met a violent death. On 18 Feb. 

My unpresuming verse into the light, 

And grac'd the same, and made me known thereby 

(Certaine Small Workes, 1607). 
To Greville Daniel dedicated his ' Muso- 

1627-8 he made a will, leaving all his pro- philus.' John Davies of Hereford wrote 
perty to his cousin Robert Greville. Among high-flown sonnet in praise of ' Mustapha ' 

those who witnessed the will was an old ser- 
vant named Ralph llaywood. A few months 
later Brooke added a codicil granting an- 
nuities to many dependents, but he omitted 
to make any provision for llaywood. The 
neglect rankled in Haywood's mind, and on 
1 Sept. following, while waiting on his master 
as he lay in bed at his London house in IIol- 
born, llaywood charged him with injustice. 

' as it is written not printed ' (cf. Scourge of 
Folly, 1(510). Bishop Corbet, in his < Iter 
Boreale,' describes a visit to Warwick Castle, 
and the genial welcome proffered him by 
' the renowned chancellor.' Brooke also be- 
friended William D'Avenant, and took him 
into his service as his page. With Bacon 
Brooke maintained friendly relations to the 
last. In Easter term 1618, when Sir Henry 

Brooke severely rebuked Haywood's freedom Yelverton,the attorney-general, submitted to 
of speech, whereupon llaywood stabbed him the privy council an information against one 

with a sword, llaywood straightway with- Maynham for libellously defaming Bacon, 
drew to another room and killed himself. Greville boldly defended his friend's charac- 
ter. The anecdote is often told, on the au- 
thority of Arthur Wilson, that when Bacon 

and killed 

Brooke was seventy-four years old and did 
not long survive his wound. He died 30 Sept. 
1628, after adding one more codicil to his 
will bequeathing handsome legacies to his 
surgeons and attendants in his illness. On 
27 Oct. 1628 his body was carried to Warwick 

was in disgrace and was living in seclusion 
in Gray's Inn, he sent to Brooke for a bottle 
of beer, 'seeing that he could not relish that 
which was provided ' in the Inn, and that 
and buried in St. Mary's Church. The epitaph | Brooke told his butler to refuse the request, 
which he had himself composed was engraved ! But this gossip may be safely rejected. In 
on the monument which had been erected I 1621 James I sent Brooke Bacon's manu- 
under his directions (BIGLAND, Parish Regis- j script history of Henry VII, and enjoined 
ters}. It ran : ' Fulke Greville, servant to him to read it ' before it was sent to press.' 
Queen Elizabeth, councillor to King James, j This Brooke did, and returned it to the king 
and friend to Sir Philip Sidney. Trophaeum i with high commendations (SPEDDING, vii. 
Peccati.' A sympathetic ' Mourning Song ' 

appeared in Martin Peersoii's 'Mottuets or 
Grave Chamber Musique ' (1630). 

In Brit. Mus. Addit. MS. 4839, art. 27, is 
a tractate called ' The Patron ' (quoted in 
Biog. Brit.}, in which Brooke's murderer is 
defended on the ground that Haywood's 
grievance was real and just. A rhyming 
elegy, printed in Huth's l Inedited Poetical 
Miscellanies,' 1870, similar in tone, charges 
Greville with the most contemptible parsi- 
mony. But whatever maybe the facts as to 
his neglect of llaywood, his relations with the 
literary men of the day do not confirm the 

325-6). Brooke, by a codicil to his will, 
charged his lands in Toft Grange, Foss-dike, 
and Algakirk, in co. Lincoln, with an an- 
nuity of 100/. for the maintenance of a his- 
tory lectureship at Cambridge, which he di- 
rected to be first bestowed on Isaac Dorislaus 
[q. v.], at one time his ' domestic ' (Cal. State 
Papers, Dom. 1627-8 p. 470, 1628-9 p. 438). 
Baker, writing early in the eighteenth cen- 
tury, mentions that the lectureship ' has been 
lost by the iniquity of the times/ Nothing 
seems now known of it at Cambridge. 

Brooke, who as a youth was the friend of 
Spenser and Sidney, and as an old man was 

accusation of penuriousness. Speed, the an- | the patron of D'Avenant, was a student of 

nalist, attributed to him his release ' from the 

daily employments of a manual trade,' so that 

he might devote himself to literature. Carn- 

den acknowledged ' extraordinary favours ' 

from him, and left him by will a piece of 

plate. Greville's exertions obtained for Cam- 

literature throughout his life, but his lite- 
rary work was mainly done in his early years, 
and little of that was published in his life- 
time. An elegy on Sidney in the miscel- 
lany called the l PluBnix Nest' (1593), a 
poem in Bodenham's ' Belvedere ' (1600), and 
two poems assigned to him in the first edi- 
tion of England's Helicon ' (1600), seem, 

deanery of St. Paul's to his influence with together with ' The Tragedy of Mustapha ' 
the queen, and he obtained the secretaryship (London, for N. Butter, 1609), to complete 
of the navy for Sir John Coke [q. v.] To the the list of works which were printed while 
poets he was a generous patron. Samuel he lived, and none of these appear to have 
Daniel writes that Greville been issued under his direction. 'Mustapha' 


den the post of Clarenceux king-of-arms in 
1597. Similarly, Dr. John Overall owed the 




was certainly brought out in an imperfect 
form and without his knowledge. Five years 
after his death appeared his chief volume, 
a thin folio, entitled ' Certaine Learned and 
Elegant Workes of the Eight Honorable 
Fulke, Lord Brooke, written in his Youth 
and familiar exercise with Sir Philip Sid- 
ney,' London, 1633. Here are included 
long tracts in verse entitled 'A Treatie of 
Humane Learning,' 'An Inquisition upon 
Fame and Honour,' and 'A Treatie of Warres.' 
There follow ' The Tragedie of Alaham,' ' The 
Tragedie of Mustapha/ and 'Coelica, con- 
taining CIX Sonnets.' The text of ' Mus- 
tapha ' differs considerably from the im- 
print of 1609, usually for, the better. The 
last pages are filled with letters in prose, one 
' to an Honorable Lady ' offering advice in 
domestic difficulties with her husband, and 
the other 'A Letter of Trauell ... to his 
Cousin Greuill Varney, residing in France,' 
dated by the writer ' From Hackney,' 20 Nov. 
1609. In 1652 first appeared 'The Life of 
the renowned Sir Philip Sidney,' in prose, 
and eighteen years later was published ' The 
Remains of Sir Fulk Grevill, Lord Brooke : 
being Poems of Monarchy and Religion. 
Never before printed,' London, 1670. The 
publisher of the last volume, Henry Herring- 
man, states that Greville, ' when he was old, 
revised the poems and treatises he had writ 
long before ' with a view to collective publi- 
cation. He entrusted the task to an aged 
friend, Michael Malet, but the project was 
not carried out. 

Brooke writes in his discursive memoir 
of Sidney with reference to his tragedies: 
1 For my own part I found my creeping genius 
more fixed upon the images of life than the 
images of wit.' This is a just criticism of 
all Brooke's literary work. To ' elegancy of 
style ' or ' smoothness of verse ' he rarely as- 
pires. He is essentially a philosopher, culti- 
vating ' a close, mysterious, and sententious 
way of writing,' which is commonly more 
suitable to prose than poetry. His subjects 
are for the most part incapable of imaginative 
treatment. In his collection of love poems, 
which, though written in varied metres, he 
entitles sonnets, he seeks to express passionate 
love, and often with good lyrical effect ; but 
the understanding seems as a rule to tyran- 
nise over emotion, and all is l frozen and made 
rigid with intellect.' Sidney's influence is very 
perceptible, and some of Brooke's stanzas 
harshly echo passages from 'Astrophel' and 
'Stella.' His two tragedies, ' Alaham' and 
'Mustapha,' very strictly fashioned on classi- 
cal models, are, as Lamb says, political trea- 
tises rather than plays. ' Passion, character, 
and interest of the highest order' are 'sub- 

servient to the expression of state dogmas and 
mysteries.' 'Mustapha' found an ardent 
champion in Edmund Bolton, who wrote of it 
as the ' matchless Mustapha ' in his ' Hyper- 
critica' (1622). In his 'Life of Sidney' 
Brooke expounds at length his object in writ- 
ing tragedies, and explains that they were 
not intended for the stage. But, despite its 
subtlety of expression, Greville's poetry fas- 
cinates the thoughtful student of literature. 
His views of politics are original and inte- 
resting, and there is something at once for- 
midable and inviting in the attempt to un- 
ravel his tangled skeins of argument. His 
biography of Sidney is mainly a general dis- 
quisition on politics with biographical and 
autobiographical interludes. It was reprinted 
with much care by Sir S. E. Brydges at the 
Lee Priory Press in 1816. 

Brooke has been wrongly credited with 'a 
Mourning Song,' contributed to ' The Para- 
dise of Dainty Devices ; ' with a tragedy en- 
titled ' Marcus Tullius Cicero,' London, 1651, 
4to (PHILLIPPS) ; and with an historical 
piece, ' Five Years of King James,' London, 
1643, 4to. The last work, written by a puri- 
tan partisan of Essex, forms the basis of 
Arthur Wilson's ' Life and History of King 
James,' and perhaps came from Wilson's pen 
(cf. Notes and Queries, 4th ser. ii. 489). That 
Brooke wrote more than has reached us is 
possible. He states that he burned, for no 
very intelligible reason, a third tragedy on 
the subject of Antony and Cleopatra at the 
time of Queen Elizabeth's death (Life of Sid- 
ney, p. 172). He undoubtedly contemplated 
expanding his notice of Elizabeth's reign in 
his 'Life of Sidney' into an elaborate histori- 
cal treatise, beginning with the marriage of 
Henry VII, but mainly dealing with Eliza- 
beth's life. He discussed the plan with Sir 
Robert Cecil, but Cecil objected to giving him 
free access to state papers, and made it plain 
that the work could not be published without 
much editing on the part of James and his 
ministers. Brooke consequently relinquished 
his plan. An interesting letter from Brooke 
to Villiers, duke of Buckingham (10 April 
1623) is printed from 'Harl. MS.' 1581 in 
Walpole's ' Royal and Noble Authors,' ed. 
1806, ii. 236-7. 

Dr. Grosart has reprinted all Brooke's ex- 
tant works in his ' Fuller Worthies Library ' 
(4 vols. 1870). A fine engraved portrait is 
inserted in the Grenville Library copy of 
Brydges's reprint of Greville's ' Life of Sidney .' 

[Biog. Brit. ; Dugdale's Baronage and War- 
wickshire ; Hunter's MS. Chorus Vatum in Brit. 
Mus. MS. Addit. 24492, ff. 107 sq. ; Nichols's 
Progresses of James I ; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 
1595-1628 ; Fox Bourne's Life of Sir Philip 




Sidney; Greville's Lifw of Sir P. Sidney; Wai- 
pole's Royal and Noble Authors, 1806, ii. 220 ; 
Dr. Grosart's Memorial Introduction to his edi- 
tion of Greville's Works ; Lamb's Dramatic 
Poets (extracts from Mustapha and Alaham) ; 
Langbaine's Dramatic Poets ; Phillips's Thea- 
trum Poet. ; Hazlitt's Table Talk.] S. L. L. 


(1801-1872), diarist, youngest son of Charles 
Greville, grandson of the fifth Lord War- 
wick, by Lady Charlotte Cavendish Ben- 
tinckj eldest daughter of William Henry, 
third duke of Portland, born on 28 Oct. 
1801, was educated at Westminster School 
and Christ Church, Oxford, where he gradu- 
ated B.A. 4 June 1823. Much of his boy- 
hood was spent on the continent, chiefly at 
Brussels, where his family resided. He thus 
learned to speak French and Italian with 
fluency. He was taken by the Duke of Wel- 
lington to the celebrated ball given by the 
Duchess of Richmond at Brussels on the 
night before the battle of Waterloo. He 
became private secretary to Lord Francis 
Egerton [q. v.], afterwards earl of Ellesmere, 
when chief secretary for Ireland. From 1834 
to 1844 he was attache to the British em- 
bassy in Paris. He afterwards held the post 
of gentleman usher at court. He was fond 
of society, of music, and the drama. Miss 
Fanny (Frances Anne) Kemble knew him 
well, and describes his fine voice and hand- 
some appearance in her ' Records of a Girl- 
hood,' iii. 173. He died on 12 Dec. 1872 at his 
house in Mayfair. Like his brother, Charles 
Cavendish Fulke Greville [q. v.], he kept 
during many years of his life a diary of such 
events, public and private, as specially inte- 
rested him, a portion of which has been edited 
by his niece, Viscountess Enfield, under the 
title, ' Leaves from the Diary of Henry Gre- 
ville/ 1883-4, 2 vols. 8vo. The < Diary' derives 
its chief importance as an historical authority 
from the author's position at Paris between 
1834 and 1844 ; otherwise, though agreeably 
written, it is of no special interest or value. 

[Memoir by Viscountess Enfield prefixed to vol. 
ii. of the Diary ; Cat. Grad. Oxf.] J. M. R. 

BROOKE (1608-1643), parliamentary general, 
only son of Fulke Greville, by Mary, daughter 
of Christopher Copley of Wadworth, York- 
shire, relict of Ralph Bosville of Gunthwaite 
in the same county, was born in 1608. When 
about four years of age he was adopted by 
his cousin, Fulke Greville, first lord Brooke 
[q. v.] by whom he was educated, partly in 
England and partly abroad. He was returned 
to parliament for the borough of Warwick 
in 1627-8, but vacated his seat on 30 Jan. 

1628-9, having then attained his majority, 
and succeeded his cousin in the barony or 
Brooke of Beauchamp Court, Warwickshire. 
He was a member of the company of adven- 
turers for the plantation of Providence and 
Henrietta Islands, incorporated by letters 
patent on 4 Dec. 1630, in the management of 
which he took an active part. About this 
period he formed with Lord Saye and Sele 
[see FIENNES, WILLIAM] the design of emi- 
grating to New England. The settlement of 
Sayebrook in Connecticut was founded in 
1635 by John Winthrop under a commission 
from the two lords (HOLMES, Annals of 
America, i. 229 ; DUGDALE, Baronage, ii. 442 ; 
Cat. State Papers. Colonial, 1574-1660, pp. 

Greville was summoned to attend the king 
on his Scottish expedition in 1639. He denied 
the obligation, but went as far as York, and 
there in April was imprisoned for refusing to 
subscribe the protestations of fidelity which 
Charles then imposed upon all his principal 
officers. After giving unsatisfactory answers 
to some interrogatories he was set at large 
and dismissed from attendance. In May 1640 
his house was entered by order of the king, 
his papers seized, and his person arrested. He 
was, however, soon released, and in August 
was one of the signatories of a petition pre- 
sented to the king at Y r ork praying that ' the 
war might be composed without blood,' and 
in the following month was nominated one 
of the commissioners on the part of the king 
to negotiate with the Scots the Treaty of 
Ripon (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1638-9 pp. 
506, 516, 518, 1639 pp. 67, 103, 105, 119, 
1640 p. 153 ; CLARENDON, Rebellion, i. 207, 
274 ; Notes of the Treaty of Ripon, 1040, 
Camd. Soc. 2). 

He supported the impeachment of Laud 
and Stratford, and is distinguished by Claren- 
don as in 1641 the only positive enemy to the 
whole fabric of the church and state besides 
Lord Saye and Sele in the House of Lords. 
On 4 June 1642 he and the Earl of War- 
wick were ordered to search all ships sus- 
pected to be conveying supplies to the rebels 
in Ireland (CLARENDON, Rebellion, i. 321, 409, 
509 ; Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1641-3, p. 334). 
As lord-lieutenant of militia for the counties 
of Warwick and Stafford he in July gar- 
risoned Warwick Castle, and mustered the 
train bands and volunteers at Stratford-upon- 
Avon for the parliament. While bringing 
ammunition of war from London to War- 
wick he was met by the Earl of Northampton 
with a considerable force near Edgehill. 
Greville agreed to leave his artillery at Ban- 
bury till he obtained instructions from the 
parliament, and to give the earl three days' 

M 2 




notice before attempting to remove it. Par- | tained in Matt. xxiv. and Rev xx., and his 
liament having directed him to advance, difficulty in discovering < the true sense of 

O _ . . * . -i . j_l_ ! ..:, 9 I 4-lx^rt^v .rkVrt-^'f/-\-o of\4- HITY n-nr^n o 

Greville, after giving the stipulated notice, 
defeated the earl at Keinton or Kineton, near 
Banbury, on 3 Aug. The earl then laid siege 
to Warwick Castle, but Sir Edward Peyton, 
who was in command, held out until relieved 
by Greviile on 23 Aug. (Some Speciall Passages 
from Warwickshire concerning the proceedings 
of the Right Honourable Lord Brooke, 4 Aug. 
1642; Petition and Resolution of the Citizens 
of the City of Chester, &c., 20 Aug. 1642 ; 
Good Newesfrom West Chester, &c., 18 Aug. 
1642; A Famous Victory . . . on 3 Aug. 1642 
near Keintith [sic] in Warwickshire, London, 
1642; Proceedings at Banbury, &c., London, 

Shortly after this he returned to London, 
and on 16 Sept. was appointed speaker of the 
House of Lords for that day. Towards the 
end of the month he was joined by the Earl 
of Essex with his army at Warwick, with 
whom he marched towards Worcester. He 
returned to Warwick to procure ammunition, 
which he forwarded in time for the battle at 
Edgehill, though he himself arrived too late. 
On 7 Jan. 1642-3 he was appointed under 
Essex general and commander-in-chief for 
the associated counties of Warwick, Stafford, 
Leicester, and Derby. He took Stratford-on- 
Avon by assault in February, and soon com- 
pletely secured Warwickshire for the parlia- 
ment. He then advanced into Staffordshire, 
forced his way into Lichfield, and compelled 
the governor to retire into the Minster Close. 
While directing the attack on the Close he 
was struck by a bullet in the eye, and killed 
on the spot (2 March), the day of St. Chad, 
to whom, as was remarked, the cathedral is 
dedicated. Clarendon's opinion that he was 
one of the most obstinate of his party is far 

the spirit ' in these chapters set him upon ' a 
more exact and abstract speculation of truth 
itselfe, naked truth, as in herselfe, without 
her gown, without her crown,' which is 
throughout mystical. The book shows some 
acquaintance with Aristotle and the school- 
men. The treatise was severely criticised by 
Jrreville's friend, John Wallis [q. v.] in ' Truth 
"ried; or animadversions on a Treatise/ &c., 
Condon, 1642, 4to. (For a discussion of 
Brooke's philosophical position see REMUSAT, 
^hilosophie Anglaise depuis Bacon jusqu'a 
Locke, 1875). 2. ' A Discourse opening the 
Mature of that Episcopacie which is exer- 
jised in England . . .,' London, 1641-2, 4to. 
3. Two of the speeches in ' Three Speeches 
poken in Guildhall concerning his Majesty's 
refusal of a treaty of peace ... 8 Nov. 1642 ' 
the other being by Sir Harry Vane), London, 
1642, 4to. 4. 'A Worthy Speech ... at the 
election of his captains and commanders at 
Warwick Castle, as also at the delivery of their 
.ast commissions,' London, 1643. ' An An- 
swer [assigned to Greville] to the Speech of 
Philip, earl of Pembroke, concerning accom- 
modation in the House of Lords, 19 Dec. 1642/ 
Ithough printed as if by order of the House 
of Commons, was proved on the publication 
of Lord Clarendon's < Life ' (1759) to have 
been written by Lord Clarendon himself. It 
was shown to the king, who was quite de- 
ceived, at Oxford by way of testing the power 
which he supposed himself to possess of re- 
cognising Clarendon's hand in the slightest of 
his compositions. 

[Collins's Peerage (Brydges), iv. 351 ; Wood's 
Athense Oxon. (Bliss), ii. 432 ; Orford's Works, 
ed. Berry, i. 356 ; Dugdale's Baronage, ii. 442 ; 

more probable than Dugdale's conjecture thai 
he would soon have left them. Henry Har- 
ington eulogises him as a hero and martyr 
(An Elegie upon the Death of the Mirrour o 
Magnanimity, London, 1642-3). Milton ex- 
tols him as ' a right noble and pious lord, 
and a staunch friend of toleration ( Works 
ed. Mitford, iv. 442). Greville married soor 
after he came of age Lady Catharine Russell 
eldest daughter of Francis, earl of Bedford 
by whom he had five sons, the eldest of whom 
Francis, succeeded to the title, but dying un 
married was succeeded by his brother Robert, 
who dying without male issue the title de- 
volved upon his younger brother Fulke. 

Greville wrote : 1. ' The Nature of Truth: 
its Union and Unity with the Soule, which is 
One in its Essence, Faculties, Acts ; One 
with Truth . . .' London, 1640. Greville had 
written a treatise upon the prophecies con- 

Clarendon's Rebellion, iii. 453-5, 460 ; Claren- 
don's Life, i. 161-2 ; Rushworth's Hist. Coll. v. 
37,147-8; Parl. Hist. iii. 46; Whitelocke's Mem. 
p. 36; Lords' Jour n.i. 357 ; Comm. 607; 
Certaine Informations from Severall Parts of the 
Kingdom, &c.. 28 Feb. 1642-3 ; Speciall Passages, 
28 Feb.-7 March 1642-3 ; A Continuation of 
Certaine Speciall and Remarkable Passages, &c., 
2-9 March 1642-3.] J. M. R. 


(1794-1866), botanist, was born at Bishop 
Auckland, Durham, on 13 Dec. 1794, his 
father, Robert Greville (1760-1830?), being 
rector of Edlaston and Wyaston, Derbyshire. 
The elder Robert Greville was B.C.L. of Pem- 
broke College, Oxford, and the composer of 
some short musical pieces (see WARRED, Col- 
lection of Catches, Nos. 26, 27, and BAPTIE, 
Handbook, p. 87). He married in 1792 Miss 
Chaloner of Bishop Auckland (Gent. Mag. 
1792,pt. i. 478). Robert Kaye as a boy studied 




plants, and made before he was nineteen be- 
tween one and two hundred careful drawings 
of British species. Being intended for the 
medical profession, he went through a four 
years' curriculum in London and Edinburgh ; 
but, circumstances having rendered him inde- 
pendent, he did not proceed to a degree. In 
1816 he married a daughter of Sir John Eden, 
bart., of Windlestone, Durham, and settled 
in Edinburgh in order to study anatomy 
under Dr. Barclay. In 1819 he joined the 
Wernerian Society, before which and the 
Botanical Society of Edinburgh he read many 
papers, especially on Alga3 and other Crypto- 
gamia. At this period, too, he commenced 
those excursions with W. J. Hooker, Robert 
Graham, and other botanists, in which he 
exhibited both critical skill as an observer and 
great endurance as a pedestrian. 

In 1823 Greville began the publication of 
his ' Scottish Cryptogamic Flora ' in monthly 
parts, with plates drawn and coloured by him- 
self, which was dedicated to Hooker, and 
was ' intended to serve as a continuation 
of " English Botany," ' especially with refer- 
ence to the fungi. It extended to six yearly 
volumes, containing 360 octavo plates. While 
this work was still in progress lie published 
in 182-4 the * Flora Edinensis,' dealing with 
both the flowering and the flowerless plants of 
the district. This work, a single 8vo volume, 
dedicated to Robert Graham, is arranged on 
the Linnrean system, and contains four plates 
by the author illustrating details of crypto- 
gamic structures. In 1821 he was elected 
fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 
and in 1824 LL.D. of Glasgow University. 
At this time he was in the habit of giving 
popular lectures on botany in Edinburgh, 
and he formed extensive collections, not only 
of plants, but also of insects, marine crus- 
tacea, and land and fresh-water mollusks. 
Of the latter he got together the finest Scot- 
tish collection ever made. In 1829 he began 
the publication, in conjunction with Hooker, 
of 'Icones Filicum,' two folio volumes, com- 
pleted in 1831, containing 240 plates drawn 
and coloured by himself, the ferns being mainly 
those sent from India by Wallich (to whom 
the work is dedicated) and by Wight, and 
from the West Indies by Lansdowne Guil- 
ding, and others. Again with a large serial 
work in progress, he produced a valuable in- 
dependent work, his f AlgfB Britannicse,' pub- 
lished at Edinburgh in 1830, with nineteen 
coloured plates executed by himself. He com- 
menced a work on the ' Plant Scenery of the 
World,' in conjunction with J. II. Balfour, 
and drew some'forty or fifty plates for it ; but 
abandoned the scheme for want of competent 
lithographers. Though he thus accomplished 

a large amount of descriptive work, he was 
not merely a herbarium botanist. In 1834 he 
made a tour through Sutherlandshire with 
Selbyand Jardine; and in 1837, with Brand 
and Balfour, he collected no less than fifteen 
thousand specimens in the highlands for the 
Botanical Society of Edinburgh. As late as 
1862 he was awarded the Neill medal of the 
Royal Society of Edinburgh, more especially 
for his papers upon * Diatoms.' His large 
collections of this group of Algae were pur- 
chased for the British Museum; his insects 
for the university of Edinburgh ; his flower- 
ing plants by Professor J.I I. Balfour (they are 
now at the university of Glasgow) ; and his 
other Cryptogamia for the Edinburgh Botanic 
Garden. The last collection, with that of 
Professor Balfour, amounting to fifty thou- 
sand species, represented by about ten times 
as many specimens, formed the nucleus of the 
Edinburgh university herbarium. An out- 
door naturalist, fond in his younger days of his 
rod and his gun, he was a man of many-sided 
culture, agreeable in society, musical, with an 
artist's eye, and considerable literary taste. 
He took an active interest in various philan- 
thropic and social matters. In 1830 he issued 
a pamphlet entitled ' The Drama brought to 
the Test of Scripture and found wanting,' 
and between 1832 and 1834 he edited, in 
conjunction with Dr. Richard Huie, the three 
volumes of 'The Amethyst, or Christian's 
Annual,' to which he contributed several re- 
ligious poems. In 1832 he wrote the botani- 
cal portion of the three volumes on British 
India in the ' Edinburgh Cabinet Library,'and 
in 1839 that in the three volumes on British 
North America. 

Greville was an active opponent of slavery, 
and an advocate of temperance. In 1833 
he served as an anti-slavery delegate from 
Edinburgh to the colonial office, and then 
as chairman of the committee, and in 1840 
as vice-president, of the Anti-Slavery Con- 
vention. In 1834 he published 'Facts il- 
lustrative of the Drunkenness of Scotland, 
with Observations on the Responsibility of 
the Clergy, Magistrates, and other Influen- 
tial Bodies.' He was for four years secretary 
of the Sabbath Alliance, and in 1850 ad- 
dressed a letter to the Marquis of Clanricarde, 
postmaster-general, on the desecration of the 
Lord's day in the post office, with an ap- 
pendix on its ' legalised desecration ' by rail- 
way companies and dealers in intoxicating 
liquors. Himself an episcopalian, he com- 
piled in 1 838, with the Rev. T. K. Drum- 
mond, ' The Church of England Hymn-book.' 
He was also connected with various mis- 
sionary societies, ragged schools, and refuges, 
and in 1856 was elected M.P. for Edinburgh. 




During his later years he was deprived of 
much of his private means, and executed 
many drawings and paintings of highland 
landscape for sale, some of these being ex- 
hibited at the Royal Scottish Academy. On 
27 May 1866 he was seized with inflamma- 
tion of the lungs from having fallen asleep 
on some wet grass, and he died on 4 June at 
his villa at Murrayfield, whence he had been 
in the habit of walking into Edinburgh almost 
daily. He was buried in the Dean cemetery. 
A son and three daughters survived him. Few 
men have done as much for descriptive crypto- 
gamic botany in Britain, a fact to which testi- 
mony is borne in the name * Grevillea ' being 
applied to the magazine devoted to that study. 
[Trans. Bot. Soc. Edinb. viii. 464 ; Journal of 
Botany, 1866, p. 238; Gardener's Chronicle, 
1866, p. 539 ; Koyal Society's Cat. Sci. Papers, 
iii. 12, vii. 836.] G. S. B. 

GREW, NEHEMIAH (1641-1712), vege- 
table physiologist, son of the Rev. Obadiah 
Grew [q. v.], at that time master of Ather- 
stone grammar school, was born in 1641. and 
baptised at the parish church of Mancetter 
on 26 Sept. in that year. Obadiah Grew, 
as a parliamentary divine, took refuge at 
Coventry in 1642. Nehemiah, like his half- 
brother, Henry Sampson [q.v.], was educated 
at Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, where he gra- 
duated B.A. in 1661. He himself tells us 
that he was led to the study of vegetable 
anatomy as early as 1664, considering that 
both plants and animals ' came at first out of 
the same Hand, and were therefore the Con- 
trivances of the same Wisdom,' and so infer- 
ring the probable analogy of their structures. 
Having been encouraged in the study byHenry 
Sampson, who was nine years his senior, Grew 
in 1670 put into his hands an essay on the 
subject, which he showed to Henry Olden- 
burg, secretary to the Royal Society, who in 
turn showed it to Bishop Wilkins, who read 
it to the Royal Society. It was approved and 
ordered to be printed on 11 May 1671, and 
the author was elected a fellow of the society 
on 30 Nov. Meanwhile Grew had graduated 
M.D. at Leyden in July. He inscribed his 
name in the Album Studiosorum on 6 July 
as ' Nehemias Grew, Warwicensis, Anglus, 
30, M. Cand.,' and seems to have read his 
inaugural dissertation on the 14th. It is 
entitled 'Disputatio medico-physica, inaugu- 
ralis, de Liquore Nervoso . . . pro gradu Doc- 
toratus . . . subjicit Nehemias Grew, Anglus, 
e Com. Warwicensi, die 14 Julii,' is dedi- 
cated to his father, Dr. Henry Sampson, and 
Dr. Abraham Clifford, and was printed at 
Leyden by John Elzevir's widow and heirs. 
Grew seems to have commenced practice at 

Coventry, but to have been soon invited to 
London, the correspondence on this subject 
being still preserved by the Royal Society. 
His preliminary essay, ' The Anatomy of 
Vegetables begun. With a General Account 
of Vegetation grounded thereon,' was pre- 
faced by a letter to Wilkins, dated Coventry, 
10 June 1671, and was published, with a dedi- 
cation to Lord Brouncker, president of the 
Royal Society, in 8vo, in 1672. It was there- 
fore undoubtedly in print by 7 Dec. 1671, 
when Marcello Malpighi's researches in the 
same direction were communicated to the so- 
ciety in manuscript (cf. A. POLLENDER, Wenn 
gebiihrt die Prioritdt in der Anatomic der 
Pflanzen dem Grew oder dem Malpighi f ' 1868). 
Malpighi subsequently had Grew's book trans- 
lated into Latin, and he, Wallis, Lister, and 
Leewenhoek confirmed by microscopical in- 
vestigation the observations Grew had made 
with the naked eye. His papers read to the 
society on 8 and 15 Jan. 1672 appeared with 
the title 'An Idea of a Phytological History 
propounded, with a Continuation of the Ana- 
tomy of Vegetables, particularly prosecuted 
upon Roots. And an Account of the Vegeta- 
tion of Roots chiefly grounded thereupon T 
(8vo, 1073 ; folio, 1682) ; and on 18 April 1672, 
on the proposal of Bishop Wilkins, he was 
made curator to the society for the anatomy of 
plants. Grew issued in 1675 ' The Compara- 
tive Anatomy of Trunks, with an Account of 
their Vegetation grounded thereupon,' the 
plates of which had been laid before the so- 
ciety in the two previous years. The author's 
corrected copy of this work is in the library 
of the British Museum. In 1675 he pub- 
lished the first of a series of chemical papers 
' Of the Nature, Causes, and Power of Mix- 
ture,' read before the society on 10 Dec. 
1674. This was followed by < A Discourse of 
the Diversities and Causes of Tasts chiefly in 
Plants,' read 25 March 1675 ; ' An Essay of 
the Various Proportions wherein the Lixivial 
Salt is found in Plants,' read March 1676 ; 
1 Experiments in consort of the Luctation aris- 
ing from the Affusion of several Menstruums 
upon all sorts of Bodies,' exhibited to the so- 
ciety in April and June 1676 ; * A Discourse 
concerning the Essential and Marine Salts of 
Plants,' read 21 Dec. 1676 ; ' Experiments in 
consort upon the Solution of Salts in Water/ 
read 18 Jan. 1677 ; and ' A Discourse of the 
Colours of Plants,' read 3 May 1677. These 
seven essays occupy eighty-four folio pages 
at the end of the 1682 edition of the ' Ana- 
tomy of Plants,' where they are printed 
with continuous pagination, but not in the 
order in which they were read. Simultane- 
ously with these researches of a chemical 
nature, Grew was prosecuting with remark- 




able industry his anatomical investigations. 
Though not published until 1682, ' The Ana- 
tomy of Leaves, Flowers, and Fruits' was 
read to the society on 26 Oct. and 9 Nov. 
1676 and in 1677 ; and the figures illustra- 
tive of the * Anatomy of Seeds ' were also 
exhibited in the latter year. In 1676 also 
he made a not unimportant contribution to 
animal anatomy in * The Comparative Ana- 
tomy of Stomachs and Guts begun,' a series 
of communications to the society, not pub- 
lished until 1681. On the death of Olden- 
burg in 1677, Grew became secretary to the 
society, and as such edited the ' Philosophical 
Transactions ' from January 1 678 to February 
1679. From the fact that he was admitted 
an honorary fellow of the College of Physi- 
cians on 30 Sept. 1680, as was also his half- 
brother, Henry Sampson, on the same date, 
we may gather that his scientific industry 
had not prevented his becoming profession- 
ally successful. Such success may well have 
led to his resignation of the secretaryship ; 
but his active co-operation with, the society 
was not discontinued, as was proved by his 
publication in 1681, ' by request,' of ' Museum 
Regalis Societatis, or a Catalogue and De- 
scription of the Natural and Artificial Rari- 
ties . . . preserved at Gresham Colledge.' This 
work, in 386 pages, folio, is illustrated by 
twenty-two plates, and to it is annexed ' The 
Comparative Anatomy of Stomachs,' &c., 43 
pages, with nine plates. In 1682 Grew's 
magnum opus, ' The Anatomy of Plants,' was 
issued. Of the four * books ' of this work, the 
first, second, and third are second editions of 
' The Anatomy begun,' ' The Anatomy of 
Roots,' and ' The Anatomy of Trunks,' ex- 
tending to 49, 46, and 44 folio pages respec- 
tively, and illustrated by four, thirteen, and 
twenty-three plates. The fourth book, dedi- 
cated to Boyle, includes ' The Anatomy of 
Leaves, Flowers, Fruits, and Seeds,' 72 pages, 
with forty-two plates. Among the struc- 
tural points clearly shown in these plates are 
the coats of the ovule and seed, the pulpy 
coat to that of the gooseberry, the cotyledons, 
plumule, and radicle of the embryo, the vas- 
cular bundles in leaf-stalks, the resin-ducts 
of the pine, the latex-vessels of the vine and 
the sumach, the folding of leaves in buds, 
superficial hairs and internal crystals, the 
structure of the minute flowers of the com- 
positae, the stamens, or ' attire,' as they were 
then termed,and their pollen-grains. Although 
it is commonly attributed, on the ground of 
a modest remark of Grew's, to Sir Thomas 
Millington, it is probable that to Grew him- 
self belongs the credit of first observing the 
true existence of sex in plants. Grew has 
suSered somewhat from an over-conciseness 

of style, and has been unfortunate in his 
translators. * The Anatomy begun ' was trans- 
lated into French by Le Vasseur in 1675, and 
the first three books of the ' Anatomy of 
Plants ' were badly rendered into Latin in 
Germany. In 1684 he issued both in Latin 
and English a pamphlet on 'New Experi- 
ments and Useful Observations concerning 
Sea-water made fresh according to the Pa- 
tentee's Invention,' which speedily went into 
ten English, besides French and Italian, 
editions. The process of boiling and con- 
densing, though approved by him, did not 
originate with him. In 1695 he issued 
'Tractatus de salis cathartici amari in aquis 
Ebeshamensibus . . . naturaetusu,' a descrip- 
tion of the salts present in the then popular 
Epsom wells, which was published in English 
two years later. Grew's last work was pub- 
lished in 1701. Its title is * Cosmologia Sacra, 
or a Discourse of the Universe, as it is the 
Creature and Kingdom of God.' It extends 
to 372 folio pages, and contains a portrait 
of the author, engraved by R. White from 
a painting by the same artist, formerly at 
Barber-Surgeons' Hall. The argument is 
specially directed against Spinoza, the nature 
of God being deduced a priori and a posteriori, 
from the necessity of His being and from His 
handiwork. As in Ray's 'Wisdom of God 
in Creation,' and other similar works, the argu- 
ment a posteriori begins with much borrowed 
astronomical learning ; but in a funeral ser- 
mon on the author we are assured, not only 
that he was 'acquainted with the theories of 
the Heavenly Bodies, skill'd in Mechanicks 
and Mathematicks, the Proportions of Lines 
and Numbers, and the Composition and Mix- 
ture of Bodies, particularly of the Human 
Body,' but also that he was 'well acquainted 
with the whole Body of Divinity/ and had 
studied Hebrew to more proficiency than most 
divines, so as to read the scriptures in the 
original. A copy of this work is in the British 
Museum, the first few pages of which are 
crowded with manuscript notes by Coleridge. 
The last of these is ' The culpa communis of 
Grew and his contemporaries was to assume 
as the measure of every truth its reduction to 
Geometric Imaginability.' Grew died sud- 
denly on 25 March 1712, as he was going his 
rounds, and was buried at Cheshunt parish 
church, in the Dodson family vault, he hav- 
ing married Elizabeth Dodson. He had at 
least one son and two daughters. From the 
sermon already mentioned, preached by his 
patient, the Rev. John Shower, at Old Jewry, 
and published as ' Enoch's Translation/ we 
gather that he was grave and serious, though 
affable, just, unselfish, and very charitable 
to the poor, and still active at the time of his 




death. Haller styles him < industrius ubique 
naturae observator,' and Linnseus dedicated to 
him the genus Grewia in Tiliacece. Besides 
the portrait above mentioned there is one 
published by Dr. Thornton. 

[Enoch's Translation, by the Rev. John Shower, 
1712; notice by Sir J. E. Smith in Rees's Cyclo- 
paedia; Munk's Coll. of Phys. i. 406 ; information 
supplied by Mrs. Elizabeth Grew.] G. S. B. 

GREW, OBADIAH, D.D. (1607-1689), 
ejected minister, third son of Francis Grew, 
who married (3 Sept. 1598) Elizabeth Deni- 
son, was born at Atherstone, Warwickshire, 
on 1 Nov. 1607, and baptised the same day 
at the parish church of Mancetter, War- 
wickshire. Francis Grew was a layman, 
originally of good estate but ' crush'd ' by 
prosecutions for nonconformity in the high 
commission court and Star-chamber. Obadiah 
was educated at Reading, under his uncle, 
John Denison, D.D. [q. v.], and was admitted 
a student at Balliol College, Oxford, in 1624, 
his tutor being Richard Trimnell. He gra- 
duated B.A. on 12 Feb. 1629, M.A. on 
5 July 1632. In 1632 he was elected master 
of the Atherstone grammar school. He was 
ordained in 1635 by Robert Wright, bishop 
of Coventry and Lichfield. He was proba- 
bly lecturer at Atherstone, as well as master 
of the school. At the outbreak of the civil 
war he sided with the parliamentary party. 
Among the thirty parliamentary divines who 
crowded into Coventry for safety in 1642 
were Richard Vines, rector of Weddington, 
Warwickshire, and Grew, his near neigh- 
bour. Both were appointed to preach at St, 
Michael's Church, which the royalist vicar. 
William Panting, had deserted. At the end 
of 1643 the covenant was taken in St.Michael's 
by all the parishioners. In March 1644 Grew 
obtained the vicarage from the city corpora- 
tion. As preacher and pastor he was greatly 
beloved. The vestry books of 1645 show 
some puritan changes ; the old font was re- 
placed by a new one, and the brass eagle 
was sold. The ' chymes,' however, were kept 
in order. In 1646 Grew took part with John 
Bryan, D.D. [q. v.], in a public disputation 
on infant baptism at Trinity Church, with 
Hanserd Knollys and another. Towards the 
end of 1648 Cromwell was in Coventry on his 
way to London from Scotland; Grew pleaded 
with him for the king's life, and is said to have 
obtained a satisfactory assurance. Later he 
sent, by private hand, to Cromwell at White- 
hall, a strong reminder. On 10 Oct. 1651 he 
accumulated the degrees of B.D. and D.D. at 
Oxford. In 1654 he was made assistant to 
the Warwickshire commission for removing 
scandalous ministers. He was a member of 

the Kenilworth classis or presbytery, which 
included over twenty churches. On 25 May 
1653, and again on 12 Nov. 1656, he wrote to 
the Coventry corporation, complaining of the 
non-payment of his dues. He approved the 
rising of the t new royalists ' in August 1659 
[see BOOTH, GEORGE, 1622-1684], and though 
threatened by Lambert's soldiers, then hold- 
ing Coventry, refused to read the proclamation 
against Booth, as required by authority. He 
welcomed the Restoration. 

Unable to comply with the Uniformity Act 
of 1662, he resigned his living. His bishop, 
John Hacket [q. v.], was anxious to retain 
him, and gave him leave to preach a month 
beyond the appointed day (24 Aug.) without 
conforming ; at the end of September he 
preached his farewell sermon. The corpora- 
tion seems to have continued some allowance 
to him. In 1665, when the alarm of the plague 
thinned the pulpits throughout the country, 
Grew, like other nonconformists, began to 
hold public meetings for worship. The en- 
forcement of the Five Mile Act, which took 
effect on 25 March 1666, compelled him to 
remove from Coventry. He returned on the 
indulgence of 15 March 1672, took out a 
license, and, in conjunction with Bryan, 
founded a presbyterian congregation. On 
the withdrawal of the indulgence (1673) the 
conventicle was connived at by the corpora- 
tion in spite of Arlington's remonstrances. 
On Bryan's death (1675) his brother, Gervase 
Bryan, took his place. Grew began to train 
youths for the ministry, one of his pupils 
being Samuel Pomfret [q. v.] Captain Hick- 
man of Barnacle, Warwickshire, unsuccess- 
fully appeared as an informer against Grew, 
claiming a fine of 100Z. in the recorder's court. 
At length in 1682 Grew, who had lost his 
eyesight, was convicted of a breach of the 
Five Mile Act, and imprisoned for six months 
in Coventry gaol. While in prison, and in his 
retirement from Coventry after his release, 
he every week dictated a sermon to an amanu- 
ensis, who read it to four or five shorthand 
writers, each of whom got several copies made ; 
it was thus available for simultaneous use in 
twenty clandestine meetings. On 8 Jan. 1685 
nearly two hundred persons were imprisoned 
at Coventry for frequenting these conven- 
ticles. James's declaration for liberty of con- 
science (11 April 1687) restored Grew to his 
congregation, who obtained a grant of St. 
Nicholas' Hall (the ' Leather Hall ') in West 
Orchard, and fitted it up as a presbyterian 
meeting-house. Here Grew officiated till Sep- 
tember 1689. He died on 22 Oct. following, 
and was buried in the chancel of St. Michael's. 
No portrait of him is known, but there is a 
rare engraving of his wife. He married 




(25 Dec. 1637) Helen (born February 1603, 
died 19 Oct. 1687), daughter of Gregory Vicars 
of Treswell, Nottinghamshire, widow of Wil- 
liam Sampson of South Leverton, Notting- 
hamshire, and mother of Henry Sampson, 
M.D. [q. v.] His only son was Nehemiah 
[q. v.] : he had also a daughter Mary (d. 
1703), married to John Willes, M.A., a non- 
conformist scholar, who though ordained 
never preached, and retired after Grew's death 
to his estate at Spratton, Northamptonshire. 

He published : 1. His ' Farewell Sermon/ 
1663, 4to, Acts xx. 32. 2. ' A Sinner's Justi- 
fication/ ,tc.,1670,4to, 1698, 1785 (in Welsh). 
3. ' Meditations upon Our Saviour's Parable 
of the Prodigal,' &c., 1678, 4to. 

Grew's eldest brother Jonathan (died be- 
fore June 1646) was father of JONATHAN 
GREW (1626-1711). The latter was educated 
at Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, was preacher 
at Framlingham, Suffolk, and tutor in the 
family of Lady Hales, first at Coventry, and 
afterwards at Caldecote Hall, Warwickshire. 
Bishop Hacket offered him in 1062 a prebend 
at Lichfield in addition to the rectory of Calde- 
cote, but he declined to conform, kept a school 
at Newington Green, and finally became the 
first minister (1698-1711) of the presbyterian 
congregation at Dagnal Lane, St. Albans, 
Hertfordshire. He was buried in the abbey 
church there. 

[Wood's Athense Oxon. (Bliss), iv. 265; Wood's 
Fasti, i. 438, 465, ii. 166, 167; Calamy's Account, 
1713, pp. 736 sq., 751 ; Calamy's Continuation, 
1727,ii. 850 sq.(his information is from Jonathan 
Grew and Dr. H. Sampson) ; Hall's Apologia 
pro Ministerio Anglicano, 1658 (dedication); 
Walker's Sufferings of the Clergy, 1714, ii. 153 ; 
Palmer's Nonconformist Memorial, 1803, iii. 343; 
Toulmin's Historical View of Protestant Dis- 
senters, 1814, p. 245 ; Monthly [Repository. 1819, 
p. 600 ; Merridew's Catalogue of Warwickshire 
Portraits, 1848. p. 29; Sibree and Causton's In- 
dependency in Warwickshire, 1855, pp. 23, 26 sq. ; 
Christian Keformer, 1862, p. 154; Poole's Hist, 
of Coventry, 1870, pp. 161, 163, 165, 375, 378; 
Urwick's Nonconformity in Herts, 1884, pp. 188 
sq. ; excerpts from parish registers at Mancetter, 
kindly furnished by Mrs. E. Grew.] A. G. 

GREY. [See also GRAY.] 

GREY, ANCHITELL (d. 1702), com- 
piler of 'Debates of the House of Commons,' 
belonged to the Greys of Groby, being the 
second son of Henry, first earl of Stamford 
[q. v.], by his wife, Anne Cecil, youngest 
daughter and coheiress of William, earl of 
Exeter (COLLINS, Peerage, ed. Brydges, iii. 
359). He was a younger brother of Thomas, 
lord Grey of Groby (1623 P-1657) [q. v.], and 
was therefore probably not born before 1624. 
He was one of the commissioners for the asso- 

ciated county of Dorset who attended upon 
Prince Charles at Bridgewater, Somerset- 
shire, on 23 April 1645 (CLARENDON, Hist. 
ed. 1849, iv. 21). He was elected for Derby 
on 16 Feb. 1664-5 in the place of Roger 
Allestry, deceased, was not returned at the 
election of 1685, but sat in the Convention 
of January 1688-9 and in the parliament of 
March 1 689-90 (Lists of Members of Parlia- 
ment, Official Return of, pt. i.) In 1681 he 
was deputy-lieutenant for Leicestershire. He 
acted as chairman of several parliamentary 
committees, and deciphered Edward Cole- 
man's letters for the use of the house. He 
took notes of the debates for his own con- 
venience, which were collected and printed 
as ' Debates of the House of Commons from 
1667 to 1694,' 10 vols. 8vo, London, 1769. 
Grey was present at nearly all the transac- 
tions which he describes. A few were com- 
municated to him by members, whom he 
generally names. His work was mentioned 
with approbation from the chair of the House 
of Commons by Speaker Onslow, who had 
had occasion to refer to it when still in 
manuscript. Onslow, in a note in Burnet's 
' Own Time ' (Oxford ed. ii. 109), states that 
some part of the work ' was made by Mr. 
Richard May, recorder of and member for 
Ghichester.' Grey died at Risley, Derby- 
shire, in June or July 1702 (LuTTRELL, Brief 
Historical Relation of State Affairs, 1857, 
v. 194), and was buried by his wife in the 
neighbouring church of Little Wilne. By 
his wife, Anne (d. 1688), widow of Sir Thomas 
Aston, bart., of Aston, Cheshire, and daugh- 
ter and coheiress of Sir Henry Willoughby, 
bart., of Risley, Derbyshire, he had a son, 
Willoughby, who died unmarried in 1701, 
and a daughter, Elizabeth, who died, also 
unmarried, in 1721. Miss Grey largely in- 
creased in 1718 the endowment of the three 
schools at Risley founded by her ancestor, Sir 
Michael Willoughby, in 1583. She had pre- 
viously supplied two residences, one for the 
Latin master and one for the English master 
(LYSONS, Mayna Britannia, v. 249-51 ; will 
proved in April 1722, P. C. C. 73, Marl- 

[Nichols's Leicestershire, vol. iii. p. ii. p. 682; 
Kelly's Directory of Derbyshire, 1888, p. 53.] 

G. G. 

GREY , ARTHUR, fourteenth LORD GREY 
DE WILTON (] 536-1 593), the eldest son of 
William, lord Grey de Wilton [q. v.] and 
Mary, daughter of Charles, earl of Worcester, 
was born at Hammes, in the English Pale in 
France, in 1536 (BANKS, Dormant and Ex- 
tinct Baronaye, ii. 231 ; LIPSCOMBE, Bucking- 
hamshire, iii. 502). Trained up almost from 
infancy in a knowledge of military matters, 




he saw active service at the battle of St. 
Quentin in 1557, and was present at the siege 
and surrender of Guisnes in 1558. Of this 
siege he afterwards wrote a long account, in- 
corporated by Holinshed in his ' Chronicle,' 
and since edited by Sir P. de M. Grey Egerton 
for the Camden Society (1847). After a 
short detention in France he returned to Eng- 
land, where he seems to have found employ- 
ment under Cecil, and to have been chiefly 
occupied in procuring his father's ransom 
(Cal. State Papers, Foreign, ii. 68, 361, iii. 
490). After his father's release he accom- 
panied him on an expedition into the north, 
nominally to reinforce the garrison at Ber- 
wick, but really to keep an eye on the move- 
ments of the French in Leith (FROUDE, Hist . 
of England, vii. 154). On 28 March 1560 
the English army crossed the borders and 
besieged Leith. During a sharp skirmish with 
the garrison on 10 April he was wounded, 
but not dangerously, being able to take part 
in the subsequent assault (HAYNES, Burghley \ 
Papers, p. 294 ; Cal. State Papers, For. v. 28). j 
On the death of his father on 25 Dec. 1562 ! 
he succeeded to the title, and to an inheri- | 
tance much impoverished by reason of his i 
father's ransom. Taking up his residence at j 
Whaddon in Buckinghamshire, he appears to 
have quietly devoted himself to his duties as 
chief magistrate in the county, being particu- 
larly zealous in propagating the reformed re- 
ligion (LYSONS, Magna Britannia, p. 662 ; Cal. 
State Papers, Dom. i. 564). More than once 
during his lifetime Whaddon Hall was graced j 
by the presence of Elizabeth in the course of ; 
her annual progresses (NiCHOLS, Progresses 
of Queen Elizabeth, i. 254, iii. 660). In 1571 j 
there was some question of sending him to j 
Ireland as lord deputy in succession to Sir | 
Henry Sidney ; but the post, if an honour- j 
able one, was a costly one, and the idea of | 
being obliged to go on the queen's terms so 
preyed upon him as to make him positively 
ill. Finally the question was decided in fa- 
vour of Sir William Fitzwilliam (1526-1599) 
[q. v.] (Grey to Burghley, Lansdowne MSS. 
xiv. 83 ; BAGWELL, Ireland under the Tudors, 
ii. 207). On 17 June 1572 he was installed a 
knight of the Garter (Cal. State Papers,~Dom., 
i. 446). In the following year he was involved 
in a serious quarrel with Sir John Fortescue, 
owing apparently to Grey's appointment as 
keeper of Whaddon Chase and steward of 
Olney Park. The quarrel, according to For- 
tescue, culminated in a brutal attack upon 
him by Grey and John Zouche in the neigh- 
bourhood of Chancery Lane and Temple Bar. 
For this, or for some unknown reason, Grey 
was shortly afterwards confined to the Fleet, 
where he remained for several months, con- 

tumaciously refusing to surrender a certain 
document required from him (Lansdowne 
MSS. vii. 54, xvi. 21, xviii. 87 ; State Papers, 
Dom. Eliz. xciii. 1). How the matter ended 
we do not know ; but Grey had a powerful 
ally in Lord Burghley, and it may be pre- 
sumed from the fact that he was one of the 
peers appointed for the trial of the Duke of 
Norfolk in 1574 that his detention was of short 
duration. His conduct gave great offence to 
Elizabeth, who long rejected his applications 
for employment. Nevertheless she appointed 
him lord deputy of Ireland in July 1580. In a 
letter to the Earl of Sussex Grey deplored the 
fate which sent him to ' that unlucky place.' 
Ireland was everywhere in a state of rebel- 
lion. Doubtful of his own ability to cope 
with the difficulties before him, he earnestly 
solicited the advice of the Earl of Sussex and 
Sir Henry Sidney ; while Elizabeth, fearing 
that his religious zeal might only make mat- 
ters worse, added to his instructions a private 
caution not to be overstrict in matters of re- 
ligion (Cal. Carew MSS. ii. 277 ; Cox, Hib.- 
Anglic.: State Papers, Ireland, Eliz. Ixxix. 25). 
On Friday morning, 12 Aug., he landed at 
Dublin with the poet Spenser as his secretary 
(Lib. Hid.} The news of his appointment had 
already exercised a salutary influence on the 
situation of affairs, and prevented many from 
joining Lord Baltinglas in his rebellion (Cal. 
Papers, Ireland, ii. 237). At the time of his 
arrival Sir William Pelham, on whom the go- 
vernment had devolved since the death of Sir 
William Drury [q. v.], was busily engaged in 
prosecuting the war against the Earl of Des- 
mond in Monster. Grey, however, took ad- 
vantage of a clause in his patent to take upon 
himself the government of the country with- 
out waiting for formal investiture, and re- 
solved to attack Lord Baltinglas, who, with 
Pheagh Mac Hugh O'Byrne and other rebels, 
had secured themselves in the fastnesses of 
Glendalough in Wicklow (State Papers, Ire- 
land, Eliz., Ixxv. 40 : SPENSER, State of Ire- 
land ; CAMDEN, Annales ; Cal. HatfieldMSS. 
ii. 339). The expedition, owing to an ' un- 
lucky accident,' or, as Grey added reverently, 
' through God's appointment,' proved a ter- 
rible disaster, 'and baleful Oure,late stained 
with English blood,' furnished him with a 
severe but salutary lesson in the methods of 
Irish warfare (Cal. Papers, Ireland, ii. 247). 
The disaster was an accident, and Eliza- 
beth was easily appeased by Burghley (State 
Papers, Ixxvi. 27). Early in September Pel- 
ham arrived in Dublin; but hardly had Grey 
received from him the sword of state when the 
news arrived that a foreign force had landed 
in Kerry, and were entrenching themselves 
in the Fort del Ore. Fortunately the north 




was quiet, and Grey hoped with a butt or 
two of sack to confirm Turlough O'Neill in 
his allegiance. Accordingly, leaving the Earl 
of Kildare to prosecute the war against Lord 
Baltinglas and the rebels of the Pale, he took 
his way, accompanied by Captains Rawley 
and Zouche, at the head of eight hundred 
men, towards Limerick. The weather was 
bad and the ways almost impassable, and it 
was not until 7 Nov. that he was able to sit 
down formally before the Fort del Ore. On 
the 10th the fort surrendered at discretion. 
' Morning came,' he wrote to Elizabeth ; ' 1 
presented my companies in battaile before y e 
Forte. Y e coronell comes forth w th x or xii 
trayling theyr en- 

of his chiefe ientlemen 

signes rolled up, & presented y m unto mee 
w th theyr liues & y e Forte. I sent streight 
certein gentlemen in to see their weapons 
and armures layed downe & to gard y e mu- 
nition and victaile there lefte for spoile. 
Then pute I in certeyn bands, who streight 
fell to execution. There were 600 slayne 
. . . whereof 400 were as gallant and goodly 
personages as of any [illeg.] I euer beheld. 
So hath y e pleased y e L. of hostes to deliuer 
y r enemie into y r Hig. handes, and so too, as, 
one onely excepted, not one of yours is els 
lost or hurte ' (State Papers, Ireland, Eliz. 
lxxviii.29; O'SULLEVAN, Hist. Ibern. Compen- 
dium,^. 112, 115, 116). Meanwhile the Lein- 
ster rebels were busy pillaging and burning 
the towns of the Pale, while the Earl of Kil- 
dare was conniving or helplessly looking on. 
Accordingly leaving Zouche and the Earl of 
Ormonde to complete his work in Munster, 
Grey returned by forced marches to Dublin, 
just in time to frustrate a plot to overthrow 
the government ( Cat. Papers, Ireland, ii. 273). 
Hardly, however, had he averted this danger 
and incarcerated the Earl of Kildare and Lord 
Delvin, on suspicion of complicity in the plot, 
when his attention was distracted by fresh 
disturbances in the north, where a renewal 
of hostilities was threatened between O'Don- 
nell and Turlough O'Neill. After a hurried 
expedition into Carlow against the Kavanaghs 
and their allies, who were as usual burning 
and plundering whatever they could lay their 
hands on, he turned his steps in July 1581 
northward against Turlough O'Neill (ib. ii. 
314). His success in this direction exceeded 
his most sanguine expectations. On 2 Aug. 
O'Neill consented to ratify the treaty of Sep- 
tember 1580, and to abide by the decision of 
the commissioners to be appointed to arbitrate 
between him and O'Donnell (ib. ii. 315). Re- 
tracing his steps he determined to prosecute 
the rebels of Leinster, Baltinglas, Pheagh 
Mac Hugh, and the rest, with the utmost 
vigour (ib. ii. 314). But the unexpected sub- 

mission of O'Neill had completely cowed 
them, and even Pheagh Mac Hugh offered to 
submit, proffering as pledges of his good be- 
haviour his own son and uncle (MuRDiN, 
Burghley Papers, p. 356). Their submission 
came very opportunely, for Grey had long- 
suspected the Earl of Ormonde of undue ten- 
derness towards his relatives of the house of 
Desmond in his conduct of the war in Mun- 
ster. He resolved to visit the province in 
person, and started about the middle of Sep- 
tember (Cal. Papers, Ireland, ii. 317). There 
he found everything at low ebb, owing, he com- 
plained, to the pernicious practice of grant- 
ing general pardons to the rebels, ' whereby 
the soldiers were letted from the destruction 
of their corn ' (MuBDiN, Burghley Papers, p. 
363). After visiting Waterford, Dungarvan, 
Lismore, Youghal, and Cork, he appointed 
Colonel Zouche to the chief command, and 
shortly afterwards returned to Dublin. Grey 
was shrewd enough to recognise that his suc- 
cess was only temporary, and that the Irish 
were only biding their time. His enemies 
irritated him by persistent, though easily re- 
butted, charges. Elizabeth's temporising 
policy in religious matters ill harmonised with 
his fervent zeal. His very success seemed to 
create fresh difficulties, and it was with ill- 
concealed disgust that he received her order 
for the reduction of the army to three thou- 
sand men (Cal. Papers, Ireland, ii. 335, 345). 
His position became more and more intoler- 
able, and hardly a post left Ireland without an 
earnest petition from him for his recall. At 
last the welcome letter arrived, and commit- 
ting the government to Archbishop Loftus 
and Treasurer Wallop, he set sail for Eng- 
land on 31 Aug. 1582. His wife and family 
still remained in Dublin, and his friends were 
not without hope that he might be restored 
to them with fuller powers. But on 5 Nov. 
the Bishop of Meath wrote sorrowfully that 
the departure of the deputy's ' virtuous and 
godly lady taketh away all hope to see his 
lordship again ' (ib. ii. 410). 

Overwhelmed by debt, mainly incurred in 
Ireland, Grey retired to Whaddon, where he 
passed the remainder of his life. In 1586 
there was some talk of sending him into the 
Low Countries at the urgent request of the 
Earl of Leicester, and Elizabeth offered to 
remit part of his debt and ' stall ' the rest if 
lie would consent to go. For a year the 
negotiations hung fire, when they were ab- 
ruptly terminated, just on the eve of his de- 
parture, by the return of Leicester (Leycester 
Correspondence, pp. 55, 302-4, 449, 452). In 
the same year he was appointed one of the 
commissioners for the trial of Mary Queen of 
Scots, and on the occasion of the trial of the 




secretary, William Davison [q. v.], in the year 
following he delivered a forcible and coura- 
geous speech ' religionis ardore inflamma- 
tus,' says Camden in his defence. In an- 
ticipation of the Spanish invasion he was in 
October 1587 commissioned to muster and 
arm the tenants of Wilton and Brampton in 
Hertfordshire, and was one of those to whom 
the task of placing the kingdom in a state of 
defence was entrusted in the following year 
(Cal. State Papers, Dom., ii. 433 ; Addenda, 
iii. 248). The rest of his life was unevent- 
ful, and he died on 14 Oct. 1593, aged 57, 
and was buried at Whaddon, where a monu- 
ment was erected to his memory (LiPSCOMBE, 
Buckinghamshire, iii. 502). 

Grey married : first, Dorothy, natural daugh- 
ter of Richard, lord Zouche of Haryngworth, 
by whom he had an only daughter, Eliza- 
beth, who married Sir Francis Gardiner of 
Winchester ; secondly, Jane Sibylla, daugh- 
ter of Sir Richard Morison of Cashiobury in 
Hertfordshire, and widow of Francis, second 
earl of Bedford, by whom he had Thomas, 
his heir [q. v.] ; William, who died in 1605, 
aged 13, and was buried in Magdalen College 
Chapel, Oxford ; and a daughter Bridget, who 
married Sir Rowland Egerton of Egerton and 
Oulton, Cheshire. 

[Banks's Dormant and Extinct Baronage ; Lips- 
combe's Buckinghamshire ; Lysons's Mngna Bri- 
tannia ; Nichols's Progresses of Queen Elizabeth ; 
Haynes's Burghley Papers ; Murdin's Burghley 
Papers ; Calendars of State Papers, Foreign, 
Domestic, and Irish ; Calendar Carew MSS. ; 
Calendar Hatfield MSS.; Lansdowne MSS.; 
Spenser's Present State of Ireland, and Faerie 
Queene,bk. v., containing the well-known defence 
of Grey's Irish policy, ' the champion of true jus- 
tice, Artegall,' of great poetic beauty and per- 
sonal interest, but of slight historic value ; Cam- 
den's Annales ; Liber Hibernise ; Cox's Hibernia 
Anglicana ; O'Sullevan's Historise Ibernise Com- 
pendium ; Leycester Correspondence (Camd. Soc.); 
A Commentary of the Services and Charges of 
William, lord Grey of Wilton. K.G., by his eon 
Arthur, lord Grey of Wilton.. KG. (Camd. Soc.) ; 
Froude's Hist, of England ; Bagwell's Ireland 
under the Tudors ; Church's Spenser.] R. D. 


(1729-1807), general, was second surviving 
son of Sir Henry Grey, first baronet of 
Ho wick, Northumberland. The father was 
high sheriff of thatcounty in 1738,was created 
a baronet in 1746, and died in 1749, having 
married in 1720 Hannah, daughter of Thomas 
Wood of Falloden, near Alnwick. By her, 
who died in 1764, he had, with other issue, 
two sons Henry, second baronet (died un- 

married in 1808), and Charles, who became the 
first earl Grey. Charles was born at Howick 
in 1729, and at the age of nineteen obtained 
an ensigncy of foot. He was a lieutenant 
from 23 Dec. 1752, in 6th foot (Guise's), then 
at Gibraltar. His name appears in the ' An- 
nual Army List ' for 1754, the first published 
officially. Having raised men for an inde- 
pendent company he became captain 21 March 
1755, and on 31 May was brought into the 20th 
foot, of which Wolfe was lieutenant-colonel. 
He served with the regiment in the Rochefort 
expedition of 1757, and went with it to Ger- 
many the year after, where his regiment won 
great fame at Minden 1 Aug. 1759, on which 
occasion Grey was wounded while acting as 
aide-de-camp to Prince Ferdinand of Bruns- 
wick. He was again wounded in command 
of the light company of the regiment at 
Campen, 14 Oct. 1760. On 21 Jan. 1761 
he was promoted to lieutenant-colonel-com- 
mandant of the newly raised 98th foot, the 
earliest of several regiments so numbered in 
succession. He is said to have served with 
it at the siege of Belle Isle. The regiment, 
which was formed at Chichester, served at 
the siege of Belle Isle in 1761 and the cap- 
ture of Havana in 1762, and was disbanded 
at the peace of 1763, when Grey was placed 
on half-pay. He became colonel in the army 
and king's aide-de-camp in 1772. 

In 1776 he went out with the reinforce- 
ments under General Howe, and received the 
local rank of major-general in America, which 
was made substantive two years later. He 
displayed a vigour and activity in which 
many other English leaders were conspicu- 
ously wanting. On 21 Sept. 1777 he sur- 
prised a force under the American general 
Anthony W T ayne, and routed it with great 
loss, a success bitterly resented by the Ameri- 
cans. Grey had taken the precaution to have 
the flints removed from his men's muskets, 
to prevent any possible betrayal of their ad- 
vance, from which incident he acquired the 
nickname of ' No-flint Grey.' He commanded 
the third brigade of the army at the battle 
of Germantown, Philadelphia, 4 Oct. 1777. 
In the autumn of 1778 he inflicted heavy loss 
on the enemy by the capture and destruction 
of stores at New Bedford and Martha's Vine- 
yard. Soon after his return thence he sur- 
prised Bayler's corps of Virginian dragoons 
near New Tappan, and, according to Ameri- 
can accounts, annihilated the entire regiment 
(APPLETON, Diet.} On his return home in 
1782 Grey, who had been appointed major- 
general and colonel of the 28th foot in 1778, 
was promoted to lieutenant-general and made 
K.B. He was also appointed commander- 
in-chief in America, but the war having come 




to an end he never took up the command. In 
1785 Grey was one of a board of land and ! 
sea officers nominated by the king, under the 
presidency of the Duke of Richmond, to in- 
vestigate the question of the defenceless state 
of the dockyards. Grey was one of the ma- 
jority of the board which reported in favour 
of fortifying both Portsmouth and Plymouth. 
A motion to that effect, introduced by Mr. 
Pitt on 27 Feb. 1786, was lost on division 
by the casting vote of the speaker (Part. 
Debates, vol. xxv.) In 1787 Grey was trans- 
ferred to the colonelcy of the 8th dragoons, 
and in 1789 to that of the 7th dragoon 
guards. In 1793 Grey and Jervis (afterwards 
Earl St. Vincent) were appointed to com- ; 
mand a combined expedition against the re- j 
volted French West India islands. Before it 
sailed the Duke of York had retired from be- ] 
fore Dunkirk, and the ports of Nieuport and ; 
Ostend were in immediate peril. Grey was 
accordingly despatched with a small force 
to relieve Nieuport, a service which he ef- 
fected. On his return the expedition, which 
was marked by the perfect accord between ' 
the two services, left England for Barbadoes, 
23 Nov. 1793. Martinique was reduced in 
March 1794, and St. Lucia, the Saints, and j 
Guadeloupe were taken in April. At the 
beginning of June the same year a superior 
French force from Rochefort regained posses- 
sion of Guadeloupe, the British garrison, 
which was greatly reduced by fever, being 
inadequate to hold it. On receiving the news 
Grey and Jervis, who were at St. Kitts pre- 
paring to return home, collected such forces 
as were available and attempted the recap- 
ture of Guadeloupe, but without success. 
Grey returned home in II.M.S. Boyne in 
November 1794. On his return he was pro- 
moted to general, made a privy councillor, 
and transferred to the colonelcy of the 20th 
or Jamaica light dragoons ; thence in 1799 
he was removed to that of the 3rd dragoons 
(now 3rd hussars). 

At the time of the mutiny at the Nore in 
1797, Grey, who appears to have had a know- 
ledge of naval matters, was selected for the 
command at Sheerness in the event of its 
becoming necessary to reduce the mutineers 
by the fire of the defences. lie commanded 
what was then known as the southern dis- 
trict, consisting of the counties of Kent, 
Sussex, and Surrey, in 1798-9, during which 
time he resided and had his headquarters at 
Barham Court, near Canterbury. After his 
retirement from active service Grey was 
raised to the peerage by patent, on 23 May 
1801, under the title of Baron Grey de 
Howick, in the county of Northumberland. 
On 11 April 1806 he was advanced to the 

dignities of Viscount Howick and Earl Grey. 
He also had the governorship of Guernsey 
in the place of that of Dumbarton, previously 
held by him. 

Grey married, 8 June 1762, Elizabeth, 
daughter of George Grey of Southwick, 
county Durham, and by her, who died in 
1822, had five sons and two daughters. He 
died at Howick 14 Nov. 1807, and was suc- 
ceeded in the title by his eldest son, Charles, 
second earl Grey, K.G. [q. v.j His fifth son, 
Edward (1782-1837), was bishop of Here- 
ford from 1832 to 1837 (see Gent. Mag. 
1837, ii. 311), and was fat her of Sir William 
Grey (1818-1878) [q. v.] 

[Collins's Peerage (1812 ed.), vol. v.; Foster's 
Peerage ; Annual Army Lists ; Sykes's Local 
Records, i. 193 (notice of first Sir Henry Grey); 
Keatson's Nav. and Mil. Memoirs, vols. iii-vi.; 
Appleton's Amer. Biog. Diet.; Ross's Cornwallis 
Corresp. i. 155, ii. 284; Rev. J. Cooper Will- 
yams's Campaign in the West Indies in 1794; 
Cannon's Historical Records, 20th Foot and 3rd 
Light Dragoons; Gent. Mag. 1807 (which contains 
the absurd misstatement that Grey was the last 
surviving officer present with Wolfe at Quebec). 
A letter from Grey, addressed to Earl St. Vin- 
cent in 1805, forms Addit. MS. 29915, f. 31. A 
bundle of about sixty letters from Grey on naval 
matters, the dates ranging from 1761 to 1794, 
are noted in Hist. MSS. Comm. 4th Rep. p. 230, 
as preserved among the Marquis of Lansdowne's 
MSS.] H. M. C. 

1845), statesman, eldest surviving son of Ge- 
neral Sir Charles Grey, K.B., afterwards first 
Earl Grey [q. v.], by his wife Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of George Grey of Southwick, Durham, 
was born at his father's seat at Fallodon, near 
Alnwick in Northumberland, on 13 March 
1764. When he was six years old he was 
sent to a preparatory school in Marvlebone, 
London, where he remained very unhappily 
for three years, and was then removed to Eton. 
Subsequently he went to King's College, 
Cambridge, where he took several prizes for 
English composition and declamation, and 
his school verses, contributed to the l MUSJB 
Etonenses,' published in 1795, prove him to 
have been a good classical scholar ; but, in 
his own opinion, he did not owe much to his 
career at school or college. He quitted Cam- 
bridge in 1784, and travelled in the suite of 
Henry, duke of Cumberland, in France, Italy, 
and some parts of Germany. In July 1786 
he was returned member for Northumberland, 
which he continued to represent until in 1807 
he declined to contest the seat again on the 
ground of the expense of the election. His 
first speech in the House of Commons was 




made in opposition to an address of thanks 
to the crown for Pitt's commercial treaty with 
France on 21 Feb. 1787, and it at once placed 
him in the first rank of parliamentary debaters. 
Addington says that he i went through his 
first performance with an 6clat which has not 
been equalled within my recollection.' Dis- 
senting from the opinions of his family he 
attached himself early and indissolubly to the 
opposition, and became one of Fox's most 
trusted lieutenants. Shortly after his first 
speech he was named one of the managers o 
the impeachment of Warren Hastings, anc 
undertook in particular that portion of tin- 
case which related to the treatment of Chey 
Singh. He took part in the debates on the 
Prince of Wales's debts in 1787, and on the 
question of the regency in 1788. (For his 
refusal to assist the Prince of Wales in deny- 
ing the marriage with Mrs. Fitzherbert see 
RUSSELL, Memorials of Fox, ii. 289 ; HOL- 
LAND, Memoirs of the Whiff Party, ii. 139 ; 
MOOEE, Sheridan, i. 447-8, and Quarterly 
Review, xciv. 420). From this time until 
1801 he continued, especially upon his war 
policy, a steady opponent of Pitt ; at the same 
time he strenuously denounced the course 
taken by the leaders of the French revolu- 
tion, and discountenanced the extreme demo- 
crats whom the example of France stirred 
into activit^ in England. He was a member 
of the Whig Club, and having joined the 
1 Society of the Friends of the People,' for 
furthering constitutional reform, was chosen 
to present its parliamentary petition, and 
took principal charge of the question of par- 
liamentary reform, which remained under his 
guidance for forty years. On 30 April 1792 
he gave notice that he would introduce the 
question in the following session, and accord- 
ingly in 1793 moved to refer the petition of 
the ' Friends of the People ' to a committee ; 
but in this and succeeding sessions he failed 
in this endeavour, and a specific plan of re- 
form, which he proposed in 1797, was de- 
feated by 256 to 91 votes. (For his later 
criticism upon the ' Friends of the People,' 
and his own share in the society, see GENERAL 
GREY, Life of Earl Grey, pp. 10-11 ; HOL- 
LAND, Memoirs of the Whig Party, i. 15 ; 
EUSSELL, Memorials of Fox, iii. 22.) 

When not occupied in parliament he lived 
principally in Northumberland or with his 
father, then general in command of the south 
of England. In 1794, on 18 Nov., he mar- 
ried Mary Elizabeth, daughter of William 
Brabazon Ponsonby, afterwards first Lord 
Ponsonby, of Imokilly and Bishop's Court, 
Kildare. He lived during the sessions of 
1795 to 1798 in Hertford Street, Mayfair, 
and in 1799 took a house on Ham Common 

for two years ; the recess he principally 
I spent at Howick, or with Lord Frederick 
i Cavendish at Holker in Lancashire. His 

marriage brought him into intimate relations 
! with the principal members of the liberal 
! party in Ireland, and gave him new interest 
| and knowledge of Irish affairs. In 1798 he 

1 was a witness to character on behalf of 
I Arthur O'Connor, who was tried at Maid- 

i stone for complicity in the Irish rebellion, 
and he was strongly opposed to the existing 
system of government in Ireland. He con- 
stantly resisted any attempt on the part of 
ministers to evade responsibility by shelter- 
ing themselves under the royal prerogative, 
and demanded that full information should 
be laid before parliament in regard to mili- 
tary operations. Thus, he moved for papers 
relative to the convention with Spain on 
13 Dec. 1790; he moved resolutions respect- 
ing the preparations for a Russian war on 
12 April 1791 ; he moved for information re- 
specting the cause of the fresh armament on 

2 June in the same year, and opposed strongly 
what he considered the unnecessary war with 
the French republic in an address to the 
crown on 21 Feb. 1792, which was negatived 
without a division. He also opposed the 
treaties with Sardinia in 1794. But when 
war had once begun he was strongly in favour 
of its vigorous prosecution. In accordance 
with his general opposition to Pitt he spoke 
against the suspension of the Habeas Corpus 
Act in 1794, the Traitorous Correspondence 
and Seditious Meetings Bills in 1795, and the 
Alien Bill in 1799, and moved that the ex- 

stence of a republic in France ought not to 

3e an obstacle to peace. He also moved the 
reduction of the grant to the Prince of Wales 
from 65,000/. to 40,000/., in which he was 
defeated by 169 votes. After the rejection of 
his motion for reform in 1797 he joined in the 

general whig secession from parliamentary 
attendance, a course which he afterwards re- 
gretted ; but, unlike Fox and the party in 
general, he appeared in his place in 1800 to 
esist step by step the progress of the Act of 

Jnion, being prompted in this by his ac- 

[uaintance with the Irish liberal leaders. 

)ne of his grounds of opposition was the 
belief that the addition of a hundred Irish 
members to the House of Commons in its 
unreformed state would only increase .the 
mrliamentary predominance of ministers, 

nd he wished to provide seats for the Irish 
members by purchasing and extinguishing 

n equal number of English rotten boroughs. 
In 1801 a great change in his mode of life 

ook place by his establishment at Howick 
n Northumberland, between Berwick and 
Newcastle, then the property of his uncle, 




Sir Harry Grey, to which he was much at- 
tached, and where he afterwards spent most 
of his time when absent from parliament. 
A very pleasant description of this place 
and of the family life there is given by 
his son, General Grey (Life of Lord Grey, 
p. 402). This greater remoteness from Lon- 
don (four days' journey), coupled with a 
growing indisposition to play a public part, 
owing to his father's unwelcome acceptance 
of a peerage from Addington, and the conse- 
quent prospect of his own removal from the 
House of Commons, and the serious expense 
of frequent journeys to town or much resi- 
dence there, helped considerably to detach 
him from politics during the last years of 
Fox's life. It was with difficulty- that he 
could be induced to come to London even on 
important occasions, and when there his dis- 
tress at his absence from home considerably 
impaired his value as a counsellor. Fox was 
obliged to write to him begging him to bring 
his wife to town with him. * God knows,' 
he said, ' when you are in town without her 
you are unfit for anything, with all your 
thoughts at Howick, and as the time for 
which your stay may be necessary may be un- 
certain you will both be in a constant fidget 
and misery.' He remained at Howick during 
the whole of 1802, but he came to town in the 
spring of 1803, while the question of peace 
or war with France was in suspense. His 
views were, however, on this point no longer 
in complete harmony with those of Fox. He 
took no part in the debates upon the pre- 
liminary treaty of October 1801, and in 1803 
was by no means disposed to go all lengths 
with Fox for the purpose of supporting the 
peace of Amiens. He did not believe that 
Bonaparte sincerely desired peace, nor did 
he consider that England had any lack of 
justification for a renewal of the war if she 
desired it. He moved an amendment to 
Lord Hawkesbury's address to the crown on 
23 May 1803, assuring the king of deter- 
mined support in the war, but lamenting the 
failure of his attempts to maintain the peace. 
His speech was made under all the disad- 
vantage of following immediately upon one 
of Pitt's greatest efforts. The amendment 
was rejected after a splendid but unwise 
speech of Fox's on the second night of the 
debate by 398 to 67. 

In the end of 1801 some overtures had 
been made to Grey for his inclusion in the 
Addington administration, but he did not 
encourage them. He called it, in writing to 
Fox a year later, the ' happiest escape ' he 
ever had in his life. In April 1803 his father, 
a supporter of Addington, by whom he had 
been created a baron in 1801, informed him 

that fresh overtures would probably be made 
to him, and he again declined to entertain 
them. He could only join the cabinet with 
Fox, and only if a majority of its members 
were whigs. He was at this time averse to 
any coalition, feeling that the Grenville party 
were too much identified with Pitt's policy 
at home and abroad. As the year 1803 went 
on he became gradually more favourable to 
a union with the Grenvilles, although he 
pointed out that Pitt was only joining with 
Fox in order to prepare his own reinstatement 
in office. On the formation of Pitt's cabinet 
there was some suggestion of an offer of an 
office to Grey, but he at once caused it to be 
known that he could not take office without 
Fox, which meant practically a self-exclusion 
from office as long as Fox and the king should 

The Grenvilles and the whigs were now 
drawn together into a closer opposition to 
the new ministry ; but Grey, though he at- 
tended the house in 1805, did not take a 
leading part upon any question except the 
rupture with Spain, in moving an amend- 
ment to the address, moved by Pitt on 1 1 Feb., 
he vigorously attacked the government policy 
in regard to the affairs of Spain ; and again 
on 20 June he moved for an address praying 
the king not to prorogue parliament until 
full information of the relations with foreign 
powers had been laid before the house, and in 
calling attention to the state of Ireland he 
demanded the immediate and entire conces- 
sion of the catholic claims. His motion was 
lost by 261 to 110. 

In January 1806 Grenville and Fox came 
into power, and in their administration Grey, 
now, by his father's elevation to an earldom, 
become Lord Howick, was first lord of the 
admiralty. He applied himself with his usual 
conscientiousness to the discharge of the 
duties of this office, and while it was under his 
control the success of the British naval ope- 
rations was signal. Upon the death of Fox, 
Howick succeeded to his position as leader 
of the whig section of the government, and 
after some negotiation he became secretary 
for foreign affairs, with the lead in the House 
of Commons. By the perfect confidence which 
he inspired in Lord Grenville he maintained 
for many years the entire union between the 
whigs and Grenville's personal following. 
Upon assuming the duties of foreign secre- 
tary he found the negotiations with Napoleon 
for a peace, which had been begun by Lord 
Yarmouth and continued by Lord Lauder- 
dale, drawing to a close. Some attempt was 
made to throw upon him the blame of the 
failure of these negotiations, but it was not 
in his power to bring the French govern- 




ment to accept the terms originally furnished 
fs a basis for peace. Though not respon- 
sible specially for the abortive expeditions 
to Constantinople and to South America, 
he also had to bear his share of the unpopu- 
larity caused by them ; but his term of office 
was too short to test his capacity Howick 
had long been' a supporter of the catholic 
claims, and was anxious to conciliate the agi- 
tators, though emancipation was admittedly 
impracticable for the moment In 1807, after 
vainly attempting through Lord Ponsonby 
to moderate the activity of the Irish catholic 
leaders, he moved on 5 March for leave to 
bring; in a bill for the admission of catholics 
to the army and navy. The first night s de- 
bate was successful, but the court began to 
assume an attitude of opposition to the mea- 
sure, and by 12 March Howick already fore- 
boded the break-up of the ministry. Beiore 
introducing the bill Howick had informed 
the king of its scope, both verbally and in 
writing. The king, however, had not under- 
stood the explanation, and when it at last 
became clear to him he insisted upon the 
withdrawal of the bill. The cabinet yielded 
(15 March), but thought it their duty to 
avow their own sentiments. The king then 
insisted that they should promise not to in- 
troduce any more measures of this disturbing 
character. The ministry refused to give P 
pledge which they regarded as unconstitu 
tional. On the loth they were dismissed, and 
Howick remained out of office for twenty- 
four years. 

The new ministry dissolved parliament be- 
fore the end of the month. Lord Howick 
had been led by the Duke of Northumberland 
to suppose that his return for Northumber- 
land would not be opposed, and had delayed 
his departure from London accordingly, lo 
his surprise he found that Lord Percy was to 
be suddenly brought forward against him. 
The expense of a contest would be enormous, 
the issue very doubtful. He abandoned the 
contest, and for a few months sat for Lord 
Thanet's borough of Appleby ; but his father 
died on 16 Nov., and he succeeded to the 
peerage as second Earl Grey. He took his 
seat in January 1808. For some years he 
had little personal influence. He exerted 
himself to control Whitbread and his friends, 
who were anxious to see peace concluded upon 
any terms. Ponsonby, in concert with him 
and Lord Grenville,now in perfect agreement, 
followed Whitbread's speech on his peace 
resolutions by immediately moving the pre- 
vious question. The disunion became m this 
way so patent that Grey no longer dissuaded 
Grenville from abandoning his attendance in 
parliament, and only pressed him not to tor- 

nally disband the opposition. He used his 
nfluence to restrain the opposition from a 
merely factious antagonism. He made his 
first speech in the House of Lords on 27 Jan. 
1808 on the motion for a vote of thanks to 
the forces engaged at Copenhagen, and moved 
for papers on 11 Feb. ; but he left town in 
April, when his uncle, Sir Harry Grey, died, 
and did not appear in parliament again during 
the session. His letters, however, show how 
strongly he deprecated the untimely activity 
of the catholics in presenting their petition, 
and how indignant he was when the veto, 
which Lord Grenville had been authorised to 
accept on their behalf, was repudiated by the 
Irish prelates in the autumn. He was anxious 
that the whigs should announce that they 
would regard this concession as a condition 
of their support to the catholic cause ; but in 
this he was overruled by Grenville, Whit- 
bread, and the Duke of Bedford. In 1809 he 
attended the House of Lords, but the con- 
duct of the opposition in the House of Com- 
mons, and in especial Wardle's attacks on 
the Duke of York, keenly disgusted him, and 
led him to hold himself aloof. By May 1809 
he considered the opposition practically dis- 
banded by its own conduct. On 23 Sept., 
when Perceval found the government also 
disunited, he wrote to Grey and Grenville 
to request a conference with a view to a 
coalition, but Grey rejected the overture (see 
COLCHESTER, Diaries, ii. 215-317 ; Twiss, El- 
don, ii. 97 ; ROSE, Diaries, ii. 381). In 1810 
he presented the petition of the English ca- 
, tholics in the House of Lords, and supported 
Lord Donoughmore's motion to refer the Irish 
petition to a committee, and on 13 June he 
moved an address to the king on the state of 
the nation, in which he reiterated his adhe- 
rence to parliamentary reform. At the end 
of the year, when the return of the king s 
madness raised again the question of the 
regency, there was some disagreement be- 
tween Grey and Grenville, who had taken 
opposite sides upon the question in 1788. 
Grey, however, took no part in the debates 
as to the terms upon which the prince was 
to assume the regency, and, having gone 
to town on the first announcement of the 
king's illness, returned to Northumberland on 
29 Nov., when it was reported to be passing 
off ; but the amendments to the resolutions 
of the ministry, proposed by Lord Holland 
in the House of Lords, were almost entirely 
his composition. He did not return to town 
till January 1811, and learnt on the way that 
the prince had at last sent for Lord Gren- 
ville. The prince commissioned the two lords 
to draft his reply to the address of parliament. 
This they did, only to see it set aside in favour 




of one prepared by Sheridan and Adam, with 
which they in consequence refused to have 
anything to do, and on HJan. they wrote to 
the prince declining to offer any opinion upon 
it. Their ground was that it was impossible 
to undertake the responsibility of advising 
the prince if their advice was to be after- 
wards submitted to the alteration of secret 
and irresponsible counsellors. The prince 
next day employed Lord Holland to effect a 
reconciliation, and Grey and Grenville again 
undertaking the task, on 21 Jan. returned 
an answer to the questions which the prince 
had put to them, and advised * an immediate 
and total change of public councils,' and an- 
nounced that they were prepared to make 
the necessaryarrangements. Difficulties, how- 
ever, soon arose owing to the prince's desire 
to designate particular persons for particular 
places, and on 2 Feb. Grey announced that the 
prince did not intend to change his minis- 
ters, a fact which he had learnt the night be- 
fore from Lord Hutchinson and Adam. At 
the close of the year of restrictions upon the 
regency the prince again expressed an inten- 
tion of turning to the whig leaders ; but the 
result of the negotiation, which he entrusted 
to the Duke of York, was that Grey and 
Grenville declined to attempt any union j 
with the existing ministry. Thus at the be- 
ginning of 1812 it appeared that there was 
no longer any prospect of Grey's assuming 
office. Upon the death of Perceval, however, 
in May fresh negotiations took place for the 
reconstruction of the regent's ministry. Lord 
Wellesley was commissioned to form an ad- 
ministration, and applied to Grey on 23 May, 
and they had already almost arrived at an 
agreement when other difficulties put an end 
to Wellesley's attempt. The overtures were 
renewed on 1 June, but Grey and Gren- 
ville refused to join a cabinet which was 
to be based upon a system of counteraction, 
the representatives of one party balancing 
those of another. Lord Moira then under- 
took the task, but failed, owing to the refusal 
of the whig lords to enter any administration 
unless it was protected from intrigue by an 
entire change in the household, where the 
Yarmouth influence was sovereign. Upon 
this the prince was stubborn, all the more 
because he had bitterly resented Grey's allu- 
sion to this subject after the failure of nego- 
tiations in January in a speech in the House 
of Lords, in which he attacked Lady Hertford 
as 'an unseen and pestilent secret influence 
which lurked behind the throne.' Accordingly, 
all attempts at a coalition having failed, Lord 
Liverpool became first lord of the treasury on 
8 July. Grey was fiercely attacked in debate 
for his conduct 'towards' the prince regent, 


and though he defended himself firmly many 
of the whigs thought that he had been too 
unbending in the matter (see BUCKINGHAM, 
Courts and Cabinets of the Regency). 

For some years he played no very con- 
spicuous part in politics. He continued to 
support the catholic claims, deprecated the 
assumption by England of the post of prin- 
cipal in the Spanish war, and protested 
against the principle expressed in the Swedish 
treaty of 1813, and afterwards in the treaty 
of Vienna, by which the great powers arro- 
gated to themselves the right of disposing at 
will of the fortunes and territory of smaller 
but independent states. After the conclusion 
of the peace and the downfall of the catholic 
hopes he began to sever himself slowly from 
| Lord Grenville. Their separation dated from 
! the congress of Vienna, when Grey maintained 
I that the allies had no right to interfere with 
the internal affairs of France. They con- 
tinued to act together in opposition to the 
new corn laws after the peace, though upon 
the abstract justice and expediency of pro- 
tection Grey's opinion was never definitely 
formed. But in 1817 he condemned the sus- 
pension of the Habeas Corpus Act and the 
other acts of the same character, which Gren- 
ville supported. Grey was, however, left in 
a very small minority against the govern- 
ment. On 12 May he brought before the 
House of Lords Lord Sidmouth's circular of 
27 March, advising the lord-lieutenant that 
persons publishing or selling seditious libels 
might be arrested and held to bail, and at- 
tacked it in a speech which occupied four 
hours in the delivery, and was a model of 
legal argument. He afterwards corrected 
and printed it. From this time, without any 
formal severance, he and Grenville ceased to 
act together. When the bill for the queen's 
divorce was introduced in 1820 he was active 
in opposition to it, having, indeed, while its 
introduction was as yet uncertain, assured 
Lord Liverpool that, should the tories be dis- 
missed for refusing to bring in a divorce bill, 
he would not take their place, and though he 
won the respect of the nation he also became 
so hateful to the king that his exclusion from 
office during the king's life was absolute. 
Upon the death of Castlereagh there was 
some expectation that he might be sent for 
to form a ministry, and he actually placed 
himself in communication with Brougham 
upon the subject, but the expectation never 
was realised. AVhen Canning came into 
power, though the whigs generally supported 
him, Grey refused any co-operation, and de- 
livered an elaborate attack upon him, espe- 
cially upon his conduct in foreign affairs and 
in regard to the catholic claims, and again 




justified his conduct at this juncture in his 
speech upon the second reading of the Roman 
Catholic Relief Bill in 1829. The death of 
George IV made him again a possible mi- 
nister. In 1828 and 1829 there had been 
occasional rumours that he was likely to join 
the duke's ministry, and there is some ground 
for thinking that in 1830 he would not have 
been unwilling to do so. When the Duke 
of Wellington proposed to dissolve, Grey de- 
livered a great speech against a dissolution 
on 30 June 1830, and moved the adjourn- 
ment of the house, but his motion was lost 
by 56 to 100. In the new parliament he 
took his place as leader of the opposition, ' 
and his speech upon the address was in fact 
a manifesto of his party. He warmly ad- 
vocated parliamentary reform. The duke 
in his reply, which was a counter-manifesto, 
committed the blunder of declaring the ex- 
isting system of representation as near per- 
fection as possible. Reform was thus handed 
over to the whigs. On 15 Nov. the govern- 
ment was defeated upon Sir H. Parnell's 
motion with regard to the civil list, and next 
day the king sent for Grey. His commission 
was almost a failure at the outset owing to 
differences of